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RICH. III. unless created kings at arms. The heralds always take precedency acHeralds. cording to seniority, even though a junior one should be knighted, because they are a body corporate. Sir William Dugdale, Garter, remarks, that a younger herald, though a knight, doth nor precede his senior "in time, though no knight;" instancing the cases of Sir Henry St. George, knight, Richmond herald, and Sir Thomas St. George, Somerset herald, all the senior heralds preceding them after their knighthood, as they had done before, and continued so to do, until they were removed to the superior order of officers at arms, provincial kings.
King Edward III. founded this office, and it always was a favored one by his successors.
Edw. IV.-RICHARD SLACKE, Esq.-See next reign.
This office, it is generally allowed, was founded by Richard III., who had been Earl of Carlisle.
CHRISTOPHER CARHILL, Esq.
Created, says Weaver, Faucon and Rouge-croix pursuivants, and afterwards Richmond herald, by Edward IV. He mistakes his baptismal, and No such office gives the name of this office for that of his family one. appears as Richmond herald at Edward IV.'s funeral, which, though no absolute proof, is a presumption, that Edward had no such herald at the time of his death. The best writers are extremely confused in all their relations.-See next reign.
When There had long been regal heralds who bore this name. Richard II. created Cheshire a principality, he made John, Chester herald: Henry IV. repealed the grant. Henry V., when Prince of Wales, had such an herald: upon his accession to the crown, he appointed him a regal officer of arms. It was Chester herald, who, July 24, 1415, demanded the kingdom of France.
Edw. IV. ROGER STAMFORD, Esq.
Created Guisnes and Rouge-croix pursuivants, and Chester herald, by Edward IV., and is said to have died soon after. He bore, Gules, a St. Andrew's cross, varry, Argent and Azure, four Lions' faces, Or. Perhaps his name is mistaken for that of his successor..
Rich. 111-ROGER BROMLEY, Esq.
Whom Weaver says was created Faucon and Blue-mantle pursuivants by Edward IV., and promoted from the latter by that monarch. He bore, Ermine, three shields sable. I am inclined to think, that Richard III. found this herald at Chester; but whether he died, resigned, or was removed, is uncertain.
Rich. III.-THOMAS WHITING, Esq.
It is very evident, from a note of the elder Anstis, Garter, that this person was Chester. He says he had been so in Edward IV.'s reign: if so, the two former ones never were so in this. Anstis says, that he had been Nusills or Nusilis pursuivant, and was created Chester, and continued this place under Richard III., who, December 18, in his first year, granted him, by the advice of his privy council, a new patent for life, with a salary of twenty marcs issuing from the duchy of Cornwall. I have given these names, that it may be seen how difficult it is to know the succession of the heralds at this time: how much more in the preceding reigns. It is observable, that Anstis is the only person who mentions this herald; and yet nothing is more certain, than that he lived in this reign, and that he became very conspicuous in the next; which see.
This, as may well be supposed, was a favorite title with the princes of the white-rose branch of the Plantagenets. Mr. Edmondson it was first created as an heraldic name by Richard III.; but perhaps Lant is more accurate, in giving Edward IV. as founder, in favor of Henry Ffranch or Franke, who had been Comfort and Blue-mantle pursuivants.
Edw. IV.-THOMAS HOLLINGSWORTH, Esq.
He succeeded Ffranch, and had been Rose-blanch and Blue-mantle pursuivants. He bore, Azure, a bend argent, three leaves slipped, vert. Whether he died in this office, resigned, or was deprived, does not appear.
1483.-JOHN WATERS, Esq.
Weaver calls him John Walters, and says he was created Rose-blanch by Edward IV., and Rouge-croix by Richard III. He was in great estimation with the latter, who, upon the attainture of the Duke of Buckingham, granted him the manor of Bayhall, in the parish of Penbury in Kent, of the then value of one hundred shillings, but which, upon the accession of Henry VII., reverted to Edward Duke of Buckingham, son and heir of the preceding nobleman. York had also an annuity of £8. 6s. 8d. issuing out of the lordship of Huntingfeld in Kent, both of which were given him as a reward for his services to Richard, " his pre"decessors and ancestors." He retained this post under Henry VII.—See next reign.
As Leicester had been an earldom belonging to Henry IV. when a subject, he created Henry Grene, Leicester herald, a king at arms, and gave him for his province the south of England. He is mentioned at the coronation of Henry V., and as attending that Sovereign into France in his third year; but not in the constitution of Roan, in 1419-20, nor as being at the coronation of his Queen; so that in him the office of Leicester king at arms expired. Mr. Edmondson is of the same opinion. There were, however, Leicester heralds after Grene's death: Edward IV. had such an herald, and retained an officer of that name until his death, as one attended his funeral. Henry IV. and V. had also Derby and Hereford heralds, so created in remembrance of the former having had earldoms of those names before his accession.
Who the herald bearing the name of Leicester was, at Richard III.'s accession, is not, perhaps, possible to learn, unless it was,
RICHARD WATKINS, Esq.
Attainted with John Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and others, in 1485, as partizans of this Sovereign. He is called "Herrault at Armes." I presume he was a regal, not a ducal one.
This heraldship was anciently written Faucon. The falcon was a badge of Edward III., who had an officer of that name, but whether king, herald, or pursuivant, authors are not agreed. Richard II. had Falcon king at arms in the reign of Edward IV. the office was fallen to that of an herald. This monarch gave special commandment to his younger son, Richard, Duke of York, to take for his badge a falcon argent, within a fetter-lock open, or. It is well known, Edward's grandfather took the fetter-lock closed as his badge, but told his family, that when they came to enjoy the regal honors, their just rights, to use it open. No such officer as Falcon appears at Edward IV.'s funeral. Richard Champney, Esq. Gloucester king at arms, has, by some, been thought to have been Falcon herald; but it is evident he never was a regal one, having been raised from a ducal one to be king at arms. It is, in my opinion, doubtful, whether Richard had an herald who bore this name..
Besides these heralds, Edward IV. had several others, whose names I here subjoin, though perhaps not all at the same tune: Lancaster, Hereford, Richmond, Ravendon. Mr. Edmondson says, Windsor had been vacant since his eighteenth year, and remained so, until revived by Henry VII.; but in this respect I think him mistaken. Lancaster was discontinued by Edward, as was Hereford, probably because they were names belonging to the red-rose branch of the Plantagenets. If Richmond survived Edward, it is probable Richard changed the name. Ravendon, "Herald of Scotland," offered the helmet at the magnificent funeral of Richard Duke of York, when his son, Edward IV., with pious care, conveyed his remains to Fotheringay, in July, 1466. As our ancient monarchs claimed the kingdoms of France and Scotland, they never deigned to call the princes upon those thrones otherwise than their adversaries of France and Scotland, even in their negotiations with them in times of peace; and when at war they always challenged their crowns. wonder, therefore, as the King of Scotland had been the partizan of the Lancastrians, that Edward IV. should affect to have a Scotch herald; but this office seems to have become extinct some time before his death, and was not revived, owing probably to greater amity having arisen between the sovereigns of the two kingdoms in the latter part of his reign. It is
It is no
RICH. III. singular, that we have many instances in this and foreign countries, where heralds were in other states, having some employment in great solemnities. Probably it was thought a compliment to ask, and an honor to accept assistance in such cases.
The word pursuivant, or poursuivant, is derived from the French poursuivre, to pursue. They who had this office were formerly public messengers, to attend upon the Sovereign in his wars, at the council table, and in the Exchequer, as well as to be sent upon civil commissions, or to apprehend criminals of state. The pursuivants in France had generally their names from some supposed qualification of the mind, expressive of fidelity, as Jolicoeur, Verluisant, Santmentir, &c.; in England we have not been without some instances of the kind: now they are christened or named from such badge or cognizance which they used to wear upon their tabard. They were formerly divided between pursuivants ordinary and extraordinary: the latter were generally called after some town or castle in our transmarine dominions, but sometimes from places in England; others from the cognizances of our Kings. They had used to rise gradually from extraordinary to ordinary pursuivants, and they were to be seven years pursuivants, before they could become heralds. Usually every king at arms begins as a pursuivant: peculiar merit, or great interest, sometimes gets this dispensed with, as it more frequently does a seven year's probation. The office of pursuivant makes them gentlemen, and consequently intitles them to armorial bearings, if they have no family coat. Their tabards are less ornamented than those of heralds: instead of sceptres they bear staves. Within these two last centuries their number is much lessened. The ordinary ones are limited to four: there are seldom any extraordinary ones appointed. Of the former, there probably were only two in Richard's reign, Rouge-croix and Blue-mantle: Henry VII. added Portcullis and Rouge-dragon.
This name is borrowed from the color of St. George's cross. nation formerly assumed a peculiar color for their cross, the common badge