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port and ornament of literary men, with an easy suavity of manners and a conspicuous candour of disposition he endeared all who were related to him. And what thou may'st wonder at, traveller, in this condition of the State, and in most difficult times, neither injuries, imprisonment, flatterers, nor threats, drove him astray. He always adhered to the point of constancy, faith and conscience. Not unequal to public affairs, which he most discreetly conducted in a way to equal all fame. He so cherished the poor, he was so indulgent to his servants, he so sacredly respected his conjugal duty and his modest wife, that he was, though childless, truly the father of a family. With elegance, good cheer, and hospitality he was accustomed freely and soberly to entertain his friends. So warm a worshipper of the Deity that he shone a great example in this cold age. Since the pillar of his country, for so he was esteemed when living, is dead, all malice and impotent envy may subside. His most afflicted wife raised this monument to her excellent and everbeloved husband, by whose side, after her death, she wishes, desires and intends to be placed."

Elias Ashmole, who was his friend, says in his "Berkshire" that there were on the marble gravestone lying over the body of Sir John several trophies, and that on the south wall of the chancel hung the atchievements carried at his funeral, "A standard1 of England with his crests and motto; a Penon2 of his own coat; another of Backhouse impaling Henshaw; a third Backhouse quartering Saltheld (Salkeld) and impaling Henshaw; and on the east wall hung his Target, Coat of Arms and Crest, and near unto them a Guidon1 of the Order of the Bath." Of these atchievements only the Coat of Arms and crest remain, and they are now in Swallowfield Church in the Russell Tribune. The Coat of Arms is ensigned with a Knight's helmet placed affronté with a visor or beaver, which is raised, shewing the lining within. Sir John's crest was an eagle displayed on a

'The Standard was an elongated flag, its length being according to the rank of its owner. The field composed of the livery colours only, the crest and motto of its owner being exhibited.

'The Pennon was a small narrow flag usually affixed to the end of a lance, from which, when in actual use, it depended; and the charges thereon were so emblazoned as to appear correctly when the lance was held in a horizontal position.

3 The Target was the shield, which was borne on the left arm.

▲ The Guidon, or Gonfannon, was a banner bordered with fringe or twisted

snake embowed, its tail nowed. His arms Or, a saltire ermine, and his motto "Sic Juvat."

Sir John's widow, Flower, survived him little over two years. Ashmole, in his Diary, says she died on the 12th August, 1652, and was buried at Swallowfield. There is a black marble slab on the north wall of the Russell Tribune, immediately below her husband's monument, with a Latin inscription on it, which says that "she was the only wife of John Backhouse, with whom she lived in wedlock forty years, modestly, affectionately, meekly, happily, unless that it was unfruitfully, after whom she remained, not lived, two years, and rendered her soul to God in the year of Salvation 1652, of her age 62."

In the Herald's Visitation of Berks, 1664, it is stated that this Flower, Lady Backhouse, "re married Henry Smith, alias Neville, of Holt, in coun. Leicester, Esq." This, I think, is obviously an error, though it is repeated in most of the Backhouse pedigrees. Probably it was her neice Flower, the daughter of Nathaniel Henshaw, who made this marriage.

He was

Sir John Backhouse dying without issue, and his two brothers Nicholas and Samuel having also died childless, he was succeeded by his youngest brother, William Backhouse, who was born at Swallowfield in 1593, so that he was 56 years old when he became its owner. Of all the persons bearing the name of Backhouse, this William was by far the most famous. sent to Oxford in the year 1610, in the 17th year of his age, when he became a commoner of Christ Church, but left it without a degree. There is extant a curious M.S. written to him about this date by John Blagrave, the celebrated astrologer and mathematician, who lived at Southcot, Reading, and had also a house at Swallowfield and land at Eversley.* It is not improbable that it was this and similar communications that induced William Backhouse to enter into the study of the Rosicrucian Philosophy. He became ultimately, to quote from Wood's Athence Oxonienses, "a most renowned Chymist and Roscicrucian, and a great encourager of those that studied chymistry and astrology."

1647. He awakened similar tastes in the mind of his friend, Elias Ashmole, who settled at Englefield in 1647, and soon after William Backhouse's succession to Swallowfield, they appear to have been in constant communication.

* These he left to Joseph Blagrave, of Reading, also an astrologer, who died in 1679.

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1651. In Ashmole's Dairy there are numerous allusions to William Backhouse, of which I give the following, commencing in 1651: "April 3rd, Mr. William Backhouse, of Swallowfield, in county Berks, caused me to call him father henceforward. April "26th. My father Backhouse brought me acquainted with the "Lord Ruthin who was a most ingenious person.† June 10th. Mr. "Backhouse told me I must now needs be his son because he had "communicated so many secrets to me. October 7th. My father "Backhouse and I went to see Mr. Goodier, the great Botanist, "at Petersfield.‡ February 10th. This morning my father Back"house opened himself very freely touching the great secret. February 13th. My father Backhouse lying sick in Fleet Street, over against St. Dunstan's Church, and not knowing whether he "should live or die, about 11 of the clock told me, in syllables, the "true matter of the Philosopher's stone, which he bequeathed to me as a legacy." William Backhouse did, however, recover from this illness, and lived for nine years after.

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1662. He died at Swallowfield, May 30th, 1662, aged 69, and was buried there on June 17th. Aubrey, in his "Miscellanies," says "William Backhouse had an ugly scab that grew on the middle "of his forehead which had been there for years, and he could not "be cured; it became so nauseous that he would see none but his "intimate friends. In a journey having come to Peterboro', he "dreamt there, that he was in a church and saw a hearse, and that "6 one did bid him wet his scab with the drop of the marble. The "next day he went to morning service, and afterwards going about "the church, he saw the very hearse (which was of black say) for

Queen Katharine, wife of Henry VIII., and the marble stone by. "He found drop on the marble and there were some cavities, "wherein he dipt his finger and wetted the scab in seven days it was perfectly cured. This accurate and certain information I had "from my worthy friend Elias Ashmole, Esq., who called Mr. "Backhouse father, and had this account from his own mouth. May Dew is a great dissolvent."

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† Sir Thomas Ruthven of Freeland, created Baron Ruthven this year by Charles II., was a great chemist.

Elias Ashmole had made a special study of Botany when living at Englefield, and became a great Botanist.

(To be continued.)

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NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Communications are invited upon all subjects of Antiquarian or Architectural interest relating to the County. All Literary Communications should be sent to the EDITOR, Barkham Rectory, near Wokingham, written on one side only of the Paper.

It is requested that all MSS intended for printing should be written on foolscap paper, in an orderly manner, with REPLIES, QUERIES, and NOTES on SEPARATE SHEETS, and the name or initials of the writer appended to each communicatian.

Notes.

MONUMENT IN BINFIELD CHURCH TO MRS. MACAULAY-GRAHAM.-All visitors to Binfield Church must have been struck with the above monument, which is fastened to the south wall of the Church on the left-hand side as you enter the south door. It is a fine slab of white marble, having at the top a medallion portrait of Mrs. Macaulay-Graham, surrounded with a laurel wreath. Beneath is the following inscription :

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CATHARINA MACAULAY GRAHAM,
Obiit Junii 22, 1791.

Moerens conjux posuit.

I am ashamed to say that until I saw this tablet last year I had never heard of Mrs. Macaulay-Graham before. On my return home I looked at Lyson's Berkshire to find out who she was. But all he tells us is that she was "the celebrated female historian Catherine Macauley, who, after her marriage with a second husband, called herself Macauley-Graham." He adds that she "died, in 1791, at Binfield, where she resided during the latter part of her life.” The new Dictionary of National Biography omits her life under the name Graham and promises us one under the heading Macaulay. But at present the Dictionary has only advanced midway in names beginning with the letter H.

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The account of this "celebrated female historian" in the Biographe Universelle is somewhat meagre; and inaccurate in regard to the place of her death, if, as is likely, she died where she was buried, at Binfield. It does not state her maiden name, but only says that "she was born in 1733, at Ollantigh, in the county of Kent. She received a solitary, but careful education, and in 1760 married Dr. Macaulay, a London physician, and three years after she published the first volume of a History of England from James I. to the Revolution, which brought her name into prominent notice. In 1777 she made a journey to Paris, where, amongst other celebrated personages, she made the acquaintance of Franklin, Turgot, Marmontel, and Madame Dubocage. In 1788 she made a voyage to America, and resided for three weeks in Washington's house at Mount Vernon in Virginia. She had married a second time in 1778 Mr.

Graham, and died at London in 1791. Her principal works are: History of England from the coming of James I. to the elevation of the House of Hanover, 8 vols., 4to., which appeared in 1763-1783. The French translation, of which 5 volumes have appeared under the name of Mirabeau, is by Guirandet; Remarks upon the Elements of Government and of Society, by Hobbes, appeared in 8vo., in 1767; Detached Remarks on some Assertions of Hobbes, 4to., 1769; Reflections on the Causes of Actual Discontents; History of England from the Revolution to the Present Time." So far the Biographie Universelle. In Darling's Cyclopædia of Authors I find Catherine Macaulay-Graham (p. 1299) credited with the authorship of "A Treatise on the Immutability of Moral Truth."

Mrs. Macaulay evidently formed one of that numerous circle who in the early days of George the III.'s reign adopted strong Republican views in opposition to the Court party who were ready to support the young King in his endeavours to resuscitate Personal Government in place of Constitutional Monarchy. And she is often alluded to and mentioned by name in the Political Satire of the period, which was poured forth abundantly against the King. Sir George Trevelyan quotes the following passage in his Early History of C. J. Fox (p. 137):

"Of vice the secret friend, the foe professed;

Of every talent to deceive possessed;
As mean in household savings, as profuse

In vile corruption's scandalous abuse;
Mentally blind; on whom no ray of truth

E'er glanced auspicious e'en in bloom of youth.

What though inimitable Churchill's hearse
Saved thee from all the vengeance of his verse,

Macaulay shall in nervous prose relate

Whence flows the venom that distracts the State."

Sir George does not name the author of these verses, but says they were given to the world in 1770.

Peter Pindar too in the Lonsiad describes George III.'s astonishment on seeing the Lonse as follows:—

"Not more astonished look'd that King of Spain

To see his gun-boats blazing on the main ;

Not Dr. Johnson more, to hear the tale

Of vile Piozzi's marrying Madam Thrale ;

Nor Doctor Wilson, child of am'rous folly,

When young MacClyster bore off Kate Macaulay."

Peter Pindar's Works, vol. 1, p. 157.

In his Expostulatory Odes (No. xiv. Works, vol. 2, p. 78) the same author

refers to Mrs. Macaulay's Republican opinions :—

"You think I loathe the name of King, no doubt-

Indeed, my lords, you never were more out :

I am not one of that envious class of elves;

Though dame M'Auley turns on Kings her tail;
With great respect the sacred names I hail,

That is, of monarchs who respect themselves."

Dr. Wolcot's allusions to Mrs. Macaulay are somewhat equivocal and scornful; but her political admirers of that day were unequivocal in her praise.

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