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called Surroy, or Southroy, and all on the north of that river was put RICH. III. under the jurisdiction of Norroy, or Northroy, king at arms; this latter name is still retained, the former is lost. But long before then, as far back as the reign of Edward I., it is supposed there was Guienne king at arms, who perhaps had the province of Southroy or Surroy. We know little of these matters prior to the reign of Richard III. It is supposed, that by the constitution of heralds held at Roan, in France, that it was settled, that the kingdom of England should be divided into south, north, east, and west, and over these were placed Clarenceux, Norroy, Ireland, and Acquitain. It is certain, that Ireland granted arms in England; but this division seems fanciful. The French had kings at arms for every province; Henry V. so far imitated them, that he augmented the number of them in England. Edward III. had Volant, or Vaillant king at arms, which Henry revived, and instituted March, Lancaster, Falcon, Guienne, Agincourt, and others. It is difficult to distinguish the office of these kings at arms from their surname, they using each discre tionally; often only their baptismal one, with their heraldic name*.
The office of these provincial kings is to visit noblemen's families, draw out their genealogies, openly to reprove such who assume false arms, to marshal the funerals of the great in their province, and to appoint the arms, and other ensigns to be then used. They also grant arms, and hold visitations.
It is uncertain when this office was first created. Mr. Anstis and Mr. Edmondson think it probable, that it was by Edward III.; but it seems more so that it was by Henry V., who preferring the herald of his brother Thomas, Duke of Clarence, constable of the army, created him a king of arms, by the title of Clarenceux (in Latin written Clarentius), and placed the south part of England under his care. William Horseley was so created by Henry V., and Roger Lygh by Henry VI.. Afterwards it sunk into the office of an herald only; for John Ashwell, Thomas
* Stow, in his Survey, says, John, Clarenceux king of arms, was buried in St. · Olave's church, in Hart-street, London, in 1427. Here we learn no family name to this officer. So in Little Chart Sutton church, in Kent, is this inscription: Hie jacet Johannes, filius .... Lancaster Heraldi Regis Armorum, qui obiit 10 die Junii, An. 1441: Cujus anime propitietur Deus. Amen.
RICH. III. Collyer, and John Mallet, were Clarenceux heralds in the latter reign: the two former became Lancaster and Ireland kings at arms. In the reign of Edward IV. it was restored to the rank of king at arms, in favor of William Hawkeslow, who had the west part of England allotted for his province; to whom succeeded Holme, mentioned below.
The arms of Clarenceux are Argent, St. George's Cross, upon a Chief Gules, a Lion of England crowned with an open crown. The badge is the same, in an escocheon, crowned with a crown of a king of arms, upon a green ground, on one side; and on the other, the royal arms crowned upon a white ground, pendent to a gold chain, or simple ribbon.
Edw. iv., 1476.-SIR THOMAS HOLME, Knight.
He had been created by Henry VI. Falcon pursuivant, and, by Edward IV., in his seventh year, Norroy, which Weaver does not notice. Like his predecessor Hawkeslow, he had allotted for his province the west part of the kingdom; but probably afterwards the south, because he had a quarrel with Bellinger, Ireland king at arms, for presuming to give armorial bearings in the south of England. He resigned his office at the same time as Garter, but was restored, like him, in the next reign, which see.
Mr. Edmondson traces this office as far back as the 16th Edward II., though Mr. Anstis only until the reign of Edward III. It retained the name of Norroy until the reign of Richard II., who in his ninth year appointed it to be executed by John Otherlake, March king at arms, as did Henry VI. by Richard del Brugg, Lancaster king at arms, in the first year of his reign; and Ashwell, Boys, and Tindal, who were successively Lancaster kings at arms, until the end of the reign of Henry VI. These had the jurisdiction of all on the north side of Trent. Edward IV. again restored the name of Norroy, in the person of Thomas Holme, Esq., upon whose promotion it was given to Moore.
Norroy possesses the same privileges in his province as Clarenceux does in his. The arms of his office are, Argent, St. George's Cross, upon a chief per pale, Azure and Gules, a Lion of England crowned with an open crown between a Fleur de lis in pale, and a Key, Or, which is also the badge of his office. In other respects, this provincial king is like Clarenceux. All
the kings of arms bear their arms in pale with their own paternal ones, crowned with a crown of a king at arms, which was formerly like those used by dukes; but since the Restoration, in commemoration of Charles II. having been saved in an oak-tree, they have been formed of oak leaves, with this motto upon the outward rim, taken from scripture, Miserere mei, Deus, secundum magnam miserecordiam tuam. The crowns anciently were of gold or silver, or copper gilt; but they were not allowed to have any jewels in them, except rubies, expressive, as it was thought, of faithfulness.. The kings at arms wear their crowns at all times when the peers put on their coronets. They bear their arms, so crowned, surrounded with the collar of SS, with two portcullis'.
July 9, 18, Edw. IV.-JOHN MOORE, Esq.
This king at arms became so obnoxious to Henry VII., that he was particularly excepted in the statute of resumption, passed in the first year of his reign; so that his office expired with the life of Richard, whom however he survived some years, dying in 1491. He was buried in Grey Friers' church in London. Mr. Brook, late Somerset, says Christ church.. By his will he gave Eleanor his wife all his goods. There appears to have been a vacancy of two years from the promotion of his immediate predecessor to his appointment, if his creation was not previous to the date of his patent; a circumstance which often happens.
IRELA N D.
Kings at arms of this name had been as early as the reign of Richard II. Weaver mentions John Kirby in that of Henry V., and Thomas Collyer, in the same office, under Henry VI.
Edw. IV.-THOMAS ASHWELL, Esq.
Mr. Edmondson calls him by this baptismal name; Lant and Weaver, by that of Richard: the former is the best authority. The latter say, he was created Cadran, and then Rouge-croix pursuivants, by Henry VI.,, and Lancaster herald, and Ireland king at arms, by Edward IV. Perhaps he was brother to John Ashwell, created Cadran, and Blue-mantle pursuivants, Leopard and Clarenceux heralds, and lastly Lancaster king at arms, and to Robert Ashwell, created Antelope and Rouge-croix. pursuivants, and Windsor herald, by Henry VI.. The Ashwells had,
we may reasonably suppose, a great sway with the heralds before their incorporation. He attended the funeral of his royal master, Edward IV., but he is not mentioned in Richard's grant of incorporation.
1484. WALTER BELLINGER, Esq.
As there is no account of him previous to Richard's reign, it is not improbable but that he had been in the service of Richard, previous to his usurping the crown. He was deprived at Henry VII.'s accession. His quarrel with Holme, Clarenceux, has been mentioned. His province is supposed to have been the eastern part of England.
The office of March king of arms was established by Edward IV., in compliment to his earldom of March, which title he conferred upon his son, Edward, Prince of Wales, July 8, in the eighteenth year of his reign. The first March king of arms was John Ferraut, Esq., who, if Weaver's authority is good, was raised by Edward from Windsor herald; having been Wallingford and Blue-mantle pursuivants to Henry VI. His province was Devon, Cornwall, Cheshire, and the principality of Wales.
Edw. IV.-WILLIAM BALLARD, Esq.
It is probable he had been Edward's herald before his accession, for his name does not occur as a royal officer previously. He remained true to Edward's family, for which Richard deposed, and Henry VII. restored him. See next reign.
This office was founded, because it had been the name of Richard III.'s ducal honor: a practice then usual; Edward IV. before, and Henry VII. after, making their heralds kings at arms, giving them the name of the titles they had borne.
Jan. 4, 1483-4. RICHARD CHAMPNEY, Esq.
If we believe Lant, and Weaver after him, he had been Calais and Blue-mantle pursuivants, and Falcon herald, but this is evidently a mistake he had been Gloucester herald to Richard, whilst a subject, bearing the title of Duke of Gloucester. It is equally absurd to suppose, that he had been supported by Richard, previous to his usurpation, unless he had
been his own herald: a Duke of Gloucester certainly would not maintain
The Heralds derive their names from the Anglo-Saxon words Here and Holt or Held, i. e. a champion to denounce war or proclaim peace. They were anciently called Dukes at Arms, probably because they were attendants upon the Dur, or General; their office being to carry his messages to the enemy, representing him as his ambassadors. They a.. now assistants to the kings at arms, and are created with much the same ceremonial, only the coronet and jewel are omitted. He is introduced by two heralds, as the kings are by two kings at arms. It is now customary to give them names from places; but formerly they sometimes received them from some animal, which the Sovereign used as a crest, supporter, or cognizance. They had, in ancient times, been indefinite as to number; they are now confined to six only. They are esquires by creation, if not so previous to their admission into their office. Anciently they could not divest themselves of their post, but ever remained heralds, unless