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audit, rudely written, and evidently the composition of men who were not adept penmen; but they are evidence that artizans in the 14th and 15th centuries knew how to keep and write an account. Bishop Stubbs, in his Constitutional History, points out that the bailiff of every manor kept his accounts in Latin. The schools of the Lollards, closed by the policy of Archbishops Arundel and Chichele, the latter the founder of All Souls' College, Oxford, and the wide distribution of the books and pamphlets of the Lollards, in spite of the attempts made to suppress them, are strong evidence of ability, general amongst all classes, to read these manuscripts.

When a villein became a free man his lord lost his services; in some manors, therefore, the lords endeavoured to prevent the sons of their unfree tenants from being educated, lest that they should take orders and so become free. Enfranchisement and the advantages, on occasion, of "benefit of clergy," must have increased the desire for education. The sixteenth article of the Constitutions of Clarendon, 1164, enacts that "the sons of villeins may not be ordained without the consent of the lords on whose land they are known to have been born." The Statutes of Labourers and Apprentices, passed after the great diminution of the population by the Black Death, also restricted their liberty; but a statute of Henry IV., passed in 1405, expressly provided that "every man or woman, of whatever estate or condition, shall be free to set his son or daughter to take learning at any school that pleaseth them within the Realm." Evidence of this difficulty is still extant. Professor Thorold Rogers, in his History of Agriculture and Prices, quotes from the accounts of the Manor of Wolrichston, in Warwickshire, the payment, in 1361, of a fine of five shillings, by Walter Martin, for the privilege of putting his eldest son ad Scholas; in the

same manor, in 1371, Stephen Sprot pays a fine of three shillings and fourpence that he may send his son Richard ad Scholas; and William Potter a fine of thirteen shillings and fourpence that his eldest son may go ad Scholas and take orders; at Rodestone, in 1261, there is a record of the expenses of "little Stephen," at Oxford, from Christmas to Easter, amounting to four shillings and threepence; at this date the only college founded at Oxford was University College, the first historical endowment of which dates from 1249.

The education of women was not neglected. The prioress in the Canterbury Tales had learnt French at "Stratford atte Bowe," and the wife of the miller of Trumpington in the Reeve's Tale, her "nortelry" in a nunnery. In the records of the commissioners of 1539, instances of girl boarders occur. It is stated that at St. Mary's Abbey for Benedictine nuns at Winchester, also known as Nunnaminster, there were twenty-six girl boarders" daughters of Knights, lords, and gentlemen ; similarly the Benedictine nunnery of Carrow, in Norwich, was a school for Norfolk. Professor Thorold Rogers also shows that it was the practice of country gentlefolk to send their daughters for education to the nunneries, and to pay a certain sum for their board. A number A number of such persons are enumerated as boarders at the small nunnery of Swyn, in Yorkshire. Only one roll of expenditure for this religious house survives in the Record Office, but it is quite enough to prove and illustrate the custom.

Dr. Furnival, in his preface to Manners and Meals in Olden Time, published by the Early English Text Society, says that a grammar master often formed part of the establishment of a great noble or prelate, who had pages of gentle birth living in his house for education. Mr. Rashdall also shows that a boy of well-to-do family

often received his earliest education from his father's chaplain, or a private tutor, or neighbouring priest employed to teach him. Cardwell, in his Documentary Annals, quoting the Injunctions of Edward VI., issued in 1547, whilst the chantries were being dissolved, gives the following clause : "That all chantry priests shall exercise themselves to teaching youths to read and write and bring them up in good manners and other virtuous


The need of education was felt at an early date all over Western Europe. Charlemagne, in 787, issued a proclamation requiring the clergy to receive the children of their parish, sent to them by their parents for that purpose, to be taught, and no fees to be exacted. He also himself founded large palace schools for the children of his courtiers, nobles, and others. Pope Eugenius II., at a synod held in 826, issued a decree that in all episcopal sees, and all other places where it is necessary, masters and doctors are to be provided, to teach letters and the liberal arts.

Mr. Leach, in his Educational Charters, quotes many decrees forbidding money to be paid for teaching, which was also forbidden by canon law; but the frequent repetition of the prohibition shows that the custom of taking money was common. In the later Middle Ages scales of fees were fixed by authority; instance, in 1477, the Bishop of Norwich fixed the quarterage" payable to the schoolmaster at Ipswich as tenpence for the grammar school; eightpence for the song school; and sixpence for the elementary school.

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The oldest existing English school is no doubt Canterbury; it was founded, in all probability, by Augustine, at least as early as 598, for Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, speaks of another school, founded in 631, after the fashion of Canterbury. Bede also

writes of the zeal for education of Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury from 668 to 690, of Abbot Hadrian, an African by birth, of Tobias, Bishop of Rochester, and of Abbot Albinus, the course of study including Greek, Latin, mathematics, and astronomy, as well as music and singing, and mentions schools during this century also at York and Rochester. The writings of Aldhelm and Alcuin show the further growth of schools in the next century.

The Danish invasions checked the spread of education, and a well-known passage in the preface to King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care, written about 893, says that the decay of learning and teaching amongst the English people, at the beginning of his reign, was so general, that there were few south of the Humber who could understand their services in English, or translate a letter from Latin into English; that the churches throughout England were filled with treasures and books that could not be understood; and that all the youth of English freemen, who are rich enough to be able to devote themselves to it, should be set to learning until they are well able to read English writing, and afterwards Latin.

The Life of King Alfred, attributed to Asser, but probably written at a much later date, gives some account of the education of his children; they read both Latin and Saxon books, and especially the Psalms and Latin poetry. Alfred is said to have devoted one eighth of his income to the school of boys of noble birth, and others, kept at his palace.

The canons of King Edgar, about 960, enjoin priests diligently to teach youth; and the decrees of a council, held about 994, ordain that priests shall keep schools in the villages and teach small boys free (gratis).

The celebrated Colloquy of Elfric gives an excellent

description of school life, and shows that boys of all classes were taught in the schools: ploughmen, shepherds, cowherds, hunters, fishermen, hawkers, chapmen, merchants, shoemakers, salters, bakers, as well as those intending to become clerics; apparently some of these were "half-timers;" for the boy in the Colloquy says: "I work very hard; I go out at dawn to drive the oxen in the field, and yoke them to the plough; however hard the winter I dare not stay at home for fear of my master; and having yoked the oxen and made the ploughshare and coulter fast to the plough, every day I have to plough a whole acre or more."

Abbot Elfric, or another Elfric, wrote the first English Latin grammar. In the preface he says that a grammar translated into English may help little boys; but his notions of prosody are unsound and peculiar; for instance, although the vowels of Deus and pater are short, they should be pronounced long, as a mark of reverence and respect. It is seen incidentally, from the sentences given as examples, that girls were also taught.

Abbot Samson, of Bury St. Edmunds, says that Canute was so pious and charitable, so great a lover of religion, that he established schools in the cities and boroughs and appointed masters to them, and sent to them to be taught grammar not only noble boys of good promise, but also the freed sons of slaves, maintaining them at the expense of the royal purse.

Mr. Leach shows, in his History of Warwick School, that some, at least, of the English schools were continued after the Conquest. In a charter of Henry I., it is commanded "that the Church of All Saints, Warwick, have all its customs, and the ordeals of fire and water, as well and lawfully as they used to have them in the time of King Edward (the Confessor), and of my father and brother, and have the school in like manner." There is

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