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The annual excursions of the LINCOLNSHIRE AND NOTTS ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY took place on June 18 and 19. On the first day the villages in the vicinity of Holbeach and Long Sutton were visited; Dr. Trollope, Suffragan Bishop of Nottingham, described the features of the various churches. In the evening the annual meeting was held, at which the Rev. W. Macdonald read a paper on "The Chantries of Holbeach Church," and Mr. W. E. Foster, F.S.A., read a paper on The Early Church of Moulton." On the following day excur sions were made to the marshland churches of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, including Wisbech.
THE CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND ANTIQUARIAN AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY held their first meeting for this year on July 3 and 4. The party met at Tebay at noon, where conveyances were in waiting. The first stoppage was just outside Tebay, the objects of interest to be visited being the Brandling Stone and Castle How. The secretary (Mr. Titus Wilson) said that the how was Anglo-Saxon, and was one of a series of mounds in the valley of the Lune, there being others at Sedbergh, Kirkby Lonsdale, and Black Burton. The Brandling Stone has two crosses upon it, and, like the rere cross on Stainmore, is supposed to have marked the boundary of the Scottish Kingdom. The next stop was made at Orton Hall, the residence of Colonel Burn, where a painting of Chancellor Burn, the county historian, by Romney, was shown. The painting is in a good state of preservation. Other objects of interest and antiquity were also shown. The Church at Orton was next visited, and there Mr. Nicholson read an interesting paper on the parish registers. From here Petty Hall was inspected, and a paper on it was read by Mr. F. B. Garnett, C. B. The party next proceeded to Appleby, calling at the following places on the route: Stone Cross, Raisbeck, Sunbegin, British camp at Little Asby, Great Asby Hall, caves, and Rectory; Ormside Church, and other places. At the evening meeting the president (Mr. Ferguson) presided. もの
The president at this meeting was the author of a paper on "THE BEARS AT DACRE," which have been mentioned and described by several writers from Bishop Nicolson downwards. Nicolson says: "At each corner of the churchyard there stands a bear and ragged staff, cut in stone, which looks like some of the achievements of the honourable family which so long resided at the neighbouring castle." These figures have been the tops of pinnacles, and probably some time or other adorned the top of Dacre Church tower, or possibly the gateway or some part of Dacre Castle. They have been in their present position since Bishop Nicolson saw them in 1704, and possibly for a much longer period. Such pinnacles were not unusual.
M. Viollet-le-Duc says: "The decoration of religious and civil edifices present an infinite variety of fantastic animals during the period of the Middle Ages. The bestiaries of the twelfth or thirteenth centuries attributed to real or fabulous animals symbolic qualities, the tradition of which has long remained in the mind of the people, thanks to the innumerable sculptures and paintings which cover our ancient monuments; the fables come next to add their contingent to these bestial representations. . . . At Chartres, at Rheims, at Notre Dame in Paris, at Amiens, Rouen, Vezelay, Auxerre, in the monuments of the west and centre of France, are populations of quaint animals, always rendered with great energy. At the summit of the two towers of the Cathedral of Laon, the sculptors of the thirteenth century placed, in the open pinnacles, animals of colossal dimensions. At the angles of the buttresses of the portal of Notre Dame at Paris are to be seen enormous beasts, which, standing out against the sky, give life to these huge masses of stone. Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M.A., read a paper on "The Parish Registers of Orton (Westmorland).” Mr. E. F. Bell, of Carlisle, submitted a paper on the Carlisle Medals of 1745, of which he has a large and interesting collection. Amongst other papers submitted were the following: "Some Manorial Halls near Appleby," by Dr. Taylor; " Appleby Charters," by Mr. Hewitson; "The Hudlestones of Hutton John," by Mr. W. Jackson; "Domesticites of Hutton John," by Mr. Hudleston; "The Episcopal Seats of Carlisle," by Mrs. Ware; "The Baronies of Cumberland" and "Local Heraldry," by the president; "Mounds at Asby," by the Rev. Canon Mathews; "The Misereres in Carlisle Cathedral," by Miss R. and Miss K. Henderson; "Roman Roads in Westmorland," by the Rev. Canon Mathews; "The Dalston Transcripts of 1589-1590," by the Rev. J. Wilson; "Local Papism, 1688-1715," by the Rev. J. Wilson; "Knock and Dufton Pikes," by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S.; "A Book of Accounts belonging to the Parish of Stanwix," by the Rev. J. R. Wood; "Pre-Norman Cross Shafts at Bromfield and Workington, and the Cross at Rockliff," by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. "The Chained Books at Appleby Church," by C. A. Rivington; and the "Penrith Crosses," by Mr. G. Watson. Amongst other places visited on the second day were Bewley Castle, Redland's Roman Camp, Bolton Church, Kirkbythore Church, Hall and Camp, the Maiden Way, Howgill Castle, and Longmarton Church.
THE BRADFORD HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY had a most successful excursion on July 5. A somewhat hasty visit was paid, by kind permission of the Duke of Devonshire, to the Elizabethan mansion of Holker Hall, remarkable for its magnificent dark oak furniture and fine collection of pictures. Thence the party proceeded to Cartmel church, which affords good examples of the four leading styles of English church architecture; it was explained by Mr. R. J. Whitwell, of Kendal. The oak screens are well worthy of note, for they are of unusually late date, having been given to the church in 1620 by George Preston, of Holker, and are said to be of Flemish workmanship. In the vestry is a library of old books, one of the rarest being a medical black-letter
work in Latin, printed at Venice in 1491. In the north-west angle of the nave is a handsome altartomb, with an admirable likeness of the late Lord Frederick Cavendish. Mr. J. A. Clapham, the energetic hon. sec., is to be congratulated on the excellent illustrated programme of the day's proceedings that he issued to the members. The section of the Ordnance map of the district visited, reproduced on the last page, is a new and useful feature. It is a little comical, but perhaps not objectionable, to find the ménu of the dinner that the antiquaries partook of at Grange-over-Sands, in the midst of the programme. But antiquaries must feed, and on this occasion they certainly fed well.
The second summer excursion of the BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB for this season was made on the shores of Strangford Lough. The first halt was called at Balloo Crossroads, near Killinchy, where the party visited a fine old earthen fort or rath, which is still in a tolerable state of preservation. The surrounding fosse is of considerable depth, and a portion of the breast work which surmounted the steep earthen wall and protected the interior is still intact. Ringhaddy Castle, now joined to the mainland by a causeway, but formerly standing on an island, was explored, as well as the crumbling church of Ringhaddy, consisting of a simple nave. Surrounding the site of the church two faint circles of earthwork were traced, but it was the general opinion that they were of comparatively modern date, and probably connected with the boundary of an old churchyard. The party then proceeded by boats to Skitrick Castle, on the island of that name, the massive square keep of which guards the narrow causeway leading to the mainland.
We have received the second part of the seventh volume of the transactions of the Leicestershire ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. In addition to the formal matters, this number contains notes on the "Early History of the Family of Bainbrigge," by the Rev. J. H. Bainbrigge; an account of the Great Gateway of the Newarke, Leicester, by Colonel Bellairs, illustrated by three excellent plates of plans, elevations and details of the gateway; the interesting accounts of the Churchwardens of St. Mary's, Leicester, for the year 1490-91 ; a list of the Leicestershire Topographical Manuscripts in the British Museum; extracts from the Marriage Bonds of Leicestershire; and a continuation of the Parish Registers of St. Nicholas, Leicester, by Rev. T. W. Owen.
The LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY held their annual summer meeting at Shrewsbury on June 17 and 18. The first day was spent in visiting the antiquities of Shrewsbury; the splendid collection of Roman remains from Wroxeter; the recently discovered Saxon Church of St. Chad, the castle and St. Mary's Church exciting most attention. On the second day the members drove to the site of the old Roman city of Uriconium, to Haughmond Abbey, and to Battlefield Church. They also visited the churches of Atcham, Wroxeter, and Upton Magna, all of considerable interest.
The first part of the eleventh volume of the transactions of the CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND ANTIQUARIAN AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, edited by Chancellor Ferguson, well maintains the leading position of this association in the first flight of the provincial antiquarian associations. It opens with an illustrated article on Law Ting at Fell Foot, Little Langdale, by Mr. H. Swainson Cooper, F.S.A.; and the same gentleman contributes an interesting and well illustrated article on Hawkshead Hall. Another admirable illustrated paper is by Dr. M. Waistell Taylor, F.S.A., who writes on the halls of Blencow, Johnby, Greenthwaite, and Greystoke, under the heading of "Some Manorial Halls in the Barony of Greystoke." That most enterprising and versatile of antiquaries, the indefatigable editor and president of this society, Chancellor Ferguson, contributes the following illustrated papers : "Recent Roman Discoveries," 1889; the " Siege of Carlisle," 1644-5; and the "Seal of the Statute Merchant of Carlisle.' The Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., writes on parts of a British cross, and other early fragments found in Bromfield churchyard, as well as on various other pre-Roman fragments, profusely illustrated; the church bells in Leath Ward are continued by Rev. H. Whitehead; Dr. Barnes chronicles the various "Visitations of the Plague in Cumberland and Westmorland;" and Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., gives a valuable paper, with plans and sections, on "Mayburgh and King Arthur's Round Table." There are also various other short papers and accounts of excursions and proceedings. The society is to be much congratulated on so valuable, diversified, and well illustrated a number.
The first meeting of the season of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE was held on June 25 and 26 at Carlisle. At Carlisle, on Wednesday, the Dean of Carlisle and Chancellor Ferguson acted as guides to describe the cathedral and fratery, and to exhibit the vestments and other objects. Chancellor Ferguson then conducted the party to the city walls and to the castle, and the museum was afterwards visited. On the following day the "Written Rock" on the Gelt, Lanercost, was visited, where the remains of the priory_and monastic buildings were described by Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A.; the old church of Brampton and Naworth Castle were also visited.
The ST. ALBANS ARCHEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION made their annual excursion on June 16. Revs. H. Fowler and D. Davys, Hon. Secs., Dr. Griffith, and others started from Hertford in two brakes. The party went by Rush Green, St. Margarets, and Hunsdon to Moat House farm, and thence proceeded to the site of the supposed Eleanor Cross at Hadam, where Dr. Griffith made a short speech, in which he said he considered it the duty of the society to contradict the erroneous idea that an Eleanor cross had once existed on this site; and that the body of the Queen rested in the adjoining house. At the invitation of the Rev. Stanley Leathes, D.D., Hadam Church was visited, and described by Mr. Kinnier Tarte. Afterwards Mrs. Berry conducted the party over the palace and read a paper. At
Standon Church the Rev. H. R. Weatherall joined the party, and described the church, particularly the tomb of Sir Ralph Sadlier. Standon Lordship, the residence of Sir Ralph Sadlier, and now the property of the Duke of Wellington, was also described by Mr. Weatherall. At Youngsbury, Mr. C. J. Puller described the tumulus lately opened by him and the articles obtained from it. Thunderidge Church was to have been visited, but time did not allow it.
On June 28 the members of the LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY paid a visit to Oldham. Their first halt was at Werneth Hall, which from time immemorial has been the seat of the lord of the manor of Oldham. The original house is said to have been destroyed by fire in 1456. The present was probably erected about the close of Elizabeth's reign. Chamber Hall was next visited, the fabric of which dates back to 1640, but it has an historical record of over 600 years. The ancient ingle-nook in the farm-house portion of the hall was a special object of interest. Hathershaw Hall, an Elizabethan house, the home of the Sandiford family for many generations, was also inspected. Mr. Andrew acted as cicerone throughout the excursion. The July excursions of the society were as follows: July 12, Streatham Towers, Liverpool; leader, Mr. H. H. Sales. July 19, Ribchester, the camp, the old church, and Stydd chapel; leader, Mr. James Bertwistle, F.S.I.; and July 26, meeting at the Priory, Gore Street, Greenheys, to inspect Mr. Copinger's Biblical collection.
The SHROPSHIRE ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY held their annual excursion on Tuesday, July 8, the district selected being that part of the county known as Corvedale. The places visited were the old Saxon church of Stanton Lacy, with its Norman additions and old tombs supposed to be Lacy's; Heath Chapel, which is considered to be one of the most perfect specimens of early Norman architecture in the district; the camp on Nordy Bank, supposed by some to be British, but more probably a Roman military encampment; Corfham Castle, associated in English history with Henry II. and Fair Rosamond, of which the moat only now remains; Diddlebury Church, of Saxon foundation; and Culmington Church, mainly Norman and Early English, with (what is rare in Shropshire churches) a low side window. Short explanations were given at the various places by the Rev. Thomas Auden, F.S.A., the chairman of the council of the society.
The CARADOC FIELD CLUB held its second meeting on June 27 at Kinlet. Kinlet Church is transition Norman, and contains some good fifteenth and sixteenth century monuments of the Childes and Blountes. Billingsley and Quat Churches were also visited. At the first meeting on May 30, the club visited Leintwardine, and inspected the traces of the foss and vallum which once surrounded the Roman station of Bravinium, on whose site the village now stands. The church was also inspected, with its fine Mortimer chantry chapel, on the north side of the chancel.
On July 10 the twenty-fourth annual excursion of the YORKSHIRE ARCHEOLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION was made to Coxwold and Byland Abbey. It was a thorough success. The society was fortunate in securing Mr. St. John Hope, of the Society of Antiquaries (who knows more about old English abbeys than any half-dozen other antiquaries), to describe the abbey of Byland, which he did with his usual clearness and interest. The abbey is of an advanced Cistercian type, Kirkstall Abbey being an example of the normal. The cloisters were very large, with the conventual buildings grouped round them. We were delighted to hear Mr. Hope speak in terms of strong condemnation of the invasion of the ivy, which is here almost paramount. Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite gave an able description of the various unique features of Coxwold Church. Later in the day Mr. Leadman, F.S.A., described Newburgh Priory, the seat of Sir George Wombell, where there is a fine collection of Cromwell relics, together with a ridiculous legend as to the bones of Oliver Cromwell being in a walled-up chamber! The association is to be much congratulated on the "get up" and utility of the illustrated programme furnished to members by the hon. secretary, Mr. G. W. Tomlinson, F.S.A.
We have received the sixth part of the Quarterly Journal of the BERKS ARCHEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY, edited by Rev. P. H. Ditchfield. It is a good general number, though most of the articles are very brief.
Literary Gossip for Archæologists.
DR. SAUER will publish shortly the result of his researches on the two fronts of the Parthenon. He is now engaged in studying the façades of the Theseion, about which it is uncertain whether they contained representations in relief or were left blank.
Dr. Tomassetti, of Rome, by means of a hitherto unobserved fragment of inscription, is reconstructing the dedication of the ancient Temple of Castor and Pollux on the Roman Forum.
Mr. T. Wilson, the able secretary to the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archeological Society, proposes shortly to print and publish The Boke of Recorde of Kirkbiekendall, 1575, a manuscript volume in possession of the Corporation of Kendall. It will appear as an extra volume of the Society's series, and will be edited by the Chancellor of Carlisle.
We are glad to hear that the Inventory of the Church Plate of Leicestershire, by Rev. Andrew Trollope, is on the eve of publication. It is being brought out
by Messrs. Clarke and Hodgson, of Leicester, in two vols. demy 4to., at a subscription price of £1 IOS., which will be closed on publication.
We are glad of the opportunity of noticing the projected publication of a unique and interesting manuscript volume of the sixteenth century in lithographed facsimile. Mr. George Weddell, of 20, West Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, is about to bring out by this method-" Ye Apothecarie, His Booke of Recepts"-a manuscript volume, temp. Elizabeth, which was discovered some few years ago among the papers belonging to the old firm of Gilpin and Co., Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. To many noble and ancient families in the North of England its interest will be enhanced by the historic names appended to the recipes. The names include Cholmley, Slingsby, Fairfax, Lister, Sheffield, Fleetwood, Vavasour, Bellasis, Harcourt, etc. Mr. Weddell is inclined to think that the original or an early owner of the book was Mary Cholmley, daughter of Sir Henry Cholmley, of Whitby, who married Henry Fairfax, uncle of the great Lord Fairfax. Besides the purely medical bearing of the work, there is a portion devoted to such household matters as "To make cruddes and creame," ""A note howe to die blewe out of white,' and "To make usk-a-baughe." There is also 66 A note of Mrs. Barbara, her lessons on ye Virginalle," which includes compositions by Mr. Bird, organist to Queen Elizabeth, and by Dr. Bull, the reputed composer of the National Anthem. The volume will consist of about 180 pages of fcap. 4to. well bound, and, should 200 subscribers be found, will be supplied to them at 12s. 6d. ; but if the subscription should reach 300, it will be reduced to 10s. 6d.
Mr. Rupert Simms, of Newcastle, Staffordshire, is now nearing the completion of the long labour that he has spent over the Bibliography of Staffordshire. It is proposed to publish the work for subscribers in one volume imp. 8vo., at 21s. ; names to be sent to Mr. Lomax, Johnson's Head, Lichfield. The full and very long title, as given in the circular, explains the comprehensive intention of the work. "Bibliotheca Staffordiensis : : or a bibliographical account of books, tracts, pamphlets, sermons, poll books, and other printed matter relating, printed or published in, or written by a native, resident, or person deriving a title from any portion of the County of Stafford ; giving a full collation; biographical notices of authors and printers; and also the prices at which the rarer articles have been sold by public or private sale. Together with as full a list as possible of all prints, engravings, etchings, etc., of any part thereof; portraits of anyone connected with the county; and of oil paintings, drawings, and water colours, by any person, so connected with their present location. The same forming a complete index to all sources from which any information can be obtained relating to Staffordshire."
Mr. Treadwell Wolden has in active preparation two exhaustive and richly illustrated volumes on Westminster Hall. It will be issued by subscription at two guineas, orders to be sent to Mr. A. P. Watt, 2,
Paternoster Square. Judging from the names already received, the work seems likely to prove worthy of the importance of the subject.
Messrs. Field and Tuer announce London City: it People, Streets, Traffic, Buildings, and History, by Mr. W. J. Loftie, F.S.A., as in preparation. The subscription price is 21s. ; but it will be published at 42s. The prospectus is most attractive; the volume promises to be a really wonderful guinea's worth.
We understand that Mr. Walker, whose excavations at Lilleshall Abbey have been exciting some attention, has in view a history of that place, and is now making considerable researches at the Public Record Office. Dugdale gives but a meagre account of the Abbey. Lilleshall had, amongst other possessions, the church of St. Alkmund at Shrewsbury. Near that church, in Double Butcher Row, is an old half-timbered house still standing, which tradition points out as being the Shrewsbury residence of the Abbot.
A volume, illustrated with fifty-three woodcuts, is just about to issue from the press, which promises to be of much value to the heraldic and general antiquary; it is the Dates of variously shaped Shields, with coincident Dates and Examples, by Mr. George Grazebrook, F.S.A. Only 150 copies will be issued at 7s. 6d. ; subscribers' names to be sent to Thomas Brakell, printer, Dale Street, Liverpool.
Mr. F. A. Edwards, of Southampton, has just published in the Hampshire Independent, of which he is publisher, a bibliographical list of the Hampshire newspapers. The list, which includes a few papers not actually printed in the county, comprises over one hundred titles, and brings to light some curious journalistic information. Some papers, for instance, displayed a fondness for changing their names, a practice which, it would be thought, must have been very inconvenient. The Hampshire Chronicle was the greatest sinner in this respect, and this paper was also more than once mixed up in another inconvenient practice, when two papers of identical titles were published simultaneously. When, for instance, that paper, which was originally printed in Southampton, changed hands and was removed to Winchester in 1778, the former publisher started another Hampshire Chronicle in Southampton. A few years later the Winchester paper similarly usurped the title of the Salisbury and Winchester Journal, and in 1814 it adopted similar questionable tactics to combat the Hampshire Courier of Portsmouth. Evidently the copyright laws could not have been very severe then. Mr. Edwards invites additional information for this list, which has been prepared for a new edition of Mr. H. M. Gilbert's Bibliotheca Hantoniensis.
Reviews and Motices
of New Books.
[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as these notices are intended to be a practical aid to book-buying readers.]
CONSTRUCTION OF THE WONDERFUL CANON OF
LOGARITHMS. By John Napier, Baron of Merchiston. Translated from Latin into English, with notes, and a catalogue of the various editions of Napier's works, by William Rae Macdonald, F.F.A. William Blackwood and
This book of 169 pages is full of interest to the mathematician who is not indifferent to the history of the processes which he uses in his everyday work. It need scarcely be said that the introduction of logarithms gave an impetus to the common employ. ment of mathematics, which, perhaps, has never been exceeded by any other discovery, and "in this little book," writes his son and literary executor, Robert Napier, "you have most amply unfolded the theory of the construction of logarithms." We doubt if one out of every thousand who use logarithms ever heard of this "wonderful canon," or have an idea what it contains, and few still have any conception of the methods of calculation he employed. In the book under review we have a translation of the canon by Mr. Macdonald, whose copious notes are not the least interesting part to the mathematician. In his antiquarian researches he has been most happy, and has given us information which enables us to estimate Napier at a higher level than we did before.
The history of John Napier (Napier or Nepair, as the surname was sometimes spelt) is given in the preface, from which it appears that he was not only a mathematician, but a student of theology, whilst yet an undergraduate at St. Andrew's, and that thirty years later he published the results of his studies in a work entitled A Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St. John. This theological work went through numerous editions in English, Dutch, French, and German, 66 a proof of its widespread popularity with the Reformed Churches." The versatility of Napier's mind, the author says, is further evidenced by his attention to agriculture; the Merchiston system of tillage by manuring the land with salt is described by his eldest son, Archibald, who was subsequently raised to the peerage as Lord Napier of Merchiston. Another of the chief aids which he gave to mathematical science was the introduction of the decimal point, enabling fractions to be used with the same facility as whole numbers. The decimal point, we thus find, has had an existence of some 300 years-it is a unique thing that the introduction of such a small thing as a dot should have such a wonderful effect on the ease with which a science can be employed. We have often noticed that theology and exact science have frequently been closely interwoven in the same person, and that it is generally by the latter that his name is known. Napier is certainly no exception, for his name most certainly lives by his
introduction of logarithms. It should also be cherished for the invention of the decimal point.
The author has evidently taken an affectionate interest in the task he allotted to himself, and has done his work well. This volume is one which should find its way into the library of many scientific physicists, not only on account of its historical value, but also as explaining the elegant methods employed by Napier in working out his great discovery.-W. de W. Abney, C.B., F.R.S.
BLOOMSBURY AND ST. GILES. By George Clinch. Truelove and Shirley. Crown 4to., pp. xii., 220, with 24 full-page illustrations. Price 12s. It is not a little remarkable that the work now so well done by Mr. Clinch had not been previously attempted, but up to the time of the issue of this handsome volume, no account of the above-named parishes, which are full of historical and literary associations, had been published. The first two chapters deal with the history of St. Giles, relating to the foundation of the hospital for lepers in 110I, and its suppression by the iniquitous Henry VIII., with grant to Lord Lisle. The old church of St. Giles, pertaining to the leper hospital, was pulled down and rebuilt in 1623. But the new church got into decay, and the present fabric of St. Giles-in-the-Fields was built in 1731, as one of the fifty churches then erected at the public charge. The third chapter deals with the celebrated or remarkable characters that have been connected with the parish, from such names as Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Andrew Marvell, down to mere local notorieties, such as "old John Norris, the musical shrimp man. The fourth chapter opens with an account of the City gallows which used to occupy the space where Tottenham Court Road, New Oxford Street, High Street, Charing Cross Road, and Oxford Street now meet. This is followed by an account of the pound and cage, the stocks and whipping-post, and the fire engine, the chapter concluding with notes on old inns and alehouses, such as the Black Bear, the Crooked Billet, and the Hampshire Hog. An exhaustive account of the parochial charities comprises chapter five. The next chapter is chiefly occupied
with an account of Seven Dials and its literature. To Lincoln's Inn Fields and to Lincoln's Inn two other chapters are justly assigned.
The second section of the work describes Bloomsbury. The name had its origin from the family of Blemund or Blumund, who owned the manor early in the thirteenth century. It is chiefly celebrated for the British Museum, of whose history and description a good outline sketch is here given. Bloomsbury, too, as the west end of last century, is rich in associations with eminent literary and other celebrities, about whom Mr. Clinch has many pleasant particulars and anecdotes to record.