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knights' fees, was divided among his four sisters, viz. Agnes, who had married Sir Walter de Fauconberg, Knt.; Lucia, the wife of Marmaduke; Margery, who had married Robert de Roos; and Laderina, who had married Sir John de Bella Aqua.

WALTER DE FAUCONBERG, who bore the arms, Or, a fesse azure, in chief three pallets gules (Roll of Arms, published in the Archæologia, 418), but who subsequently assumed the ancient arms of de Brus, viz. Argent, une lyon rampant d'azure (Roll of Arms, published by Sir Harris Nicolas), received, in right of his wife, the castle of Skelton, the manors of Marske, Redcar, Upleatham, Stanghow, etc., together with half the advowson of the Priory of Guisborough.

ROBERT DE Roos, who bore the famous arms, Gules, three water bougets argent, received, in right of his wife, Kendal and other property in Westmorland, together with certain estates in Cleveland.

JOHN DE BELLA AQUA, who bore the arms, Sable, a bordeur indented or (Roll of Arms, temp. Edward III, published by Sir Harris Nicolas, p. 18), received, in right of his wife, Thorp Arch, Walerton, Carleton in Balne, together with certain lands in Southburn, Eastburn, etc.

MARMADUKE DE THWENG, already in his own right the holder of seven knights' fees in the barony of Percy, received the lordship, castle, and forest of Danby, the manors of Kirkburne and Southburn, in the East Riding (certain reservations in favour of John de Bella Aqua excepted), a quarter of the wreck of the sea between Yarm and Runswick, a mediety of the bailiffy of the wapentake of Langbaurgh, and half the advowson of the Priory of Guisborough. The total possessions, including overlordships such as that of Kildale-held under him by a

1 The Ing. P. m. of Peter de in Herternesse, which had been subBrus IV proves that he held 16 fees infeuded to a younger branch of the Brus in capite, the following knights holding family. their lands under him, viz. William and In various other places de Brus John Mauleverer, three fees; Robert had held about 11 knights' fees, the Ingram, three fees; William de Percy, following persons holding under him, viz. of Kildale, three fees; Roger de Merlas, Robert de Buttirmyk, one fee; Robert two fees; William Esturrni, and others, Fossard, one fee; Richard de Grimiston, two fees; Robert de Lascelles, one fee; one fee ; William de Bouington, one fee William Loring, half a fee ; William de and half a carucate of land ; Roger de Tocotes, half a fee; whilst Peter de Neusam, one fee; William de Boyvill, Brus retained in his own hands the lord one fee; Richard Malebisse, half a fee ; ship of Danby, valued at one knight's William de Roscelles, three-quarters of fee.

a fee; William Buscell, half a fee; De Brus held two fees under the Conanus de Liverton, half a fee; MarmaConstable of Chester, of which Ambrose duke de Thweng, of Kilton, a carucate de Camera and Galfridus Maucovenaunt, and a half of land at Great Moorsholm, of Easington, held one fee, and Robert which holding had descended to him Nevill the other. Under the Bishop of from the de Kyltons, etc. etc. Durham, de Brus had held a knight's fee

VOL. XXII.

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junior branch of the Percy family—which came to Marmaduke by the Brus partition of 1271, were valued at nine and a half knights' fees ("* Haeres Marmaduc. de Thweng, qui est in custodia Domini Regis, tenet VIII feod. milit. et dimid. et Danby pro uno feod. De Domino Rege in capite.”—Kirkby's Inquest).

A detailed description of this extensive property hardly comes within the scope of a short article, but it is quite evident that, as the holder of property valued altogether at 161 knights' fees, Marmaduke was undoubtedly the most powerful and influential baron in Cleveland.1 Late in 1271, or early in 1272, Marmaduke took

up

his residence in the old Brus castle on the Danby lordship, giving Kilton to his eldest son, Robert. The reasons for this removal were, perhaps, mainly sentimental, for the Brus castle was probably not superior either as a fortress or a residence to that at Kilton. But whilst at the latter place Marmaduke was merely the most powerful of the Percy feudatories, at Castleton he was a great baron, holding his lands in capite. The sporting advantages of the Castleton residence also probably appealed to him, for he seems to have taken little or no interest in public affairs, devoting his time to the management of his extensive estates and to outdoor sports and pursuits.

The castle at Castleton was only some six miles south of Kilton, and had been founded by Adam de Brus in the reign of Stephen. Like Kilton, it was one of the numerous adulterine" fortresses erected during the civil wars of the period, but the original stockading would appear to have been replaced by masonry at a much earlier date than was the case at Kilton.

Nothing of the castle now remains, but the moats may be distinctly traced, together with the foundations of the massive wall of enceinte. In its first form the fortalice was evidently of the Motte and Baily type, but the conical mound on which the “bretasche ” stood was at an early date surmounted by a shell-keep.

1 In 1279 he received a grant of free or to take anything which may belong to warren in Brunne, Brotton, and Skinnin- warren, without the license and will of grove from Edward I.

the aforesaid Marmaduke and Lucy, or “The King to Archbishops, &c., greet- their heirs, under forfeiture to us of ten ing. Know ye that we have granted, pounds, etc. etc. These being witnesses: and by this our charter confirmed, to our the venerable father R. Bishop of Bath beloved and faithful Marmaduke de and Wells, our chancellor William de Tweng, that he and Lucia his wife, and Valence our uncle, Henry de Lacy Earl their heirs for ever, have free warren in of Lincoln, Antony Bek Archdeacon of all their demesne lands of Brunne, Durham, Master Thomas Bek Archdeacon Brotton, and Skinningrove, in the county of Dorset, Walter De Helyon, Hugh son of York, provided those lands be not of Otto, John de Lovetot, and others. within the bounds of our forest, so that Given by our hand at Westminster, the no one enter those lands to hunt in them, 22nd day of January" (1279).

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From this Adam,” says Dugdale, “ King Henry II took the castle of Danby, with the lordship and forest thereto appertaining, and gave him, instead thereof, the Grange of Micklethwaite, with the whole of the fee of Collingham and Berdsey."

It was part of the King's policy to break up, as far as possible, the estates of powerful barons, and de Brus, moreover, had been a strong supporter of his rival, King Stephen. Although the exchange does not appear to have been an unfair one, the loss of the castle and forest of Danby was much resented by the Bruces. Accordingly, in 1200, Peter de Brus arranged to give up the lands just mentioned, and, in addition, to pay King John the enormous sum of £1,000 sterling, equivalent in purchasing power to perhaps £15,000 of modern money, in exchange for their old property, finding sureties to the extent of 700 marcs (Rotuli de Oblatis, 109).

After taking up his residence at Danby, Marmaduke entered into an agreement with Walter de Fauconberg, lord of Skelton, with whom he jointly held the patronage of the great Priory of Guisborough, with regard to the form of presentation, and charter No. 216 (Cart. Prior de Gyseburne) puts this agreement on record. The presentation of the Prior-Elect was to ake place alternately at Skelton and Castleton, and the agreement

cannot but suggest the idea of great ceremony and pomp, when the stately cavalcade accompanying the new Prior travelled across the moors to get him confirmed by the patron (Ibid., Introduction, vol. i, xx).

In 1279, Robert, Marmaduke's eldest son, died, leaving an only daughter and heiress, Lucia. Marmaduke then, with perhaps the royal consent, and certainly with that of Lord Percy, arranged that the ancestral estates of the Thweng family, viz. the fiefs of Kilton, Thwing, and Lund should, after his death, pass to his second son, Marmaduke, and that Lucia, Robert's heiress, should only succeed to the property which had come into possession of the Thwengs by the Brus partition

of 1271.

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He then handed to Marmaduke, who some years previously had married Isabella, daughter of Sir Robert de Roos, Knt., of Ingmanthorpe, the whole of the Kilton fief, with the exception of the lordship of Hinderwell.

“Ego, Marmaducus de Thweng, Dominus de Danby, dedi Marmaduco filio meo, Castellum de Kilton, et Manerium de Kilton, et Maneria de Lithum et Cotum ” (Dodsworth, 68, p. 10).

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Marmaduke I died in the same year, and was interred, with all the pomp and ceremony befitting the joint patron of the house, in the north aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory. In all probability, a monument bearing effigies of himself and his wife was erected over his tomb,

The Priory Church was burnt down in June, 1289, and a new church, of which the magnificent east window is now practically all that remains, was commenced in 1309. The church destroyed by fire appears to have been a remarkably beautiful Early English edifice, erected between 1230 and 1250, in place of the original Norman church. On the north side of the magnificent east window a shield, bearing the now famous arms of the de Thwengs of Kilton, and which was evidently placed there in the time of Marmaduke II, first Parliamentary Baron de Thweng of Kilton, still remains in situ.

Of the effigies, which were undoubtedly placed in this church in memory of several members of the Thweng family, not a trace now remains.

SIR ROBERT DE THWENG, eldest son and heir of Marmaduke, feudal Baron de Thweng of Danby, was born and baptised at Kilton Castle in 1255. In 1271, at the age of 16, he married Matilda, third and youngest daughter and co-heiress of Roger III, last feudal Baron de Merlay, of Morpeth Castle, Northumberland.

The Merlays were a family of considerable influence and importance, being descended from Sir William de Merlay, to whom the Conqueror had given the lordship of Morpeth. William's son, Ralph de Merlay, married Julian, daughter of Earl Gospatric, and Rilton and Wyndegates were granted to him by Henry I on his marriage. He founded, in 1137, the Cistercian Abbey of Newminster. Roger III, the last of this baronial house, died in 1265, leaving three daughters, Mary, the eldest, who married Sir William de Greystoke, Knt., and received the castle and lordship of Morpeth; Isabel, who afterwards married Sir Robert de Eure, Knt., to whom Wytton, with the service of Wyndegate, was assigned on the partition of the Merlay property (Inq. p. m. 50 Hen. III, No. 39, 55 Hen. III, No. 35), and Matilda, who at the age of eight years (Cal. Gen., 120) married young Robert de Thweng.

On the occasion of his marriage, Kilton Castle was handed over to Robert by his father, the latter removing to Castleton, as we have already seen,

The sole issue of the marriage was a daughter and heiress, Lucia, born at Kilton Castle on the Friday before Palm Sunday, 7 Edward I (Yorkshire Inquisitions, Yorks. Arch. Society, Record Series, 1898, p. 170). Robert died in May, 1279, at the age of 24, and was interred in the north aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory. By one of his mistresses, Matilda, daughter of Sir Robert Hansard, Knt., he had issue two sons, Marmaduke, born at Kilton in 1273, who was subsequently killed in the Scottish wars, and Robert, born at Kilton in 1275, who was afterwards a priest.

LUCIA DE THWENG, the only daughter and heiress of Sir Robert de Thweng, of Kilton Castle, by his wife, Matilda de Merlay, was born at Kilton Castle on the 24th March, 1279, and baptised on Palm Sunday in the chapel of St. Peter, “infra castellum de Kilton,” by Alan, private chaplain of the castle. There were present at the ceremony Sir Richard de Thweng, the infant's great-uncle; Peter Mariscallus, a knight in the Percy service; Richard le Estyvor; Lucia, the infant's grandmother, wife of Marmaduke, ist Baron de Thweng of Danby ; and the infant's great-aunt, Margery (de Brus), widow of Robert, Lord de Roos (Cal. Gen., 513).

Lucia's father died a few weeks after her birth, and her mother, who never seems to have recovered from the illness which followed the birth of her daughter, died in June of the same year, at the age of 16. On the death of her grandfather, in December, 1279, Lucia became one of the chief heiresses in Yorkshire and a ward of King Edward I. This well-descended heiress was related to the de Mauley, de Brus, de Merlay, and de Roos families, and the custody of her person was given to her uncle, Sir Marmaduke, then 22 years of age, who was now lord of the ancestral Thweng estates.

Lucia spent her childhood at Kilton, and in August, 1294, when fifteen years and five months old, she was given in marriage by the King to Sir William le Latimer, Junior, the eldest son of a brave but needy and avaricious soldier, William le Latimer, Senior, a personal friend of the King, who had taken a very prominent part in the Welsh wars.

Marmaduke was bitterly opposed to this match, as he wished his niece to marry his eldest son, Marmaduke, born in 1274, then about 20 years of age, in order to keep the Brus property in the family. Lucia would not seem to have been averse to such a match, but she both disliked and despised the husband

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