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quirements. The Indians, on their part, treated the members of our society very differently from other settlers, not only refraining from offering them any injury, but preserving their lives by supplying them with food, when they had no resources of their own to trust to.* Although the regulations enacted by William Penn, and maintained by Friends whilst the government of Pennsylvania remained with them, have been set aside since it has passed into other hands, the Indians have not ceased to maintain inviolate the friendship which they promised; and, notwithstanding the desperation produced by the horrors of war and the ruined state of their affairs, occasioned, as they well knew, by the conduct of the whites, they have not ceased to distinguish the consistent members of our Society, protecting them from injury, regarding them as brothers, and looking up to them for counsel and assistance. When William Penn's treaty was concluded, our early Friends received great advantages from it: the time has long passed since Friends had anything to hope or to fear from their red brethren, and it is now the Indians' turn to claim all the advantages which a treaty they have never violated, and friendship repeatedly assured to them, entitle them to expect. If it be due to them from our American fellow-members, whose forefathers were preserved by Indian kindness and hospitality; it may also be considered as in degree due from our Society in this country, as parts of the same religious body, and regarded by the Indians as one family. And, besides, with reference to the Indians within the Canadian frontier, it is manifest that if anything can be done by Friends, it must be done mainly, if not solely, by the exertions of Friends in England. A double advantage may be looked for from our exertions in this cause. First, that which may be immediately gained by Canadian Indians; and, secondly, that to be obtained by the indirect influence which may be extended to those of the Aborigines more immediately connected with our American brethren. How can

* See Clarkson's Life of William Penn, vol i. p. 357.

we encourage our Friends in any of the American Yearly Meetings, who have already devoted so much labour and pains to the subject, if we neglect the comparatively limited portion of the work which falls to our hands? Friends in America have had extraordinary difficulties to contend with, in consequence of the repeated removals effected by the policy of their government: removals which have broken up every settlement under their care as soon as the happy fruits of their instruction began to appear. The relation of such disappointments has for many years formed a conspicuous part of our correspondence with American meetings on this painfully interesting topic. If anything can now be effected by our American brethren, it must be either by individuals engaged in a most arduous work, by which they must in general be separated many hundred miles, and for a length of time from their connexions, or by remonstrances with a government which has hitherto shown no disposition to recede from this destructive policy.

The Report from which the following extracts are taken contains less information on the subject of the North American Indians than we could have wished to find in it; but some steps have been taken by the Committee, appointed by the Meeting for Sufferings, to obtain from Friends in Canada more full and accurate information respecting those Indians who have been or are intended to be removed by the agents of our Government. Two members of the Committee have also had an interview with the Secretary of State for the Colonial department, in reference to the treatment of the Indians within the limits of Upper Canada; and particularly to the highly objectionable project of the Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head, for removing them from their valuable settlements and reservations to the small rocky islands in Lake Huron, and other districts further to the north-west.* Although the Friends were assured that Go

* The following is the substance of the information laid before Friends, at the time of the last Yearly Meeting, on this part of the subject; and it is thought that advantage may arise from re-stating it here.

vernment would pay attention to the subject, and endeavour to see the rights of the Indians respected, the fact, that measures have actually been taken to effect some of these removals, and transfer the reservations to other hands makes it but too evident that greater exertions and renewed appeals must be made, if any effectual advantage is to be obtained for the Aborigines in that quarter.

It is a great satisfaction to find that the cause of this oppressed people is now obtaining the active support of the Wesleyan Methodists in that colony.

In a letter from a member of that connexion, in Upper

It appears that, in reference to the North American Indians in Upper Canada and the adjoining territories, a process is now going forward, very similar to that which has, for a long course of years, been pursued by the United States towards the Indians on their frontier. The Indians are induced by persuasion to abandon, almost for nothing, their richest and most valuable tracts of land, (including their settlements, and the plots which have been brought under culture through the instructions of the different missionaries,) and to fall back upon districts incapable of supporting them for any long time by the chace, and greatly inferior to their old settlements for the purposes of civilized life.

The obvious motive with the executive government of Canada, for adopting this line of policy towards the Indians, is to please the white settlers around them, who complain that the Indians have all the best land in the country, and evidently wish to turn them out and take possession of it for themselves.

It appears that in the course of one year only, (1836,) the governor of Upper Canada induced the Chippeway, Ottaway, Sauger, and Huron tribes to abandon very extensive and valuable tracts of land almost without any equivalent. The Saugers, without even the pretence of a remuneration, voluntarily ceded one million five hundred thousand acres of the very best land in Upper Canada, advantageously situated, adjoining the land of the Canada Company. The Ottaways and Chippeways also, without any compensation, abandoned a vast number of islands in the northern parts of Lake Huron. The Huron tribe relinquished 6 miles square of rich land in the Thames River, in consideration of the proceeds of one-third being invested for their benefit. The Moravian Indians also, for an annuity of £150 abandoned 6 miles square of black rich land, on which there are considerable improvements and cultivated spots. And it may be remarked, in general, and more especially with reference to the two last tracts of

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Canada, dated "the 26th of Sept., 1837," and addressed to one of the Committee, the following statement occurs :

"Two days after my arrival I met all my brethren in the ministry at our annual meeting, in the proceeding and conclusion of which, we were of one mind and one heart. Among other things, we adopted a strong memorial to the Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head, on the subject of the Indian Lands and Missions, and which was some days afterwards presented to him. The Superintendent of Missions is now visiting the different stations to get the fullest information from the Indians, in writing under their own hands; and we shall, in a short time, meet Sir Francis in a manner that he does not expect."

For several reasons the larger portion of the following Extracts relates to the Aborigines of South Africa. The details furnished by Dr. Philip and other important witnesses, are particularly explicit and full. They exhibit in the clearest manner the operation of most of the causes which have concurred to bring this distress and destruction upon the Aborigines of a colonized country. They show how far the

territory, that they are not merely hunting-grounds, but, to a certain extent at least, regions in which civilization and agriculture have made some progress.

It is further proposed by the Governor to remove all these different tribes to the islands in Lake Huron, ceded (as before mentioned) to the British Government by the Chippeways and Ottaways—a measure which is manifestly calculated to defeat every hope of improving their condition, or even of preserving the actual state of those who are in any degree civilized. Many of these islands are sterile spots: granite rock covered with timber, of but little value for any purposes except hunting and fishing. Their extent varies from a few yards square to 15 miles. They are, moreover, situated so far to the north-west, that it is very doubtful whether Indian corn could be raised, even on such as might be sufficiently fertile; and should the attempt to raise this crop fail, the probable result will be incalculable suffering, and even famine itself. Yet is the permission to the several tribes of Indians to locate themselves on these islands (which have been ceded by two of the tribes) the only provision offered to the Indians, besides the small pittance of £150 a year and one-third of the proceeds of the land ceded by the Huron Indians.

Government agents themselves are led by profligate and designing settlers to give strength and activity to the most unjust and revolting measures; and moreover they exhibit in a most encouraging manner the good which may be effected by persevering and well-directed efforts, unchecked by opposition and persecution, provided ample and authentic details can be perseveringly brought under the notice of our Government. We may further learn from what has been done in Southern Africa how much the combined influence of Christianity and civilization can effect for the security as well as amelioration of the oppressed heathen. The case of the Caffres and Hottentots furnishes a bright example, as well as much encouragement to all those who may be willing to undertake the cause of other portions of the human race similarly circumstanced.

Other extracts are given having the same tendency, and showing how much the experience of those who have laboured with uncivilized tribes of various races, and in various situations, sanctions our looking for great and satisfactory results from a well-conducted combination of religious instruction, intellectual cultivation, and the introduction of the useful arts. These encouraging examples are furnished by the exertions of those belonging to other religious denominations; and although we, as a Society, do not send out teachers appointed to preach to the Heathen, we may not unprofitably put the question to ourselves, Whether we are performing all which it is our duty to do for the temporal and spiritual welfare of our oppressed and benighted fellow-creatures, in the different modes which our principles would not only sanction but enjoin.

In conclusion, we would invite the co-operation of Friends individually, and more especially direct their attention to the following points :—

The collection and diffusion of information on the subject; The pressing on the attention of members of Parliament, colonial officers, and other persons of influence, the wrongs and claims of the injured Aborigines of our distant colonies;

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