« PreviousContinue »
Collectanea Cantiana. By GEO. PAYNE, F.S.A., F.L.S., Local Secretary for Kent of the Society of Antiquaries, London, Honorary Secretary of the Kent Archæological Society, Honorary Correspondent of the British Archæological Association, etc.-The author has recorded in this work a detailed account of the numerous archæological discoveries belonging to the British, Roman, and Saxon eras, which have been made by himself in Kent from the year 1865 until the present time, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Sittingbourne, Kent. The majority of the remains were exhumed by him or under his personal supervision, and formed the contents of his private museum, which have since been ceded to the nation, and may now be seen in the British Museum. The work will be fully illustrated with engravings of the principal objects discovered. The antiquity of many of the roads in the district (which have been personally traversed) will be treated of, and their relation to surrounding discoveries duly set forth. The area covered by the author's researches includes that portion of the county lying between Canterbury and Chatham Hill on the one hand, and from the Great Chalk Range to the sea-board on the other, together with notices of explorations along the northern edge of the Weald of Kent from Holwood to Eastell Park. These discoveries have already received special notice in Archeologia Cantiana, the proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, the British Archæological Association, and the Collectanea Antiqua of Mr. C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. The work will be printed by subscription; crown 8vo., cloth, price ten shillings, which will be raised to fifteen shillings after publication. Subscribers' names should be sent to the Author, The Precinct, Rochester; or to Mr. W. J. Parrett, East Kent Gazette Office, Sittingbourne.
Glamorgan Deeds: Cartæ et alia Munimenta quæ ad Dominium de Glamorgan pertinent. Vol. i, A.D. 1102-1350 (1885); vol. ii, a.d. 13481721 (1890); vol. iii, a.d. 441-1300 (1891). By GEO. T. CLARK, F.S.A. (Privately printed.)-Mr. Clark, whose descriptive notices of ancient castles in England and Wales form so well-known a feature in archæological publications, has rendered an exceedingly valuable service to his county by carefully seeking out, transcribing, annotating, and editing, in this work, all the available documentary material which is likely to throw light upon the medieval history of the demesne of Glamorgan.
The documents are derived from many sources. Among public institutions, the Public Record Office and the British Museum have yielded many hitherto unpublished texts. Among private owners, the papers of the late Mr. G. G. Francis of Swansea, the family records of Dr. J. C. Stradling Carne of St. Donat's Castle, of Mr. Jones of Fonmon Castle, of Sir H. Hussey Vivian, and the important monastic and family charters belonging to Miss Talbot of Margam (representative of Sir Rice Mansell), and several others, may be cited for having contributed a large proportion towards the total number of one thousand and sixty-five original texts ranging between the years 441 and 1721. Mr. Clark's fourth volume, which will carry on the new series begun in the third, will be looked for with much delight. In the preface to the first volume the author points out that he has prepared a considerable mass of notes and comments upon the texts, which forms the ground for a history of the Norman lordship of Glamorgan, and regrets that the subject is not one in which the present inhabitants of the modern county show any great interest. This may well be so; but even if it is, the failing may be, we hope, considered as more than compensated by the general desire which archæologists now feel to know more about matters for which the present publication has already prepared their appetite. We hope, therefore, that these notes will be published.
The history of the county of Glamorgan has always been a favourite subject of speculative curiosity. Anomalous in its settlement from the first, it is divided naturally into two great districts, the upper or northern half, mountainous, sparsely inhabited, rude, and restless; the lower or littoral, fertile, well cultivated, inhabited by a more civilised and tractable population, for which condition probably much is due to the humanising influence of the monastic and ecclesiastical institutions which had sprung up in their midst.
The lordships of Glamorgan, Kylvae, and Gower, have left their mark on the history of Wales. The representatives of the older landholders, such as the Sturmi, Bonvile, Grammus, Frankelein, Lovel, Corneli, Penres, Le Norreys, Turberville, Lageles, Coch, Cole, Clare, Braose, Moxel or Mansel, De la Bere, De la Mare, and numerous others; the flourishing and powerful Monasteries of Margam, Neath, and Ewenny; the important towns of Cardiff, Swansea, Kenfig; the ecclesiastical centre at Llandaff, with its early troubles under Bishop Urban and the Bishop of Hereford,—these various elements have not failed to render up, under Mr. Clark's hands, due account of themselves, and combine to make the collection not only of the greatest possible interest to the general as well as to the local antiquaries, but also to stimulate research and invite the formation of theory to account for the descent of much of the property of which these ancient texts
are really the title-deeds, and to enable the genealogist to sketch out the pedigrees of almost all the known families of the county down to the sixteenth century.
To write the history only of the western peninsula of the county, or Gowerland, with its varying fortunes, culminating in the remarkable charter of privileges granted by Braose, its chief lord, early in the fourteenth century, would have been an impossible task prior to the publication of these volumes. Again, the history of Margam was unsatisfactory and fragmentary until Mr. Clark first drew attention to it in the pages of the Archæologia Cambrensis. The charters, however, which are preserved among the Harleian collections in the British Museum, when set side by side with those in possession of the owner of the site, furnish enough material to construct pretty fairly the general history of what was once one of the most noble Cistercian Abbeys of Wales.
In the same manner the present work contains texts which throw new light upon the history of Neath and Ewenny, and even upon Llandaff itself. The credit which attaches to the preparation and publication of a series of county records such as this may, we hope, serve to stimulate others to imitate Mr. Clark's example. Brecknockshire, for example, is at present very poorly represented by any collection of printed deeds, and the same may be said, with more or less truth, for every county in Wales. A few years ago a small collection relating to Pembroke was published in our Journal, on the occasion of our Tenby Congress. With this exception we know of no other similar work. When it is considered that it is upon collections of early deeds that the historian and genealogist chiefly rely for trustworthy notices of events of local influence, and the descent of families, it will readily be conceded that it is no thankless task that Mr. Clark has performed in so able and conscientious a manner.
Archæological Congress at Moscow.-The Society of Naturalists of Moscow is organising two international congresses of (1), prehistoric anthropology; and (2), archæology, in that city; which will take place—(1), 13-20, and (2), 22-30 August. It is hoped that the attendance of delegates from kindred societies in England, at either of these meetings, may be facilitated; and we have much pleasure in inviting those of our members who desire to be present, either as delegates or as ordinary members, to communicate with the Hon. Secretaries.
British Archaeological Association.
SOME MEMORIALS OF WANDSWORTH,
BY G. PATRICK, ESQ., A.R.1.B.A.
(Read 19th February 1890.)
Or the people who dwelt in the district of Wandsworth in prehistoric times there are some evidences in the interesting collection of weapons and other implements kindly lent to me to illustrate this paper by Mr. Lawrence of Wandsworth town, who discovered most of them himself, and has promised to give the Meeting some description of them. They consist of arrow-heads, knives, scrapers, and other implements of flint, found on St. Ann's Hill and elsewhere in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, and are probably relics of that far-off time when the mammoth and other wild animals roamed over the district, and the river Thames extended, in a broad sheet of water, over the low-lying lands of Fulham and Putney, Wandsworth and Battersea.
You may also see, at the British and other Museums, vestiges of a later age in the local history of Wandsworth; of a period, probably, not long anterior to the coming of the Romans, bearing mute but eloquent testimony to the belief that the district was frequented by the Britons; if, indeed, they had not established settlements here. These consist of the usual implements of war and the chase, instruments of domestic use, and objects of personal adornment, such as are generally associated with this early race; and they comprise such things as bronze celts and palstaves, bronze swords and
spear-heads, pins of bronze used for personal adornment, of peculiar, and occasionally of very elegant shape, many of which have been found in almost perfect condition. These relics have been found in the bed of the Thames at Wandsworth, at the mouth of the Wandle, and in the river itself, not far from the High Street. Others, of similar character, have been discovered between Wandsworth and Battersea.
These discoveries indicate that the Britons frequented this neighbourhood, and it is not unlikely that in those old days a path or trackway may have existed (perhaps in the line of the present highway), which led up to the ancient encampment, existing, until within a few years ago, on Wimbledon Common, locally known as the "Rounds" and "Cæsar's Camp". This encampment was acknowledged by antiquaries to have been a British earthwork, although very probably occupied by Cæsar's forces. It is recorded also that there formerly existed upon the Common many British tumuli, some of which bordered the high-road to Kingston; but the last of them were removed in the last century to provide material for roadmending.
Some antiquaries have ventured to suggest that in the name "Mount Nod", which distinguishes the Huguenot Cemetery on the East Hill, we have a survival of an ancient British place of worship; and our Associate, Mr. Grover, reminds us, in alluding to this subject, that Lysons describes Nudd as the British Pluto, or Setting Sun; an altar, therefore, to that god may well have been erected on that spot, which would at that day have commanded so extensive a view of the country to the westward local names often keeping alive memories of past events when every other trace has for ever vanished.
I am not aware of any objects of Roman date having been actually found at Wandsworth, but only a few miles away, in the neighbourhood of Kingston Hill, many relics of that people have been discovered, including the foundations of buildings; and it is conjectured with considerable probability that the Roman station of Tamesa was situated close by. The Roman legions, as history tells us, were composed of many nationalities, and were distinguished by the names of the various countries from which