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possessed of the estate in 1438, or twenty-six years after Langley's edifice was finished and consecrated.
Comparing the south aisle and clearstory with those of the north, we see striking points of difference. The general style of the work (always excepting the porch) is Tudor, like the north side, but, unlike the north side, the south aisle is richly ornamented. The mullions of the north clearstory windows are flush with the outside face of the wall, but those of the south clearstory are set back inside the opening about one-third of the thickness of the walls. This is common in old churches.
Another difference between the north and south sides is the carving of the battlements. The merlons on the north have an ogee moulding running along their tops, but not continued round their sides, whereas those on the south have the mouldings mitred and returned, and carried all round the merlons and embrazures.
In the south chapel, adjoining the vestry, the windows are like those of the north chapel, of the elliptical or threecentre type. Still more significant, the east wall of the chapel is not bonded in with the south wall of the chancel, and the chapel parapet, instead of terminating on one of the piers between two of the clearstory windows, finishes up to the glass in one of the openings. Noticing this, I turned to see if the north chapel parapet did the same, and found that it was so, only not so high as on the south side, which is accounted for by the pitch of the roof being flatter.
The two chantry chapels may have been pulled down and rebuilt since the reconstruction of the nave, and evidence in the interior agrees with this idea. Canon Andrew suggested that the east wall of this south chapel may have been pulled down when the excavations were made for the vestry and rebuilt in its present style.
The ornamentation is confined to the lower parts of
the building, the parapets of the clearstory being quite plain. We cannot tell whether this was always so, because the appearance of the stonework shows that it has been renewed comparatively recently. I can find no record of the date when this was done, but probably it was a plain piece of work carried out by some of the eighteenth century wardens.
All the other windows of the south aisle, except the west one, are four-centre windows of three lights, each of them trefoiled, like the corresponding windows of the north aisles. Bearing in mind that the south sides of mediæval churches were generally more decorated than the north, we see no reason for supposing that the two aisles were the work of different men or done at different times.
The probability is that Ashton extended the north aisle at the same time as he did the south aisle. There is, however, a question whether the priest's door, leading into the Ashton Chapel, may not be an exception. This doorway, and the small window above it, are different from any other openings in the church. They are what has been called a "shouldered arch," from its fancied resemblance to the neck and shoulders of a man without head, though it cannot properly be called an arch at all, because it is flat at the head. The jambs are curved inwards near the top, and then carried straight upwards for a few inches, and then the opening is covered with a flat lintel. This kind of arch does not seem to have been confined to any one period or style, as Parker gives dated examples, ranging from 1120 to 1300,* and states that they are also to be found in very late work, so that they are no guides as to the date of a building unless the mouldings and ornaments upon them have some
* See note on page 26.