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passage, All exceptions or privileges granted to our venerable brother, Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, or to his church, or any other notwithstanding, grant unto you the office of legate." A like passage occurs also in a letter from Celestine to the Archbishop of York, and all bishops, &c., on the same occasion, and which, also, is given by Hoveden. William of Newburgh, it would appear, could hardly have been aware of this exception when he wrote the above.

1217-8. A mandate from Pope Honorius iii. to Archbishop Gray, &c. forbidding him to carry his cross erect within the province of Canterbury.

1277. Edw. I. Feb. 27. The Archbishop of Canterbury orders the Archbishop of York to excommunicate Lewellyn Prince of Wales.

1280, March. A mandate from the rural Dean of Brading to the clergy of his deanery, with the authority of the official of the court of Canterbury, contains the following:-" If the Archbishop of York passes through your parishes bearing his cross erect, no one is to sell him anything or communicate with him in any way, or beg his blessing." Boycotting is evidently not a modern invention.

1280, April 1. Letter of Archbishop Wickwaine to Pope Nicholas iii. On our return from you we set up our cross in the midst of the English Channel, and bore it erect through the province of Canterbury. Mr. Adam Hales, official of that Archbishop and his adherents-officialis domini Cantuariensis, cum Sathanæ suisque satellitebus, &c.assaulted us and broke the cross, we got another—which also was carried erect. At our entry into London a more serious attack was made upon us, but we escaped from it, and went to the Court to receive our temporalities. In addition to this the Archbishop put the places through which we passed in his province under an interdict as if we were heretics, or excommunicated persons. Let justice be done or the Church of England-Ecclesia Angliæ-will be rent in pieces.

1286. Archbishop Romanus received the pall at Rome on Feb. 10. On March 26, N. the Commissary at Canterbury ordered the Rural Dean of Dover to prevent the Archbishop of York from carrying his cross erect. On April 6, Archbishop Peckham, of Canterbury wrote from Saltwood to the dean of the Arches and Mr. W. de Haverberg to inform

them that he had heard that Romanus was to land on Palm Sunday following with his cross erect, and directing them to check him. An order was also given to the Rural Dean of Dover forbidding any clerks to approach the intruder, and commanding the services to be stopped in every parish where he halted, if he made use of the obnoxious symbol of his authority. The king had already heard that a quarrel was imminent, and had tried to prevent it, ordering that provisions and every thing that Romanus and his suite required should be supplied to them on their journey. On April 11, Peckham again wrote to say that the Archbishop, as he had heard, was in the priory of Bermondsey with his cross erect, and he forbade every one to go near either the place or the prelate. On April 12, Romanus received the temporalities of his see and no further record occurs of any trouble, so probably the king interfered in his favour.

1300, April 25. The Archbishop of Canterbury wrote to the Bishop of London, saying, that the Archbishop of York (Corbridge) had followed the example of his predecessors, and ordering that no one should stoop to receive his blessing.

1300-1, Jan. Archbishop Winchelsey wrote to the bishop of Lincoln, commanding him to prevent the Archbishop of York from having his cross borne before him during his progress through his diocese: the laity were not to kneel before him for his blessing and in all the places which he passed through, divine service and the tolling of the bells were immediately to cease. The names of all who should transgress these injunctions were to be sent to the primate that he might proceed against them by ecclesiastical censure.

1304. When Archbishop Greenfield went abroad after his election, the king wrote a letter to the Pope begging that he might be allowed to carry his cross erect on his return. On December 31 in the same year, the king wrote from Lincoln to the Pope asking him to settle the dispute, and stating that bodily harm was frequently done to people through the quarrel. He also sent letters on the same subject to various Cardinals asking their interest with the Pope. In Feb. 1306, when Greenfield came back to England, Edward sent an order to the Archbishop of Canterbury that no violence should be offered to him, although it had been intended. On his route Greenfield paid a visit to the Abbot of S. Augustine's, Canterbury, but he took especial care that

his presence should entail no annoyance upon his host. When, in the spring of 1312, Greenfield was on his way to the Council at Vienna he met with such rough usage at the hands of the servants of the Archbishop of Canterbury that the king again stepped in to protect him as he returned. When he arrived on Dec. 1, Greenfield empowered Adam de Osgodby, Robert de Bardelby, John de Markenfeld, William de Melton, and Mr. John de Franceys, canons of York, to state his position in the controversy to one of the Cardinals. In the autumn of 1314 when the Court was at York, there was great risk of a collision. The Archbishop of Canterbury was on his way to that city. On 31st of August, Greenfield ordered his official and the Dean and Chapter of York to resist him if he asserted the offensive privilege, and directed the services to be suspended at every place and church at which he halted, unless it were the royal chapel. Instructions were also given to the Archdeacon of Nottingham to check the southern primate on his entrance into the diocese. The king, however, put an end to the danger by ordering Greenfield to allow his brother Archbishop to carry his cross erect during his stay at York. On Sept. 15, Greenfield in granting an oratory to John, Earl of Surrey, at his residence at Clifton near York during the continuance of the present parliament in that city, specially provided that Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury should not go there with his cross erect. During the next year on June 12 when there was a chance of Greenfield going into the diocese of Worcester, strict injunction was given to the bishop by the southern primate that he should not permit the sacred emblem to be used.

1304-15. Constitutions of Archbishop Greenfield. Since the Archbishop of York, primate of England, hath no superior in spirituals except the Pope, none of our subjects shall appeal from his decision to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1317, Aug. 6. The king asked Pope John to settle the disputes between Archbishop Melton of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury on the same subject.

1322, Nov. 4. The king ordered that the Archbishop of Canterbury should be permitted to carry his cross within the province of York.

1324, Feb. 23. The king permits the Archbishop of York to carry his cross in the province of Canterbury when coming to Parliament at Westminster.

Oct. 8. The king required the Archbishop of Canterbury to refrain from molesting the Archbishop of York in carrying his cross in the province of Canterbury whilst coming to the king at London.

1325. The Archbishop of York was appointed to the office of Treasurer, which Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury resisted as much as he could, on the plea that two crosses ought not to be borne in one province; and he excommunicated the Archbishop of York for carrying his cross through the city of London; but the latter, notwithstanding, publicly celebrated mass at Westminster for the soul of King Edward, though without his pall. On the following day the Archbishop of Canterbury, during the sitting of parliament in the "Green chamber," conversed openly with the Archbishop of York, although he knew that he was excommunicated by his order; for which he was gently reproved by the Bishop of Rochester, and admonished to desist.

1325, Aug. 8. The king orders the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Mayor of London, and others not to molest the Archbishop of York in carrying his cross.

1327, Sept. 10. The king forbids W. Archbishop of Canterbury to object to the cross being carried before the Archbishop of York on his way to meet the king at Lincoln. The king wrote also to the Mayor and Sheriff of Lincoln to assist the Archbishop of York.

1328, April 25. The Sheriff of Northampton ordered to provide safe conduct for the Archbishop of York during his journey to Parliament at Northampton.

1329, June 14. The king ordered the Archbishop of York to be present at Windsor, July 23, with other prelates and magnates, notwithstanding his dispute with the Archbishop of Canterbury. On the same subject the king wrote also to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1333, Aug. 18. The king desired S. Archbishop of Canterbury to allow the cross to be carried before the Archbishop of York in the province of Canterbury while he is on his way to the approaching parliament at Westminster.

1334, June 12. The king desired W. Archbishop of York to allow the cross to be carried before the Archbishop

of Canterbury while passing through the province of York on his way to the king.

1334, June. Archbishop W. de Melton, of York, to Mr. Thos. Sampson, Official of our Court at York, sufficient money for our cause against the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1335, April 9. A letter from the king to the Archbishop of York, when the southern primate went to the parliament at York. The king also ordered the Sheriffs of Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire to protect him.

1342, Sept. 8. The Sheriffs of London are ordered to forbid all persons to molest, while on his way to the king, William la Zouche, who is said to be consecrated Archbishop of York. Similar letters to Sheriff of Kent, &c.

Archbishop Thoresby's first efforts seem to have been directed to bringing to a final close the controversy which had for centuries embittered the mutual relations between York and Canterbury. Through the king's intervention the two Archbishops met at Westminster in 1352, and it was arranged that each Archbishop should bear his cross erect in the province of the other. At parliaments and councils the Archbishop of Canterbury was to sit on the king's right hand with his cross erect, the Archbishop of York on the left. In the open street their cross bearers were to walk abreast; in a narrow alley or gateway, he of Canterbury was to take the precedence. The Pope confirmed the arrangement, and assigned a distinction which still survives; the successor of Augustine being thenceforth to be designated primate of all England," and his brother Archbishop "primate of England."

1353, April 1. The king orders the Sheriff of London and Middlesex to prevent any molestation in the city or suburbs to the Archbishop of York, the king's chancellor, for carrying his cross while engaged in the duties of the office of chancellor.

1354. Compromise between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York confirmed by Pope Innocent VI. The Archbishop of York might have his cross borne before him throughout the entire province of Canterbury, on condition of his sending, within the space of two months from the time of his consecration, to the shrine of S. Thomas A Becket a golden image to the value of forty pounds representing an Archbishop bearing a cross. It might be sent by



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