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LOCKWOOD & CO., 7 STATIONERS'-HALL COURT.

1871.

226. k. 182.

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NULLUS LIBER HOMO CAPIATUR, VEL IMPRISONETUR, AUT DISSAISIATUR, AUT UTLAGETUR, AUT EXULETUR, AUT ALIQUO MODO DESTRUATUR, NEC SUPER EUM IBIMUS, NEC SUPER EUM MITTEMUS, NISI PER LEGALE JUDICIUM PARIUM SUORUM, VEL PER LEGEM TERRÆ. NULLI VENDEMUS, NULLI NEGABIMUS, AUT DIFFEREMUS RECTUM AUT JUSTITIAM.'

MAGNA CHARTA, 1215
(vide p. 19, s. 55).

LONDON: PRINTED BY
SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE
AND PARLIAMENT STREET

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

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TO PREVENT any misconception which may arise from the presence of two names upon the title-page of the 'Civil Service History of England,' it is thought desirable to state distinctly that the work is now issued for the first time. Towards the close of 1869, the Author, Mr. F. A. White, a gentleman of long experience in tuition and the preparation of candidates for examination, submitted his MS. to the publisher, who considered that, with some modification and revision, it might advantageously be produced in the educational series commenced by the Civil Service Geography.' He therefore placed it in the hands of the present Editor, whom he knew to be conversant with the plan and details of that manual; and the 'Civil Service History of England' is offered to the public in the hope that it may prove in all respects worthy of its predecessor. With a few unimportant exceptions, the Author's scheme has been strictly preserved. It should, however, be stated that the textual alterations and additions throughout have been extensive, and that a considerable portion of the second part is wholly editorial.

November 1870. ́

H. A. D.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

IN RESPONDING to the sudden call for a second issue of the 'Civil Service History of England,' the Editor has taken the opportunity of completing it to the latest date, and of supplying some few omissions to which attention had been drawn by different reviewers. He has to express his thanks for various valuable suggestions which have reached him from private sources, and of which he has, as far as possible, availed himself.

August 1871.

H. A. D.

INTRODUCTION.

THE 'Civil Service History of England,' like the 'Civil Service Geography,' has been compiled chiefly to assist candidates in preparing to be examined for appointments under the Crown. This primary purpose has been steadily kept in view. It was no part of this purpose to provide the candidate with cut-anddried answers to stereotyped questions, nor to pretend to enable him to reply successfully to every question that official ingenuity can devise. Any book making such professions would be open to the distrust of all earnest learners. On the contrary, the aim of the 'Civil Service History of England' is simply to present the leading facts of our rough island-story' in an order so simple, and so unincumbered by irrelevant matter, as to place the candidate in a position to acquire them rapidly and exactly, and to return precise and satisfactory replies to a fair proportion of any set of questions put to him in order to test his knowledge of the subject. For such as have ampler leisure or a wider ambition plenty of comprehensive manuals already exist; but even in employing these it may be found useful to consult a work in a smaller and more compact form, and those concerned in the production of this 'Fact-Book' are not without hope that it may be of use to the general student as well as to the candidate for whom it has been especially designed.

There are two considerations that may be supposed to Affect the candidate for appointments in the Civil Service, which do not, as a rule, affect the general student. In the first place, the magnitude of the end to be attained, involving, as it often does, the gain or loss of provision for a lifetime, stimulates even the most inconsiderate and indolent to an

effort of industry; in the second place, the short space generally available for preparation makes it imperative that no time should be lost or labour wasted. Both these considerations have been borne in mind in this compilation. Having regard to the former, no attempt has been made to disguise the extent of the work or the amount of application required to ensure success; while, as respects the latter, every care has been taken to remove unnecessary obstacles, and to reduce the labour to a minimum by simplicity of arrangement, conciseness of expression, and facility of reference. It is with this last intention that a fuller General Index has been affixed to the book than is generally found in works of a similar kind.

For convenience' sake, the 'Civil Service History of England' has been divided into Two Parts, either of which may be regarded as separate and independent. The first of these consists of a chronological summary of the successive events in English History, arranged in numbered and titled clauses, and grouped in eight chapters corresponding to the eight natural divisions of the subject. At the commencement of each chapter is its respective genealogical table, and wherever smaller tables are required to explain the text they are given in the shape of

notes.

The paragraph system has been adopted in this part in order to aid the learner in detaching the information he requires from its surroundings and fixing it in his memory. One of the disadvantages of this method is a certain appearance of disconnection. On the other hand, it has at least the merit of keeping the text within narrow limits, as well as of reducing opportunities for digression; and whenever the learner feels himself oppressed by the steady march of facts, he will find that the Schedular Abstract which concludes the volume will at once enable him to review his progress and test his acquisitions.

The Second Part is made up of eleven sections, to which, in default of a better, the name of Appendices has been given. But it is hoped that they will not be regarded, for this reason alone, as superfluous or undeserving of careful study. In some cases, as in the appendices on 'English Constitutional History' and the 'History of India,' they repeat, in an expanded and

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