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came along with it has been dealt with so fully by Franks, Greenwell, Arthur Evans, Reginald Smith, and others, that I shall only mention a few of the points which more closely concern Wales. It was derived from the Continent, and is characterised by the appearance of the beautiful “ Late Celtic Art," and by the traces of a gradually increasing intercourse with the Mediterranean peoples Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. In this latter connection we may note the pink Mediterranean coral used in the decoration of shields and brooches, the Italo-Greek vessels of bronze and silver, and the use of coins, the earlier being copies of those of Greece and the later of those of Rome. It was, on the whole, uniform in character throughout Britain, although it was in closer touch with the Continent, in the southern and eastern countries. This fact is emphasised by the irregular distribution of the coins, that were at this time not used in commerce much further north than Yorkshire, although there are two finds of isolated specimens on record in Scotland near Dumfries, and at Lesmahagow, or further west than the Welsh Marches, the only two finds in Wales being at Dinas, in Breconshire, and Penbryn, in Cardiganshire.
With this exception, the civilisation of Wales in the Pre-historic Iron Age was the same as in the rest of Britain, standing to it in the same relation as at the present day. It is without any sign of the woadpainted barbarians, fondly imagined in the older his tories to have inhabited the remoter parts of our island at the time of the Roman invasion.
The fortified villages and towns (oppida) were the
i Franks, Kemble's Horce Ferales, 4to. Greenwell, “Early Iron Age Burials in Yorkshire,” Archæologia, vol. lx, 251. British Barrows. Arthur Evans, "Late Celtic Urn Field,” Archæologia, lii, 315. Reginald A. Smith, British Museum Guide. Antiquities of the Early Iron Age, Svo, 1905.
2 John Evans, Ancient British Coins, 8vo, 1864. Supplement, 1890.
same in Wales as in other parts of our island, and contain the same remains. In Tre Ceiri, Carnarvonshire, for example, the stone ramparts and the general scheme of defence are of the same order as in the great fortress of Worlebury dominating Weston-super-Mare, and many others in Somerset and elsewhere. The iron implements and weapons found, the hammer (Fig, 21) and the bill hook (Fig. 22), the socketed lance head, the bone weaving comb, the beads
Fig. 21.–Iron Hammer, Tre Ceiri (Arch. Camb., 1904)
of vitreous paste, and the pottery, find their counterparts in the Lake Village of Glastonbury, Somerset, and in the oppidum of Mount Caburn near Lewes, as well as Hunsbury near Northampton. The fortresses on St. David's Head and Moel Trigarn on the divide
1 Baring Gould and Burnard, Arch. Camb., 1904, and Harold Hughes and Dawkins, Arch. Camb., 1907.
2 Dymond, Worlebury, An Ancient Stronghold in Somerset, 4to, 1902.
3 Baring Gould, Burnard, and Enys, Arch. Camb., 1899, p. 105; Baring Gould, Burnard, and Anderson, Arch. Camb., 1900, p. 180.
between Cardigan Bay and Vale of Carmarthen contain similar remains, belong to the same age, and belong to the same group. To this I should also refer the stronghold at Pen y Gaer? (Figs. 23, 24), characterised by its chevaux de frise (Fig. 25) of slabs of stone firmly implanted in the ground, as in the great fort of Dun Aengus in North Arran in the Bay of Galway
SCALE OPIWO,',2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 FL
Original red clayey soil.
A, Pointed stones in situ
Fig. 24.-Section of Pen y Gaer
The larger and better constructed camps throughout Wales were probably occupied in the Pre-historic Iron Age, and in some cases there is the same close relation to the Roman forts as in England. At Caerleon and Caerwent they are coupled together, as in Manchester and the two Dorchesters, the position of the Roman fort in each case being determined by the older strongholds.
i Gardner, Arch. Camb., 1906, p. 157.
6TH SER. VOL. XII.