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injurious effects thereof, and even in some cases guarding against destruction by fire; which can be used with great advantage and economy, especially in all things that are wanted to be made water tight, in all edifices and constructions in which stone, wood, timber, earth, or metal, is employed; for vessels, steamers, steam and other engines, cordage, various tissues and textures, leather, and in general for materials used in various arts and manufactures. And in order to enable persons skilled in the arts, to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe the materials employed therein, the mode and process of its composition, and its application.
The bases consist in all substances that are combustible, and not metallic compounds, such as bitumen, asphaltum, pisasphalt, maltha. mineral caoutchouc, and products obtained from the distillation of fossil coal.
Formula I. Of the substances above described as bases, particularly bitumen, put any given quantity into the boiler of a still, prepared for the purpose; lute the apparatus, and heat it in such manner that the essential oil and water embodied in the bitumen shall, during the process of evaporation, be condensed by the cold water contained in the condenser, or cooler, of the worm; and at that point when the distillation produces only a few drops of liquid, sift the material which remains in the boiler through metallic cloth, or sieves, placed over a vessel of sufficient capacity, and containing water to prevent adhesion to the bottom, or sides; when it has been reduced to a temperature equal to fifty, or sixty, degrees centigrade, (122 to 140 Fahrenheit,) take the material out of the water, and mould it into lumps.
Formula II.-To the material prepared as per formula No. I, add from one to twenty-five per cent. of protoxide of lead, or of any other oxide, and you will obtain a substance more, or less, inflammable, according to the proportion of oxide which may have been used and fused together.
Formula III.-To the material prepared as per formula No. I, add from one to one hundred per cent., or more, of grease, or adipose, matter, and you will obtain a product more, or less, friable in proportion to the greater, or less, quantity of adipose matter used.
Formula IV. To the material prepared as per formula No. I, add from one to one hundred per cent., of siccative oil, especially of linseed, and as much caoutchouc, or gum elastic, or mucilage, and you will obtain a paint, or pigment, peculiarly adapted to various textures, tissues, cloths, paper, &c., and leaving them perfectly flexible.
Formula V. To make black varnish of great beauty, you must, after heating the bitumen until it has become liquid, sift it through very fine metallic sieves previously heated, and then add from one to one hundred per cent. of resin, or of resinous gum of any sort, then put the bitumen, thus prepared, over the fire, and leave it so until the essential oil and water contained therein shall be evaporated, then add spirits of wine, or oil of turpentine, or other of the same nature, until the whole be of proper thickness for use.
Sealing wax of great beauty can be obtained by following this
(the VIth) formula, saving the addition of spirits of wine, or essential oil, which must be omitted.
This product mixed with saw, or marble, dust, or sand, or with the filings, or oxides of metals, &c., will answer to make walls, statues, vases, terraces, &c.
In all cases in which it is desired to give this product more, or less, flexibility, there may be added, besides resin and resinous gum, wax, and especially from one to thirty per centum of sulphur.From the essential oil produced by the distillation of bitumen, there is obtained naphtaline in greater quantity, and of purer quality than by the distillation of tar, or pitch.
What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by letters patent, is the combination of the materials prepared as per formula. No. I, named in the foregoing specification, and other known substances of the same nature, with the various ingredients therein referred to, or other known substances of the same character, according to the different formulas set forth.
List of American Patents which issued in the month of October, 1841, with Remarks and Exemplifications. By CHARLES M. KELLER, Examiner of Patents.
1. For improvements in the machine for combing and preparing Wool, Flax, &c.; Francis A. Calvert, Lowell, Massachusetts, October 9.
The patentee says, "My first improvement consists in the manner in which I arrange the teeth around the revolving table, or disk, so as to cause the teeth to rise in a line with the periphery, or so that the circle generated by the revolution of their points, shall not be smaller than that of the periphery of the disk. My second improvement is in the manner of furnishing the combing cylinder, which I use instead of the wire teeth combing wheel employed by Wright & Hawkesley, and of the brush, or wire teeth, used by William W. Calvert. My third improvement is in the using of an endless belt above the combing cylinder, for the purpose of cleaning the fibres from the teeth of said combing cylinder, and of laying them in such manner as that they shall be ready to be received upon the teeth of the revolving disk. My fourth improvement consists in the causing of a current of air, or of steam, to be blown upon the fibres of wool, or other material, as they are delivered from the combining cylinder to the toothed disk, in order to prevent the hanging down of any of said fibres below the teeth, by which they would be prevented from being properly combed, and also in directing a similar blast in a horizontal direction against the combing cylinder, to prevent the fibres from lapping around said roller, and to lay them close on to the combing cylinder. My fifth improvement is the substituting for the apparatus called the universal sweeper in William W. Calvert's machine, a blast of air, or of steam, which is directed on to the fibres as
they are about to pass from the revolving disk to the drawing rollers, thus causing them to be perfectly taken up by said rollers."
Claim. "First, I claim, in combination with the combing cylinder of the machine herein described, the so arranging of the vertical teeth around the periphery of the revolving disk, as that the circle generated by the revolution of their points, shall not be less than that of the periphery of the disk, thereby avoiding the forming of a shoulder which will interfere with the near approach, and advantageous action of the combining cylinder, as set forth. Secondly, I claim forming the teeth of the combining cylinder of plates of metal, instead of from wires, inserted into a metallic strip, as heretofore practiced; said metallic plates being attached to the cylinder by screws, or kerfs, in the manner described, or in any similar manner which will avoid the formation of a shoulder, which has a tendency to become clogged, and thus interfere with the action of the machine. Thirdly, I claim the combining with the combing cylinder in a machine for combing wool, flax, &c., an endless belt made to revolve above said cylinder, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. Fourthly, I claim the blowing of a current of air, or of steam, in a vertical direction, through a flat tube, situated immediately below the point of action, between the revolving disk and the combing cylinder, for the purpose and in the manner set forth. Fifthly, I claim the employment of a similar tube and current directed horizontally over the top of the upper feeding roller, and against the combing cylinder, for the purpose made known. And sixthly, I claim the directing of a current of air, or of steam, against the combed fibres as they are passing from the revolving disk to the drawing rollers, for the purpose of elevating such portion of said fibres as might not otherwise be duly taken in between said rollers; the whole being constructed and operating substantially as described."
2. For an improvement in the Pump for raising liquids; Henry Rogers, Auburn, Cayuga county, New York, October 9.
The object of this improvement is to enable one pump to serve for the raising of several kinds of liquid from a cellar, or other apartment, containing barrels, or other reservoirs, having in them the several kinds of liquid which are to be raised and delivered in a store, bar-room, or other place. The body of the pump consists of a metallic cylinder of such capacity as may be required, and this is to be furnished with a piston, the rod of which extends downwards through the lower end of the cylinder, and is worked by a lever under a counter, or in any other convenient situation. From a head, or cap, on the upper end of the cylinder descends a number of tubes which are to pass through the floor, and are to be connected respectively to the barrels, or other vessels, from which the liquors are to be raised. In the centre of the cap from which the respective tubes proceed, there is inserted a spigot, or key, which is to be turned like that of a common cock, and which, by the position it is made to occupy, will determine the kind of liquor to be drawn, and will direct its discharge into the vessel which is to receive it.
Claim. "What I claim as new, is the manner in which I employ a revolving key, or spigot, made tubular at its lower end, and having a slot, or opening, through it, so that said slot may be made to coincide with either of several openings in the socket, within which it revolves; said openings, with the exception of one of them, being connected by a tube with an appropriate reservoir, and, the one above excepted, being connected with a discharge spout; the whole apparatus being constructed, arranged, and operating substantially as herein described."
3. For an improvement in the Screw Press, and in the apparatus for separating Elaine from Stearine; Richard Jones, Circleville, Pickaway county, Ohio, October 9.
This "improvement in the screw press consists in attaching to the shaft of the screw a scroll, or fuzee wheel, to the larger end of which scroll, or fuzee wheel, one end of a rope, or chain, is to be attached, and after being wound around said scroll wheel, or fuzee, the other end of said rope, or chain, may be attached to a windlass, or to a second scroll wheel made to operate as a windlass, or the rope may be passed over a pulley, and be drawn upon by a weight affixed to its end."
Claim. "What I claim as new, is the combining of the scroll, or fuzee, wheel with the screw, by placing the former on the shaft of the latter, and employing it in the manner, and for the purpose set forth. I do not claim the use of a scroll, or fuzee, wheel, as applied to a press, for the purpose of obtaining a progressive increase of power, this having been before done; but I do claim the direct application thereof to the shaft of a screw, as set forth. I likewise claim the manner in which I use alternate plates of solid and of perforated metal, between the packages of lard, tallow, &c., in the trough, so as to provide spaces between each pair of plates, for the ready escape of the elaine as described."
The principal object of the above press is for the separation of stearine from elaine; and the last section of the claim is to a mode of arranging the tallow, or lard, in the box of the press.
4. For an improvement in the Floating Dry Dock; Daniel Dodge, and Phineas Burgess, New York City, October 9.
This is for an improvement in that kind of docks known under the appellation of the sectional floating dry dock, and consists in connecting the machinery employed in moving the end floats in all the sections together, by means of universal and extension joints, that the distance between the sections may be varied without breaking the connexion of the shafts.
Claim. "It will be remembered that we have described parts. which have long since been used in floating dry docks, and that, therefore, we do not claim them as our invention, but what we do claim, and desire to secure by letters patent, is the method herein described, of moving the end floats in all the sections, with the same
degree of velocity, so as to insure an equal strain upon all the parts of the vessel, to be raised by connecting the main shafts on all the sections, on each side, by universal and extension joints, substantially as herein described."
5. For an improvement in Mills; Josiah Platt, Weston, Fairfield county, Connecticut, October 9.
Claim. "Now I am aware that the upper stone, or runner, of a mill for grinding grain has been operated by a spindle working in boxes above it, and that it has been weighted by attaching weights to the top thereof, and hence I do not claim for these things; but I wish to confine my claim to the peculiar manner in which I have effected these things; that is to say, I claim as my invention and improvement, and desire letters patent for suspending the spindle of the upper stone, or runner, by a sliding frame, in the manner and for the purpose specified. I also claim the suspending the upper stone, or runner, to the lower end of the spindle, by having the bail work in a slit, or cleft, in the spindle, and the two jointed together, and fastened by a pin passing through them, as described; and finally, I claim regulating the weight and friction of the upper stone, or runner, by placing semi-circular weights in a cavity, made therefor, in the upper part of the whirl, or wheel, as described."
6. For an improvement in the mode of Causing the Wheels of Locomotive Engines to adhere to the Rails; Elisha Tolles, New York City, October 9.
Claim. "What I claim as new, is the manner of constructing and combining the apparatus for the distribution of sand upon the lines. of rails on railroads, by the conjoint action of reservoirs of steain and of sand, the sand to be placed in a reservoir from which the steam is allowed to issue through pipes, or tubes, surrounding those through which the sand is made to issue, by an arrangement of parts substantially the same with that set forth. I also claim the combining with the apparatus, for distributing the sand, the scrapers, or ploughs, for cleaning the rails from snow, or other foreign matter, said scrapers being attached to elastic arms of metal, and otherwise formed, arranged, combined, and governed in the manner described.
"It will be manifest that instead of passing a current of steam through the outer tube, or pipe, to cause the sand to be discharged from the inner tube, a strong current of air, either heated, or not, may be forced through the outer tube, and that a like mechanical effect would be thereby produced. Such a blast may be derived from a blowing apparatus of any suitable kind, such as are well known, and often used with locomotives; and I therefore claim the substituting, in the apparatus herein described, a blast of air for the current of steam."
7. For an improvement in Lightning Conductors; William A. Orcutt, Boston, Massachusetts, October 9.
Claim. "What I claim as my invention, is the method of connect