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PROJECTED AND PARTLY ARRANGED
BY THE LATE
REV. HUGH JAMES ROSE, B.D.
PRINCIPAL OF KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.
IN TWELVE VOLUMES.
B. FELLOWES, LUDGATE STREET;
F. & J. RIVINGTON; E. HODGSON; G. LAWFORD; J. M. RICHARDSON;
T. BOSWORTH; J. & J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE;
AND J. H. PARKER, OXFORD.
Ᏼ Ꭱ Ꭺ
BRADSHAW, (William,) an eminent English puritan, born in 1571, at Market Bosworth, in Leicestershire, of a family ancient, but reduced. After a school education, interrupted from pecuniary difficulty, he was admitted, in 1589, of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, together with Joseph Hall, eventually the celebrated bishop. He there took his degrees in arts; but the college statutes left only one fellowship open to natives of Leicestershire, and that was gained by Hall. Dr. Laurence Chaderton, however, the master of Emmanuel, was so much pleased with him, that he recommended him as tutor in the family of Sir Thomas Leighton, governor of Guernsey, and afterwards procured a fellowship for him in Sidney Sussex college, then newly founded. He now obtained orders, and was indulged with certain omissions to meet his scruples. Clergymen of his principles then found employment as lecturers, and he first acted in that capacity at the two churches of Abington and Steeple Morden, within easy distances of Cambridge. An appointment was afterwards obtained for him by his old friend Dr. Chaderton, at Chatham, in Kent; but before he had remained in it fully twelve months, he was suspended by the ordinary for refusing to subscribe, in spite of warm intercessions from the Chatham people. He now removed into another diocese, where he obtained a licence, most probably without subscription, some of the ecclesiastical authorities being anxious to connive at such omissions, where the parties indulged possessed any solid claims to favour. Bradshaw next removed to London, and was chosen lecturer of Christchurch, Newgate-street. He could not rest, however, there, without publishing a treatise against the litigated ceremonies. This new provocation obliged him to retire from London to a gentleman's
house in Leicestershire, where he remained until his death, in 1618. Dissenting writers make much of the hardships and obstructions that he encountered; but without undervaluing his merits, which really were considerable, there is no reason why he should have been suffered to eat the bread of an establishment, which he not only disapproved, but was also zealously bent upon reforming after his own fashion. He really seems to have met with great indulgence. His ordination was conducted so as to please himself. When driven from Kent, he obtained permission to preach in another diocese; and for all that appears, he might afterwards have continued to preach in London, if he could have rested without printing also against existing institutions. Nor does it appear that he was inhibited from preaching during his final retirement in Leicestershire. At first he was; but we learn that "by the mediation of a couple of good angels," the restraint was removed. The probable meaning of this is, that two persons of some influence obtained permission for his preaching, on condition that it should never any more be in public situations. As an author, Bradshaw is chiefly remarkable for a small treatise, published in 1605, entitled, English Puritanism, containing the main opinions of the rigidest sort of those that went by that name in the realm of England. This was translated into Latin by Dr. Ames, for the information of foreigners, and it is valuable as a record of the principles entertained by the early English nonconformists. Neal has published a short abstract of it in his first volume (p. 432, ed. of 1837,) but his antagonist, Dr. Grey, charges it with omissions of some note. Bradshaw likewise wrote, Dissertatio de Justificatione, published at Leyden, in the year of his death, and A Plaine and Pithy
Exposition of the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, published in 1620, by Gataker. (Chalmers. Neal, i. 471.) BRADWARDIN, or BREDWARDINE, (Thomas,) an illustrious English schoolman, known as the Profound Doctor, descended from an ancient family, which derived its name from a village, or camp, on the river Wye, called, at this day, Bredwardine; but he appears, from his own testimony, to have been born at Chichester, perhaps at Hartfield, in the diocese of Chichester, as some assert. The exact time of his birth is not known; but as he was proctor in the university of Oxford in the year 1325, he would be born in the middle of the reign of Edward I. He graduated at Merton college, and proceeded to the degree of doctor of divinity. After remain ing at Oxford for some time, he attained the two highest stations there, for he became chancellor of the university, and professor of divinity. Subsequently he was appointed domestic chaplain to the famous Richard de Bury, bishop of Durham. Godwin says, that "Richard de Bury had always in his palace many chaplains of great abilities; of which number were Thomas Bradwardin, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury; Richard Fitzraufe, afterwards archbishop of Armagh; Walter Burley, John Manduit, Robert Holcot, Richard Kilwington (alias Kelmington), all doctors of divinity; Richard Bentworth and Walter Seagrave, the one afterwards bishop of London, the other of Chichester. His manner was, at dinner and supper-time, to have some good book read unto him, whereof he would discourse with his chaplains a great part of the next day, if business interrupted not his course.' After this Bradwardin became chancellor of the diocese of London, prebendary of Lincoln, and chaplain and confessor to Edward III., whom he attended during his wars in France. Some writers, of his day, thought Edward's victories largely attributable to the virtues and piety of his chaplain. It is at least certain that he was ever a constant and faithful monitor, who exercised a most salutary influence over the mind of his sovereign in times of great excitement, when command of temper was essential to success. He also addressed the army on the eve of battle, and in the hour of triumph; so as to animate their courage, and restrain them from excess. Bradwardin had likewise greatly distinguished himself as a scholar and mathematician, and had published several important
works. On Stratford's death, the mouks of Canterbury chose Bradwardin archbishop. The king, however, interposed his authority to annul the election, alleging, as his reason, an unwillingness to part with his chaplain: "He could very ill spare," he observed, "so worthy a man to be from him, and he never could perceive that he himself wished to be spared." But on the see becoming vacant again, which happened within the year, all parties concurred in Bradwardin's election, and he was accordingly consecrated archbishop at Avignon, in the year 1349. He now hastened to England, where he died of the great plague, forty days after his consecration, and before he had been enthroned. Thus within the short period of a year there were three archbishops of Canterbury; the two first of them having fallen victims to the prevailing epidemic. Bradwardin had so little an air of dignity, that the pope's nephew made a jest of him at Avignon, greatly, however, to the disgust of his uncle and the cardinals. No doubt the archbishop was a hard student, and he might have, therefore, acquired peculiarities which youthful petulance would readily caricature. His great work, De Causâ Dei, against the Pelagians, is a digest of the lectures delivered by him at Oxford, as professor of divinity; and it is said that the pope, out of compliment to the great depth of reasoning displayed in it, honoured Bradwardin with the title of "Profound Doctor." The fame of this production, which treats theological subjects with mathematical accuracy, led Chaucer, in his Nun's Priest's Tale, to rank Bradwardin with Augustine, bishop of Hippo. And an apologue in the treatise appears to have furnished Parnell with the story of his beautiful poem, The Hermit. The apologue is itself of oriental origin, and was probably derived by the archbishop from the Talmud. Bradwardin's published works are-De Causâ Dei, fol., edited by Sir Henry Savile, in 1618, from a MS. in Merton college library. Geometria Speculativa, cum Arithmeticâ Speculativâ, Paris, 1495, 1504, fol. The Arithmetic had been printed separately in 1502, and other editions of both appeared in 1512 and 1530. De Proportionibus, Paris, 1495; Venice, 1505, fol. De Quadraturâ Circuli, Paris, 1495. Bradwardin also left some astronomical tables, which appear never to have been printed. (Savile. Bradw. de Causâ Dei. Bayle. Antiq. Brit. Catal. Cancell. et Proc. Oxon.