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north to south, is about 45 miles; greatest breadth, east to west, 23 miles; area, 746 square miles. The vale of Aylesbury, stretching through the centre of the county, and celebrated for its fertility, furnishes rich pasturage for vast numbers of cattle and sheep. The total area under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass is somewhat more than 400,000 acres, of which considerably more than half is in permanent pasture. The chief cereal crops are wheat, barley, and oats, each occupying annually from about 22,000 to 30,000 acres. Between 4,000,000 and 5.000.000 pounds, or about 1,900 tons of butter, are annually made in this county. The breeding and fattening of cattle are largely carried on, Herefords and short-horns being favorite breeds. The manufactures of Buckinghamshire are unimportant. Among them are straw-plaiting and the making of thread lace, wooden articles, such as beechen chairs, turnery, etc. There are also paper-mills, silk-mills, and other manufactories. The mineral productions of this county are of no great importance. The county is watered by the Ouse, the Thame, the Thames, and other streams, and is intersected by the Great Western and Northwestern R.R.'s. Buckingham is nominally the county town, but Aylesbury is the assize town. Buckinghamshire used to contain three parliamentary boroughs, namely, Aylesbury, Buckingham, and High or Chipping Wycombe, which now give name to corresponding parliamentary divisions. The county thus returns three members to the House of Commons. It gives the title of earl to the family of Hobart Hampden. Pop. (1901)


Buckingham, a municipal and formerly a parliamentary borough of England, capital of the county of its own name, 50 miles northwest of London, situated on a peninsula formed by the Ouse, which is here crossed by three stone bridges. The town hall and jail are large and commodious buildings. The parish church, erected in 1781, is a spacious structure, with a square tower, surmounted by an elegant spire, and there are also several other places of wor

ship, and a free grammar-school, founded by Edward VI. Malting and tanning are carried on to some extent; and a good deal of business is done in wool and hops. In the vicinity are several limestone quarries, and one of marble. Pop. about 3,500.

Buckingham Palace, a royal palace in London, facing St. James's Park. It is the town residence of the king.

Buck'land, Cyrus, American inventor: b. Manchester, Conn., 10 Aug. 1799; d. 26 Feb. 1891. After learning the trade of a machinist, he assisted in building the machinery for the first cotton-mills erected at Chicopee Falls, and became, in 1828, patternmaker in the United States armory, Springfield, where he remained for 28 years, becoming master mechanic. He designed machinery and tools for the manufacture of firearms; remodeled old weapons and designed new ones; perfected a lathe for turning out gun-stocks: invented machines to bore and turn gun-barrels and for rifling muskets, and many other novelties in the manufacture of firearms and ordnance. Much of his machinery was adopted by foreign governments. As he received nothing for his labor at the armory, excepting his salary, Congress voted


$10,000 when ill-health compelled him to resign. In all he received from Congress for his inventions $70,000.

Buckland, Francis Trevelyan, English naturalist: b. Oxford, 17 Dec. 1826; d. London, 19 Dec. 1880. He was the son of William Buckland (q.v.); graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, and having studied medicine in Paris and London, he was for some time house surthe 2d Life Guards as assistant surgeon, a post geon to St. George's Hospital, when he joined which he held for nine years. His strong passion for natural history soon absorbed all his thoughts, and he became a constant contributor to Field and other periodicals. Latterly he devoted himself with enthusiasm to pisciculture, a subject on which he was long the leading authority. His advice on the subject was sought by several foreign governments, and he was the means of introducing salmon and trout into the Australian and New Zealand waters. He was appointed inspector of salmon fisheries in 1867, and his reports as commissioner led to the passing of several useful acts of Parliament. Besides a great quantity of pleasant gossipy articles contributed to various periodicals, he published Curiosities of Natural History' (1857-72); the Logbook of a Fisherman and Zoologist' (1876); a Natural History of British Fishes (1881); and other works.

Buckland, William, English geologist: b. Axminster, Devon, 12 March 1784; d. 15 Aug. 1856. He was educated first at Winchester, afterward at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, took his degree of B.A. in 1803, and obtained a fellowship in 1808. From early childhood he had been familiar with the ammonites and other and with advancing years the bent of his mind fossils in the lias quarries near his native town, to geological pursuits was developed and confirmed. In 1813 he was appointed reader in mineralogy at Oxford, and in 1818 a readership of geology was instituted for him. In 1825 he Stoke Charity, near Whitchurch, Hants, and was presented by his college to the living of the same year he became one of the canons in

the Christchurch Cathedral, Oxford. He was Bridgewater Treatises, and in 1836 his essay one of the eight selected to write the celebrated Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natwas published, under the title of Geology and ural Theology.' In 1845, he was made dean of Westminster, and in 1847 one of the trustees of the British Museum. His papers contributed to various societies and periodicals were very numerous. He was a fellow and twice president of the Geological Society of London, and of the Royal Society from 1818.

Bucklan'dia, a handsome evergreen Javanese and East Indian tree (B. populnea), of the natural order Hamamelidaceae, the only species of its genus. It is said to attain considerable height, often more than 30 feet without branches, and occasionally a circumference of more than 20 feet at the height of a man's chest from the ground. Its timber is widely

used in the East.

Bucklandite, the name of two minerals: (1) Bucklandite of Hermann, a variety of epidote; (2) Bucklandite of Levy, a variety of allanite distinguished by being anhydrous. It occurs in small black crystals having the form


and physical properties of allanite in an iron mine near Arendal, Norway.

Buckle, Henry Thomas, English historian: b. Lee, Kent, 24 Nov. 1822; d. Damascus, 29 May 1862. He was the son of a wealthy merchant, and received his education partly at home, and partly at Dr. Halloway's School, Gordon House, Kentish Town. His delicate health prevented his remaining long at school, but his love of learning and indefatigable industry as a student supplied any deficiencies in his training, and he was to a great extent selfeducated. At an early age he entered his father's counting-house, but he displayed no aptitude for business; and when at the age of 18 his father's death left him an ample fortune, he devoted himself entirely to study. The only thing he allowed to distract him from his more serious pursuits was his favorite game of chess, in which he attained such excellence as to be recognized as one of the first English masters of the game; but even this he gave up when he found it encroached too much on his time. He had formed a plan, to which he dedicated his life, of writing the History of Civilization in England in conformity with certain philosophical principles, and with an exhaustive treatment in regard to details which he deemed indispensable to historical accuracy, which made the work he had undertaken one of almost incalculable magnitude. He only succeeded in finishing two volumes. The first, published in 1858, stated with copious illustrations the plan of the work; the second, issued in 1861, contained a digression on the histories of Scotland and Spain, intended further to illustrate his design, and demonstrate the principles on which it was based. These works gave rise to much controversy, but it has been generally agreed that they exhibit great boldness and originality of design, with profound and accurate scholarship, and possibly also with a good deal of what was the object of the historian's strongest aversion in others, dogmatism. His death occurred when he was on a voyage undertaken for the restoration of his health.

Buckle, a metal instrument consisting of a rim and tongue, forming a clasp, used for fastening straps or bands in dress, harness, etc. In making buckles, both brass and iron are used, and the chief kinds are called tongue, roller, brace, and gear buckles. The use of buckles, instead of shoe-strings, was introduced into England during the reign of Charles II. They soon became very fashionable, attained an enormous size (the largest being called Artois buckles, after the Comte d'Artois, brother of the king of France), and were usually made of silver, set with diamonds and other precious stones. In the latter half of the 18th century the manufacture of buckles was carried on most extensively in Birmingham, there being at one time not less than 4.000 people directly employed in that city and its vicinity, who turned out 2,500,000 pairs of buckles annually. When the trade was at its height, however, fashion changed, and in 1791 buckle-makers petitioned the Prince of Wales for sympathy, on the ground that, owing to the introduction of shoestrings, their trade was almost ruined. The prince promised to assist them as far as he could by wearing buckles himself, and enjoining his household to do the same; but fashion

was too strong even for him, and before the close of the century, a great staple trade of Birmingham had become extinct, though shoebuckles are still by no means unknown.

Buckler, a kind of small shield formerly worn on the left arm, a piece of armor varying in form and material, among the latter being wickerwork, wood covered with leather, a combination of wood and metal, etc.

Buck'ley, James Monroe, American clergyman and editor: b. Rahway, N. J., 16 Dec. 1836. He was educated at Pennington Seminary and Wesleyan University, and studied theology at Exeter, N. H., and in 1858 entered the minisHe try of the Methodist Episcopal Church. has had charges at several places, including Detroit, New York, and Brooklyn, the last of which he retained from 1866 to 1880. Since 1880 he has been editor of the New York Christian Advocate. He has published 'Two Weeks in the Yosemite and Vicinity) (1873); 'Christians and the Theatre' (1876); Oats or Wild Oats) (1885); Travels in Three Continents' (1895); Extemporaneous Oratory) (1899); and other works.

Buckley, Samuel Botsford, American botanist and geologist: b. Torrey, Yates County, N. Y., 9 May 1809; d. Austin, Texas, 18 Feb. 1884. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1836. During his travels in the Southern States he investigated the botany, choncology, etc., of those regions, discovering many new Species of plants and shells. Among the flora was the new genus Buckleya, which was named in his honor. He determined the height of Mount Buckley, North Carolina, and of several other summits. From 1860-1 he was connected with the State survey of Texas and from 1866-7 was State geologist of Texas. He wrote many papers of a scientific nature and a work on the trees and shrubs of the United States.

Buck'minster, Joseph Stevens, American clergyman: b. Portsmouth, N. H., 26 May 1784; d. 9 June 1812. His father, Joseph Buckminster, a scholarly and eloquent preacher, sent the son to Harvard, where he was graduated in Exeter Academy, among his pupils being Daniel 1800, afterward becoming a teacher in Phillips Webster. In 1804 he entered upon the work of the ministry as pastor of the Brattle Street Church, Boston, and at once took his place as a writer and preacher of the finest gifts, to grow in power and public esteem until the day of his premature death. He was a member of the Anthology Club of Boston, and a contributor to aided to develop a more literary style of sermon, the Monthly Anthology.' His pulpit influence while his oratorical ability was equal to his skill in composition. He was a representative of the Liberal Congregationalism, which, soon after his death, became Unitarian in belief. His See also his Memoirs,' by his sister (1851). works, in two volumes, were published in 1839.

Buck'nell University, a co-educational institution in Lewisburg, Pa.; organized in 1846, under the auspices of the Baptist Church; reported in 1901: Professors and instructors, 31; students, 500; volumes in the library, over 19,000; grounds and buildings valued at more than $350,000; endowment, $425,000; president, John H. Harris, LL.D.


Buck'ner, Simon Bolivar, American soldier and politician: b. Kentucky, 1 April 1823. He was graduated at West Point in 1844, taught there, as assistant professor, during the next two years, and served in the Mexican war, 1846-8, under Gens. Taylor and Scott. He was brevetted first lieutenant, and also captain, for gallantry at the battles of Churubusco and Molino del Rey. From 1848 to 1850 he served at West Point as assistant instructor in infantry tactics. In 1855 he resigned from the army and engaged in various occupations, civil and military, in Illinois and Kentucky. When the Civil War began he joined the Confederate army as a brigadier-general. Afterward he rose to distinction, attaining the rank of lieutenantgeneral, and taking a prominent part in several important events of the war, notably in the defense and surrender of Fort Donelson, 16 Feb. 1862. He was one of the pall-bearers at Gen. Grant's funeral in 1885, by the personal selection of the great soldier himself, who had been warmly attached to him for many years. In 1896 he was nominated for vice-president by the National (Gold) Democrats, having previously served a term as governor of Kentucky.

Buckram, a coarse fabric, linen or cotton, sized with glue. It is used in making garments to give them, by stiffening, the form intended, and as a cover in bookbinding.

Buck'shot, a leaden shot larger than swanshot. About 160 or 170 of them weigh a pound. They are especially designed to be used in hunting deer and other large game.

and the Democrats, William Hopkins; the former then adjourned, whereupon the latter held the hall with a guard and the Whigs had to meet outside. The Whig governor, Joseph Ritner, called on the State militia to be ready to rescue the capital from a "lawless mob," and appealed to the commandant, at Carlisle, and next to President Van Buren, for help against "domestic violence," which was refused on the ground that this phrase referred only to insurrection against lawful authorities, whereas this was only a political struggle to determine who the lawful authorities were, in which the government could not decently interfere. (The same excuse was afterward made for leaving Kansas at the mercy of the Border Ruffians, though the Federal court put the United States soldiery into their hands.) About 1,000 militia were brought to Harrisburg; but after a fortnight's stay departed, as the city was entirely quiet, and the rival houses holding regular sessions. The cooler Whigs, however, saw that the secretary of State could not justify his assumption of power; enough Cunningham members joined the Hopkins House to give it a majority, and on the 25th the senate acknowledged it as the true one, whereupon the other broke up and its members gradually drifted in-all but Thaddeus Stevens (q.v.), who would not take his seat during the session. The legislature elected as senator Daniel Sturgeon, then State treasurer, who as such refused to honor Ritner's bill for the employment of the militia. See U. S., DISPUTED ELECTIONS IN THE.

Buck'skin, a soft leather of a yellowish or grayish color, made originally from deerskin, but now usually from sheepskin. The softness which is its chief characteristic is imparted by using oil or brains in dressing it. The name is also given to a kind of twilled woolen cloth without a pile or "face."

of the Haymarket Theatre, and produced nearly 200 plays, which were all successful, largely owing to his knowledge of stage effect and humor. He made a visit to the United States in 1840. Among the best of his pieces are: Bushes); The Flowers of the Forest'; Mar'The Wreck Ashore'; Victorine'; 'Green ried Life); 'Leap Year'; 'Second Thoughts'; and Nicholas Flam.'

Buckshot War, 1838, a disputed-election case in Pennsylvania, of national importance as bearing on the nature of the "domestic violence," from which the Constitution requires the Federal government to protect the States. As usual, fraud under legal forms was met by retaliation in defiance of them. The legislature that year had to elect a United States senator; Buck'stone, John Baldwin, English actor and the return of Democratic candidates in and playwright: b. London, 14 Sept. 1802; d. 31 Philadelphia gave that party a majority on joint Oct. 1879. From 1823 to 1853 he was a wellballot, though the Senate was 22 Whig (Anti-known London comedian. He became manager Masonic) to II Democratic. But the Democratic congressional candidate in one of the city districts was defeated; his party charged it to frauds in the Northern Liberties district (now in Philadelphia), and the 10 Democratic election judges threw out its entire vote of some 5,000, giving him the certificate of election. At once the seven Whig judges met and gave the certificate not only to their candidate, but to their legislative candidates who were not elected even with the Northern Liberties vote: obviously to fight till their congressman was restored. The secretary of State was chairman of the Whig State committee, received the Whig certificate first (professedly at least), refused to acknowledge any others, and publicly advised his party to claim the election and hold out. Armed crowds of both parties collected at Harrisburg "to see fair play" when the legislature met, 4 December; and for some days the sessions were held with a roaring mob outside. The Whig returns alone were handed in by the secretary of State; the Whig senate organized, and then adjourned on account of the mob; one member is alleged to have threatened them with "ball and buckshot," whence the name. In the Representatives' hall both parties organized and chose speakers, the Whigs, T. S. Cunningham,

Buckstone, Lucy Isabella, English actress (daughter of John Baldwin Buckstone): b. 1858; d. London, 17 March 1893. After acting for a time in the provinces, she appeared on the London stage in 1875 in the play of 'David Garrick.' Among her best known roles were those of Annette in The Bells' and Lucy Ormond in 'Peril.'

Buck'tails, the New York State Democrats opposed to De Witt Clinton, 1812-28; originally the members of the Tammany Society in New York, from the buck's tail worn in their hats as a badge. Their factional opposition to Clinton, under Martin Van Buren and other important local leaders, extended to his advocacy of the Erie Canal, authorized 15 April 1817; the Tammany men were fiercest in opposition to it, and the name "Bucktails" was given to all the antiCanal Democrats. Clinton was an ungracious


and tactless politician, and in 1824 the Bucktails carried the State and ousted him from the office of canal commissioner; which primitive bit of "spoils," in a community not then hardened to it, created a reaction that gave him two terms more in the governorship. His death in 1828 dissolved his party, and the "Bucktails," under Van Buren and the other members of the "Albany Regency" (q.v.), became the Democratic party in the State.

Buck'thorn (Rhamnus catharticus), a shrub, native of Great Britain, naturalized in the United States, where it is cultivated for hedgerows in the Mississippi valley and westward. It is not very common in the States east of the Alleghanies. The stem is covered with a darkbrown bark, and divides into numerous branches with strong spines. It grows to seven or eight feet. The leaves are elliptical and serrated. The male and female flowers are on different plants. The calyx is of a greenish yellow. There is no corolla. The fruit is a round black berry, containing four seeds. It flowers in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The berries They form a powerful purgative, but, being harsh in action, are seldom used in modern practice. The juice of the ripe berries, mixed with alum, forms the sap-green of artists. The bark yields a beautiful yellow dye.

are medicinal.

Buck'wheat (Polygonum fagopyrum, Linn.), a species of grain supposed to be a native of Asia, and called blé Sarrasin, or Saracen wheat, by the French, after the Saracens or Moors, who are believed to have introduced it into Spain. It thrives on poor soils, comes rapidly to maturity, and is most frequently planted in tracts that are not rich enough to support other crops. It is extremely sensitive to cold, being destroyed by the least frost, but it may be planted so late and reaped so early as to incur no danger from that source. Its flowering season continues for a long time, so that it is impossible for all the seeds to be in perfection when it is reaped, and the farmer must decide by careful observation at what period there is the greatest quantity of ripe seeds. Buckwheat does not exhaust the soil, and by its rapid growth and its shade it stifles weeds, prevents their going to seed, and leaves the field clean for the next year. As a grain, buckwheat has been principally cultivated for oxen, swine, and poultry; and although some farmers state that a single bushel of it is equal in quality to two bushels of oats, others assert that it is a very unprofitable food. Mixed with bran, chaff, or grain, it is sometimes given to horses. The flour of buckwheat is occasionally used for bread, but more frequently for cakes fried in a pan. In Germany it serves as an ingredient in pottage, puddings, and other food. In the United States it is very extensively used throughout the winter in griddle-cakes. Beer may be brewed from it, and by distillation it yields an excellent spirit. It is used in Danzig in the preparation of cordial waters. Buckwheat is much cultivated by the preservers of game as a food for pheasants. If left standing it affords both food and shelter to the birds during winter. With some farmers it is the practice to sow buckwheat for the purpose only of plowing it into the ground as a manure for the land. The best time for plowing it in is when it is in full blossom, allowing the land to rest till it

decomposes. While green it serves as food for sheep and oxen, and mixed with other provender it may also be given with advantage to horses. If sown in April two green crops may be procured during the season. The blossoms may be used for dyeing a brown color. It is frequently cultivated in this country in the Middle States, and also in Brabant, as food for bees, to whose honey it imparts a flavor by no means unpleasant. The principal advantage of buckwheat is that it is capable of being cultivated upon land which will produce scarcely anything else, and that its culture, compared with that of other grain, is attended with little expense.

Buckwheat-tree, an evergreen shrub of the genus Cliftonia, natural order Cyrillacea; also called titi. It is a native of the southern United States, where it is found in the neighborhood of water. It bears fragrant white flowers, followed by drooping fruits, which suggest the


word meaning "herdsman." It is equivalent to Bucolic, a term derived from a Greek the word pastoral, derived from the Latin, and cially descriptive of rural life as led by cowis applied to pastoral poetry of the kind espeherds and mountain shepherds. Of this class of poetry Theocritus and Vergil left the highest examples. See PASTORAL POETRY.

Bu'crane, an ornamental design carved in relief on the altars of Greece and Rome. It represented an ox skull with garlands depending. This decoration is sometimes seen as an architectural detail with other animals' heads introduced in place of the original ox-head.

Bucy'rus, Ohio, city and county-seat of Crawford County, situated on the Sandusky River and on the Pennsylvania, the Ohio C., and the Columbus, S. & H. R.R.'s. Stockraising and farming are carried on in the surrounding region and the city is actively engaged in manufacture. Among the products of the mills and shops are machinery, ventilating apparatus, plows, vehicles, and furniture. school and county buildings, a reservoir, and waterworks. There is a park in the city, and numerous mineral springs in the surrounding region. Bucyrus was settled in 1818 and incorporated in 1829. Pop. (1900) 6,560.

There are

Bud, a modified shoot in which, owing to the non-development of the axis, the lateral organs become crowded together. It contains the rudiments of future organs, as stems, branches, leaves, and organs of fructification. The usual form of a bud is an elongated ovoid, and according to their position they are described as terminal, that is, formed at the end of a branch, or axillary, that is, produced in the axils of a leaf. Besides the rudimentary organs found in the interior, buds are in cold or temperate climates often covered externally with a viscous and resinous coating, and furnished internally with a downy tissue, destined to defend the enclosed organs from the rigor of winter. No envelopes of this kind are observed on the buds of the greater number of tropical plants. Buds on exogenous plants are in their commencement cellular prolongations from the medullary rays, which force their way through the bark. The cellular portion is surrounded by spiral vessels, and covered with rudimentary


leaves. When the vascular part of the bud develops the central cellular portion remains as pith, enclosed in a medullary sheath, which isolates it from the parent stem. Thus it remains till the second year. The bud here described, which contains the rudiments of future leaves, branches, etc., is called a leaf-bud. Sometimes more than one bud is found in or near the axil of a single leaf, in which case all but the proper axillary bud are called accessory buds. The buds begin to show themselves as soon as the leaves have taken their full development. They are then very small, as the developed leaves absorb the nutritive juices of the plant, leaving them little nourishment. On the fall of the leaf they enlarge, and take the form they are to retain during winter, in which season they are stationary. On the return of spring they begin to swell, and burst the scales which form their external covering, and the young shoots which these have served to protect now make their appearance. The external scales of the bud are usually deciduous, that is, they fall off when the young shoot appears; sometimes, however, they are persistent. These scales sometimes represent leaf-blades, as in lilac; sometimes stipules, as in the beech; or petioles, as in the horse-chestnut. Flower-buds are produced in the axil of leaves called floral leaves or bracts. They are not capable of extension by the development of the central cellular portion, and instead of the conservative organs of plants, leaves, and branches, they produce the reproductive organs, flowers, and fruit. Perennial herbaceous plants spring from a subterranean bud called the turio, which is developed annually, and from which the new stem is produced. The bulb is a species of bud of this kind. The arrangement of the leaves in a leafbud is called its vernation; of the petals and sepals in a flower-bud, its æstivation.

Bud Moth. An apple pest. See APPLE. Budæ'us. See BUDE, GUILLAUME. Budapest, boo'da-pěst, the united towns of Buda or Ofen, and Pest or Pesth, the one on the right, the other on the left of the Danube, forming the capital of Hungary, the seat of the Hungarian parliament and supreme courts, about 135 miles southeast from Vienna. Buda, which is the smaller of the two, and lies on the west bank of the river (here flowing south), consists of the fortified Upper Town on a hill, the Lower Town or Water Town at the foot of the hill, and several other quarters, including Old Buda farther up the river. Among the chief buildings are the royal castle and several palaces, the arsenal, town hall, government offices, etc.; the Church of St. Matthew, dating from the 13th century, during the Turkish occupation a mosque for 150 years, and recently rebuilt; and the finest Jewish synagogue in the empire. Pest, or the portion of Budapest on the left or east bank of the river, consists of the inner town of Old Pest on the Danube, and a semicircle of districts - Leopoldstadt, Theresienstadt, Elizabethstadt, etc.- which have grown up around it. The river is at this point somewhat wider than the Thames at London, and the broad quays of Pest extend along it for from two to three miles. It is spanned by fine suspension and other bridges. Pest retains, on the whole, fewer signs of antiquity than

Vol. 3-15

many less venerable towns. Its fine frontage on the Danube is modern, and includes the new houses of parliament, opened in 1896, the academy of science, with a library of 180,000 volumes, exchange, custom house, and other important buildings. The oldest church dates from 1500; the largest building is a huge pile used as barracks and arsenal. Other buildings include the old and the new town house, national museum, National theatre, university buildings, various palaces, the Royal Opera House, etc.

Budapest contains the most important of the three universities of Hungary, attended by about 4,500 students, and having over 220 professors, lecturers, etc. Another important educational institution is. the technical high schools, with 60 teachers and 1,100 to 1,200 students, and a library of 60,000 volumes. In commerce and industry Budapest ranks next to Vienna in the empire. Its chief manufactures are machinery, gold, silver, copper, and iron wares, chemicals, textile goods, leather, tobacco, etc. A large trade is done in grain, wine, wool, cattle, etc. At Budapest are the largest electrical works in all Europe. Engineers employed there have brought to perfection the science of applying electricity to motors. They constructed there the first successful underground trolley lines. The city contains the important parks of the Stadtwäldchen, about 1,000 acres in extent, and Margaret Island. It is divided into 10 municipal districts, three on the Buda side of the river, and seven on the Pest side. The Elizabeth suspension bridge over the Danube River was completed and formally opened for traffic 10 Oct. 1903. It was named in commemoration of the late Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. The bridge was originally planned in 1893 by the Budapest Board of Trade. It has two piers, one on each side of the river, built on substantial ground. Its clear span over the river Danube is 9511⁄2 feet. There are land approaches on each side of the river, each having a length of 40 meters, thus giving the entire bridge a total length of fully 3,014 feet. The two piers have a total height of 212 feet each over the zero level of

the water. Both of them are made of steel and rest upon granite foundations. The highest point at the centre of the bridge is 59 feet from the zero level of the river. The bridge has a total width of 59 feet, 36 feet of which is carriageway, and 112 feet for each of two footways. Budapest is strongly Magyar in character and sentiment, and as a factor in the national life may almost be regarded as equivalent to the rest of Hungary. Old Buda was founded by the Romans about 150 A.D., and was known as Aquinicum. Pest is of much later origin, first being heard of in the 13th century. The citadel of Buda was captured by the Turks after Mohacs in 1526. From 1541 to 1686 Buda was the seat of a Turkish pasha, the Turks being then driven out. The towns were united as one municipality in 1873. It was not until 1799 that the population of Pest began to outdistance that of Buda; but from that date its growth was very rapid and out of all proportion to the increase of Buda. In 1799 the joint population of the two towns was little more than 50,000; in 1890 it was 506,384; in 1900, 732,322.

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