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Considerable destruction had been caused to ramparts and barrows by Golf Clubs, but it was hoped that by the help of the Golfing Press and representations to Clubs, this would be stopped for the future.
Many County Councils were having lists of camps and other ancient monuments compiled with a view to their preservation.
All but ten of the Societies in Union now subscribed for the Earthworks Report. It was proposed to sell copies of the Report to Societies outside the Union at a sightly increased price.
The thanks of the Congress were expressed to Mr. Major for his labours. The Report will, as usual, be printed and circulated.
Dr. Philip Norman, Hon. Treasurer of Congress, pointed out that there was an adverse balance of about £5 as regards the Earthworks Committee expenses, and that it would be for the Congress to decide whether the charge to Societies for copies of the Committee's Report should, consequently, be increased.
Mr. Ralph Nevill said that it was at his suggestion that a charge was made for the Report, but it was then contemplated that half the cost might be recovered. He was glad to find that only one third came upon the funds of the Congress and, on his proposal, seconded by Mr. Johnston, it was resolved"That the cost of the Report be not increased to Societies in Union for the ensuing year."
Parliamentary Bills for the Protection of Ancient Monuments.-Major Freer, F.S.A. (Leicester), said that, at the request of the Council, he would give an account of the three Bills now before Parliament, dealing with the preservation of Ancient Monuments. The most important was the Government Bill which was introduced in the House of Lords by Earl Beauchamp for the consolidation and amendment of previous Acts. Buildings in use for ecclesiastical purposes, and dwelling-houses in use were specially excluded from the Bill.
Major Freer also gave some account of the Report from the Foreign office of the steps taken by other Countries to preserve their Ancient Monuments. These were much more drastic than those hitherto proposed in England and applied particularly to churches still in use, which were strictly guarded against any attempt at alteration or alienation of their goods without consent of the appointed governing body. In Germany, £86,000 a year were voted for the purposes of preservation, and considerable sums in other countries. In Sweden, an Inventory was made of church property, and bells were not allowed to be melted without notice being given and permission obtained. He thought it was hard that there should not be a grant from our National Funds for preservation of Antiquities. The three Bills had been considered by the County Councils Association who had recommended the addition of a member of the County Council, in whose jurisdiction a monument lay, to a seat on the Ancient Monuments Board which was proposed by the Government Bill. He wished it were possible to include the taking and maintaining an Inventory of church goods, the necessity of which was so apparent, and concluded by expressing his desire that Clauses
5, 6 and 7 of No. 2 Bill, House of Commons, should be incorporated in the Government Bill, by this, owners of ancient monuments would be compelled to give two months' notice to the Commissioners of Works of an intention to destroy or alter a monument. Such consent was not to be unreasonably withheld, and, where the owner neglected to repair. the Commissioners might assume guardianship.
Mr. W. Paley Baildon, F.S.A. (Yorkshire), said that, at the request of several antiquarian friends, he had looked carefully into the three bills and had accordingly drafted amendments that he thought would effect improvement. One was that the Clause exempting from the Bill such buildings as were in use as dwelling houses should not be construed to exclude ancient remains, which, though attached to such dwelling houses, were themselves not so used. He instanced the remains of Amberley Castle, Sussex, with which a farm-house was connected. Another addition would give power to the Commissioners to appoint temporary inspectors for particular purposes. It was obvious that it might often be some considerable time before the Inspector-General could visit a monument in connection with which immediate action was necessary. He objected to the expression used in the Act, artistic interest," which was of the vaguest character, and might well be interpreted to include ivy. The Act prescribed penalties for injury to monuments that had been scheduled, and he suggested some useful additions to these clauses that would protect buildings pending the completion of formalities. He would like to see a declaration that the destruction of ivy was not an offence under the Act.
On the suggestion of the Revd. F. W. Weaver, F.S.A. (Somerset), Major Freer accepted the suggestion that the County Council, in whose jurisdiction a scheduled monument lay, should nominate a representative on the Ancient Monuments Board, such representative not necessarily being a County Councillor.
Mr. Albany F. Major stated that as Secretary for the Earthworks Committee, he had given evidence before the Joint Committee, who were very ready to welcome the assistance of antiquaries, and were sympathetic upon the question of compensation, a matter which had been raised by Mr. R. Garraway Rice, F.S.A. (Sussex).
The Hon. Secretary stated that he had himself suggested compensation in an article which, upon the Law relating to the preservation of Ancient Monuments, appeared in The Antiquary for the year 1905.
Mr. Aymer Vallance, F.S.A. (Kent), strongly advocated, the inclusion of churches in the Act, and was supported by Mr. P. Johnston, F.S.A. (Surrey), who alluded to what was being done abroad.
Mr. Nigel Bond (Dorset) pointed out that Churches were under the Act in the same position as dwelling-houses, both being excluded when still in use; the attempt to include them would be fatal to any chance of passing the Act.
Mr. Phillimore mentioned that Churches were protected by the necessity of obtaining faculties,
The Rev. E. L. Goddard (Wilts), deprecated reference to foreign example in view of the mischief done to buildings abroad under Government auspices. The chancels restored by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in our own country were, or had been, often instances of great destruction.
The President said that sixteen years ago the Society of Antiquaries of London had applied for, and had eventually succeeded in obtaining, through the Foreign Office, a report of what Foreign Countries were doing, and that the Reports had been before the Congress who had taken action on them (vide Minutes of Congress, 1896, 1897, 1898). It was satisfactory to find that their efforts had apparently not been thrown away, and that the House of Commons itself had now asked for a similar Report. He put Major Freer's resolution, viz. :
"That Earl Beauchamp's Bill be generally approved with Mr. Paley Baildon's amendments, and that the Bill be further amended, as follows:-That the County Council, in whose jurisdiction the monument is situated, shall have power to nominate a representative to such Advisory Board; and that the principles underlying Clauses 5, 6, and 7 of the Ancient Monuments Protection (No. 2) Bill, House of Commons, should be incorporated in the
This was seconded by Canon Morris (Cambrian Archaeological Association), and carried, as was also the resolution that the Hon. Secretary of Congress be appointed as Delegate to give evidence on behalf of Congress before the Joint Committee of the Houses of Parliament.
Field-Names and the Ordnance Survey Map:-Dr. Norman then drew attention to a proposal made by Lord Farrer, that the Ordnance Survey should be asked to record field-names on their 25-inch map. Mr. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A. (Cumberland), stated that, in the North, field-names had largely disappeared, and it would be difficult to obtain a record of any value. Col. Attree, F.S.A. (Sussex), said that he thought that such names as remained were of too various dates and origin and too uncertain to be recorded. Mr. W. Paley Baildon said a far better record remained in the schedules compiled under the Tithe Commutation Act, made before the great changes in land ownership. Dr. Williams Freeman (Hants). suggested the Commons Preservation Act.
Mr. Ralph Nevill reminded Congress that at their first meeting it was resolved to recommend all Societies to purchase sets of the 25-inch Ordnance Maps and to record antiquities and field-names thereon. He urged the collection of auctioneers' particulars of sales of estates, which generally gave the names of the fields. These names should be entered on the maps in libraries with proper reference.
General doubt was expressed as to the value of names collected by the Ordnance officers and some amusing instances given of the mistakes made.
Dr. Norman was asked to consider the matter further and bring up suggestions at the next Congress.
Proposed excavation of Verulamium:-Dr. Martin then gave an account of negotiations between the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies and the Earl of Verulam, as to the proposed thorough exploration of the site of Verulamium. Proposals made by the Society of Antiquaries of London two or three years ago had fallen through, the Earl and the Treasury not being in agreement as to the disposal of such treasure-trove as might be exhumed. Dr. William Martin, with Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., the late President of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, Mr. Dale (Hants.) and others, had been in negotiation with the Earl, and were, together with Mr. Dale, in hope that some arrangement might yet be effected by means of which the excavations could proceed; but the President and others appeared unable to share this hope.
Congratulations; vote of thanks :-On the proposal of Dr. Gaster (FolkLore Society) the congratulations of Congress were tendered to the President, Sir Hercules Read, on the honour recently conferred upon him by His Majesty, and the thanks of the Congress were voted to him for presiding, and to the Society of Antiquaries for the loan of their rooms.
SPECIAL CONGRESS, JULY 22nd, 1912.
A Special Meeting of Congress was held on July 22nd at the rooms of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 50, Great Russell Street, W.C.; Sir Hercules Read, President of the Society of Antiquaries in the Chair.
The President explained that the meeting was called in consequence of a request or suggestion made by the Joint Committee of the Houses of Parliament upon the Ancient Monuments Preservation Bills now before Parliament. Dr. Martin had attended and given evidence on behalf of the Congress; he was listened to with attention and interest. The Committee desired the views of the Congress on the subject of the inclusion of Ecclesiastical buildings in the Bill, and had also asked questions concerning the desirability of compiling an Inventory of moveable articles of value and interest in Churches. In these circumstances, he considered it incumbent on the Congress to respond to the desire and he had accordingly summoned the present meeting. He regretted that owing to the advanced state of the season, it was impossible to give longer notice; by reason of an exhibition, the Society of Antiquaries was unable to lend their rooms for the meeting.
The Hon. Secretary then made a statement as to the evidence he had given and bore testimony to the great and enlightened interest that was being taken in the question by the Committee. The Committee pointed out to him that they looked to archaeologists to make recommendations to them of everything that they thought desirable and it was for the Committee to determine eventually how much they might think it wise to include in the Bill.
The Committee apparently thought that it would be desirable to extend the scope of the protection beyond the buildings of "National" importance specified in the Bill and they seemed also desirous of receiving instances of damage caused to church buildings through want of proper archaeological supervision.
The Hon. Secretary then read letters from the Bristol and Gloucestershire, the Derbyshire and the Somersetshire Archaeological Societies approving the action of the Congress of June 27th and expressing their opinion that disused ecclesiastical buildings should be included in the Bill. Other letters were also read.
The President returned the thanks of the Congress to Dr. Martin for his evidence and his clear statement and invited discussion on the question of the extension of the Act to ecclesiastical buildings in use.
Mr. Aymer Vallance, F.S.A. (Kent), proposed, and Mr. P. M. Johnston, F.S.A. (Surrey), seconded:
"That this meeting of the Archaeological Congress, being desirous that the protection afforded by the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Bill should be extended to ecclesiastical buildings if the same can be done without unduly infringing the existing rights or privileges of the Church of England or Scotland or other religious body, will welcome and support any scheme by which this can be carried out."
Mr. Vallance read a list of conspicuous examples of injury to Church buildings in the past and it was agreed that this list and those prepared by other members should be handed in to the Hon. Secretary to be placed at the service of the Committee.
Mr. Johnston in seconding, stated that it had unfortunately been proved only too fully that Bishops and Archdeacons were neither sufficiently careful nor competent guardians of their archaeological treasures. Sometimes mischief was done with a faculty, sometimes without, and the nominal necessity of procuring a faculty had proved an illusory protection. He pointed out the continual danger that arose from the practice of removing from the Churches to the Vicarages objects of interest not in actual use. Too frequently these were forgotten and never restored.
The Rev. G. M. Livett, F.S.A. (Kent), stated that he was able to present a resolution passed by the Kent Society in similar terms to those already mentioned, but also earnestly deprecating any extension of the act to Church buildings in use. He contended that the Societies intended by their resolutions to express their disapproval of the extension of the Act to ecclesiastical buildings in use. He had the strongest objection to any interference with the control of Church property by the Church, and stated that any attempt to introduce Government control would arouse an opposition which would be fatal to the Act. He concluded by moving an amendment tion sert the words "not in use" after the word "buildings" in the Act.
The amendment was seconded by the Rev. E. H. Goddard, M.A. (Wilts.) Mr. Paley Baildon, F.S.A. (Yorks.), stated that he differed entirely from the mover of the Amendment, and he submitted that the time was evidently ripe for some further protection to be given to church buildings.
At present there was no wish to deal hardly with church control, but if these extremely moderate proposals were refused, the church must be prepared for the much more drastic measures that were in force elsewhere.
The President, having to leave, was asked for his opinion and stated that he agreed with Mr. Baildon that some measure of protection was imperatively called for by public opinion and that the Church authorities would do well to accept the friendly terms now offered.