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porter of the baronial party, but in 1217 made his peace with the royal representatives (Rot. Litt. Claus., i, 274). In 1226, or four years after the marriage of his grandson, he was appointed one of the Justices Itinerant in Yorkshire (Ibid., ii, 138). He died in 1230 at the age of 71, and his son Robert, lord of Lund, having predeceased him, the ancestral estates and also the fief of Lund passed to his grandson Robert, already in right of his wife, lord of Kilton. All three fiefs, aggregating seven knights' fees (Percy Chartulary, No. 403, pp. 131-132). were held under the Percies, and the castle of Kilton becoming the capital of the combined fiefs, now entered upon the period of its greatest importance.

Immediately upon coming into possession of Kilton, Robert appealed to the Archbishop of York with reference to the disputed advowson of Kirkleatham. The Archbishop referred him to the Legate, the Legate to the Archbishop, the Archbishop to the Prior of Guisborough, and for some months these princes of the Church played an exasperating game of shuttle-cock with the young lord of Kilton.

Sir Robert possessed a full share of the great bodily strength, the physical beauty, and the wonderful charm of manner which for generations seems to have distinguished his house. “Juvenis elegans et miles strenuus,” says Matthew Paris of him (Chronica Majora, Rolls Edition, iii, 217). But he was like the rest of his race, hot-tempered and determined, and finding that he could obtain no satisfaction from the Legate, he was at length driven to desperation by the intrusion of a Papal nominee into his advowson of Kirkleatham. Gathering together a picked body of his retainers, and accompanied by several youths of his own age, he played havoc with the property of the Romish clergy who had, against the wishes of lay patrons, been installed in many benefices in the north of England. From Trent to Tweed these usurpers were visited, their houses and barns destroyed, and themselves maltreated. Assuming the nickname of “Will Wither,” he grew more daring as time went on, making ceaseless warfare on all connected with the Romish Curia, taking of their superfluity and giving liberally to the poor. When pressed, he would retire to his practically impregnable castle of Kilton, which was filled with rich goods taken from wealthy monastic houses. aisle at Staindrop (built in 1343 by ham and Northumberland Society, iii, Ralph, Lord Nevill), to which it was pp. 64-5, note). The wife of Sir Marmamoved on the destruction of the original duke de Thweng was probably an aunt south transept (Proceedings of the Dur- of this Isabel Nevill.

There is no evidence of any value that Robin Hood was ever more than a mere creation of the popular imagination, and it was probably the actions of such a man as the youthful lord of Kilton which led to the creation of this mythical personage. Sir Robert's exploits made him well-known throughout the whole of the north of England. The Legate, annoyed by the failure of his efforts to capture him, at length excommunicated Sir Robert, who at once appealed to the northern nobles.

The Lords Percy, Nevill, Fitz-Randolph, de Vesci, de Mauley, de Menyll, de Roos, and de Brus, with some twenty knights, assembled at Kilton Castle at the request of Sir Robert, who was formally appointed their accredited ambassador to the Pope. This meeting was probably one of the most important and picturesque events in the history of Kilton Castle. Sir Robert, armed with letters from all the leading northern nobles to the Pope, Gregory IX, undertook a journey to Rome, and as a result of an interview with His Holiness, the Papal Legate and the Archbishop of York received strict orders from Rome that in the future they should refrain from any interference with the rights of the lay patrons.?

So far as the advowson of Kirkleatham was concerned, we learn from Coram Rege, Hen. III, No. 35, M. 4, that it was formally restored to Sir Robert and Matilda his wife.2

i Canon Atkinson, in his History of (p. 339, vol. ii) he assigns the year 1257 Cleveland (note on page 266, vol. i), as the date at which we first hear of referring to Sir Robert de Thweng, Knt., a de Thweng of Kilton," although the the eldest son and heir of Marmaduke I, family had been in possession of the fief feudal baron of Danby, and the father from 1222. Being ignorant of the very of the notorious Lucia de Thweng, existence of Sir Robert de Thweng, the and the grandson of Sir Robert, the first husband of Matilda de Kylton, he, de Thweng, lord of Kilton, says :

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therefore, assigns the expedition to Rome “ Graves, in a note on p. 394 of his to his grandson Robert, who was never History of Cleveland, refers to the cir- patron of Kirkleatham Church, as he cumstance that a Robert de Thweng, died during the lifetime of his father. in the reign of Henry III-this Robert The Coram Rege, Henry III, No. 35, necessarily, then, on that ground as M. 4, gives the date of the restoration well as others—stirred himself in active of the advowson of Kirkleatham to the opposition to the aggressive conduct, Thwengs as January, 1229, or some in matters of Church patronage, of the twenty-six years before the birth of the Pope's Legate in England, Cardinal Otho, Robert to whom Atkinson attributes and eventually went to Rome, obtained the journey to Rome. an audience of the Pope, and finally let- 3 In Octabis S. Hillarii, 13 Henry III ters from His Holiness with instructions (Jan. 14-20, 1228-1229), Ebor. Michael, to the Archbishop of York and the Legate Prior de Giseburne, qui tulit breve de that for the time to come they should recto de jure advocationis de Ecclesia desist from the conduct complained of. de Lium versus Robertum de Tweynge, From this it would appear that Sir Robert Matill' uxorem ejus, venit per attornamust have been a man of action and tum suum, et petit licentiam recedendi influence, and it becomes even

de brevi suo, et habet, et concedit perplexing to account for the fact that praedicto Roberto et Matill' seisinam so little is heard of him in home or suam de praesentatione sua ad eandem national matters,"

Ecclesiam. Et ideo Robertus et Matill' Unfortunately, Canon Atkinson was habeant breve ad Archiepiscopum Ebor., ignorant of the early history of the Kilton quod non obstante reclamatione, etc. fief, for in his description of the castle (Coram Rege, Henry III, No. 35, M. 4).

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Sir Robert appears to have been the intimate personal friend of Peter, ist Baron de Mauley of Mulgrave, already mentioned as the enemy of Alta Ripa. In 1233, de Mauley, who had been given the custody of the royal castle of Devizes (Close Roll, 18 Hen. III, M. 31), appointed Robert to the post of constable of this castle, which office he appears to have held for three years, spending, perhaps, three months of the year at Devizes.

Lord Peter de Brus III married Hillaria, eldest daughter of Peter de Mauley I, and had issue five children. According to Dugdale and the Brus pedigree the marriage took place in 1237, when Hillaria would probably be about 20 years of age. The five children were born between that date and October, 1241, when Peter de Brus III died, and was interred in the south aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory.

Peter de Mauley the younger, eldest son and heir of Peter de Mauley I, had married a sister of Peter de Brus III,

the two families were very closely connected. In 1241, Peter de Mauley I left England for the Holy Land (Yorkshire Inquisitions, i, 12), and the barony of Mulgrave and the lordship of Doncaster passed to his son Peter, who became the second Baron de Mauley.

In 1242, Peter de Mauley II arranged with Sir Robert de Thweng that Marmaduke, Robert's eldest surviving son and heir, then 17 years of age, should marry his niece, Lucia, the second daughter of Peter de Brus III, who, at this time cannot have been more than two or three years of age. The custody of all the children had been given to de Mauley II, who, as the husband of Joan de Brus, was in a double sense the uncle of the orphans. In 1242, Sir Robert gave the whole of the Kilton fief, with the exception of the lordship of Hinderwell and the advowsons of the church of Kirkleatham and of the chapel of St. Peter, “infra castellum de Kilton,” to his son Marmaduke to dower Lucia de Brus (Coram Rege, Hen. III, No. 7, M. 7). Whether the marriage took place at once, the bride being some three years old, and the bridegroom between 16 and 17, is uncertain ; probably it was celebrated a few years later. However this may be, Robert, the eldest child of the marriage, was born and baptised at Kilton Castle in 1255, his mother being then between 15 and 16 years of age. The most probable date of the marriage is 1247, when Marmaduke, on the death of his father, entered into full possession of the whole of the Thweng property.

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In 1246, Adam de Seton—a descendant of a younger son of Adam de Kylton, to whom Adam had given, in subinfeudation, the manor of Seaton in the lordship of Hinderwell-appears to have claimed the advowson of the church of St. Hilda, at Hinderwell, as the male representative of Pagan Fitz-Walter (de Kylton). It was finally agreed that after the death of the then incumbent, John de Newark, the presentation should be alternate, Robert presenting the first (Pedes Finium Ebor., 25-30 Hen. III, No. 246).

Sir Robert died at the manor house of Thwing in 1247, at the age of 45, and was interred in the chancel of Thwing Church, where many of his family were buried. He had issue five sons, Robert, who died young ; Marmaduke, who succeeded him ; Richard, Thomas, and Gawen.

MARMADUKE, Ist feudal Baron de Thweng of Danby, eldest surviving son and heir of Sir Robert de Thweng, was born and baptised at Kilton Castle in 1225. As a boy of sixteen he became lord of the castle and of the Kilton and Kirkleatham portions of the Kilton fief-valued at three knights' fees—and subsequently married Lucia de Brus, second daughter of Peter de Brus III by his wife, Hillaria de Mauley. On his father's death in 1247 he inherited the whole of the Thweng property, which, according to the Percy Chartulary (No. 403), was valued at seven knights' fees. “ Lund, Thweng, Kilton, Thorpe, Lythum, etc., a tenir par les services de sept feez de chivaler.” He was, therefore, man of considerable importance, holding as much land as many a feudal baron in capite, and Kilton, as the capital of these fiefs, was necessarily a well-known castle at this time.

In 1257, he had a grant from King Henry III of free warren in the demesne lands of his manors of Thwing, Lyum, Kylton, Morsum, and Thorp; a market on Thursdays at his manor of Lund, with a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of All Saints (Nov. ist); a market on Wednesdays at his manor of Thwing, together with a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of the Translation of Saint Thomas the Martyr (July 7th); a market at his manor of Cotum on Wednesdays, together with a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of St. Laurence (August 10th). By his wife, Lucia de Brus (born 1240), he had issue :

Robert, eldest son and heir, born at Kilton Castle in 1255.
Marmaduke, afterwards first Parliamentary Baron de Thweng,

born at Kilton Castle, 1256,

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Hillaria, eldest daughter, born at Kilton, 1258.
Galivanus, third son, born at Kilton, 1259.
John, fourth son, born at Kilton, 1261.
Edmund, fifth son, born at Kilton, 1263
Matilda, second daughter, born at Kilton, 1265.
Richard, sixth son, born at Kilton, 1267.
Alicia, third daughter, born at Kilton, 1268.
Peter, seventh son, born at Kilton, 1270.
Johanna, fourth daughter, born at Kilton, 1271.
William, eighth son, born at Castleton, 1273.
Roger, ninth son, born at Castleton, 1274.
Margery, youngest daughter, born at Castleton, 1276.

Margery, named after her aunt, Margery or Margaret de Brus (who married Robert de Roos), became the second wife of Ralph, Lord Nevill of Raby and Middleham, who had married as his first wife Euphemia de Clavering. The manor of Faceby in Cleveland had, at the time of the Brus partition, been assigned to Margaret de Roos. On the death of her husband, Margaret was offered, and accepted, a home at Kilton Castle by her brother-in-law, Marmaduke, and she gave him this manor, valued at four-fifths of a knight's fee, on condition that it should form the dower of her niece, Margery. It remained in the possession of the Nevill family until the attainder of John Nevill, Marquis of Montague, temp. Edward IV.

“Margery de Thweng," says the Rev. Dr. Hodgson, of Witton-le-Wear, in a letter to the writer, “was buried at Well, where, in Dr. Whitaker's time, an inscription, much worn and mutilated, was to be seen on a black marble slab in the churchyard, which could only be referred to her, and none else (Richmondshire, ii, 82). Her effigy, however, still remains at Staindrop, and is a very interesting one, resting on the backs of six detached lions. It appears to have been always in the south aisle, built in 1343 by her step-son, Ralph, Lord Nevill of Nevill's Cross, as a chantry chapel for the souls of his parents, viz. his father, mother, and step-mother. It was no uncommon thing for the body to be buried in one place and to have an effigy in another."

In 1271, Marmaduke's brother-in-law, Peter de Brus IV. the then head of the great baronial house of Brus of Skelton, died without issue, and was interred in the south aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory. His barony, consisting of 30!

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