which you stopped at in Addition; set down the remainder underneath its own place, and add the quotient to the next superior denomination, as you multiply; in this manner proceed with all the other denominations to the highest. EXAMPLES of MONEY. 1. s. d. · 1. 8. d. (1) Multiply 14 17 11 (2) 140 10 0 (3) 17 7. Product (4) 4 Yards of cloth, at 17s. 6d. per yard. (5) 5 Cwt. of cheese, at 31. Os. 6d, per cwt. (6) 7 Ells of Holland, at 7s. 10d. per ell. (7) 8 Pounds of tea, at 18s. 9 d. per lb. (8) 9 Gallons of wine, at 12s. 8d. per gallon. (9) 10 Ankers of brandy, at 27. 6s. 4d. per anker. (10) 11 Barrels of small beer, at 12s. 7d. per barrel. (11) 12 Firkins of butter, at 17. 17s. 6d. per firkin. Case 2. When the given quantity exceeds 12, and is such a number that any two figures in the Multiplication Table, being multiplied together, will produce it. RULE. Multiply the given price by one of those numbers, and the product by the other, which will give the answer. EXAMPLES. (12) 14 Ounces of silver, at 6s. 7 d. per oz. (13) 18 lb. of sugar, at 104d. per ib. (14) 27 Quarters of wheat, at 21. 9s. 6d. per quarter. (18) 50 Moidores, at 27s. each. (19) 56 Yards of shalloon, at 2s. 7 d. per yard. (20) 64 Firkins of butter, at 17. 11s. per firkin. (21) 72 Reams of paper, at 15s. 9d. per ream. (24) 96 Yards of Indian dimity, at 1s. 104d. per yard. (29) 144 lb. of tobacco, at 1s. 7 d. per lb. Case 3. When the given quantity cannot be produced by the multiplication of two small numbers. RULE. Find the nearest number to its less, by which multiply as before; then, for what is wanting, multiply the price by that number, and add it to the last Product, and the Total will be the Answer. EXAMPLES. per doz. (30) 17 Cwt. of Malaga raisins, at 17. 4s. 10žd. per cwt. (38) 86 Yards of green silk damask, at 19s. 1d. per yd. Case 4. When the given quantity consists of,, or, RULE. Divide the upper line (the price of one) by 4 for, by 2 for; and for 4, by 2 first for, then divide that Quotient by 2, for ; add them to the Product, and the Sum will be the Answer required. (43) 8 Butts of beer, at 41. 6s. 7d. per butt. (44) 100 Acres of land, at 267, 17s. 6d. per acre. This method of finding the value of any quantity of goods under 100, at any price per yd. lb. &c. is of excellent use to such as buy or sell by retail. But for great quantities, there are other methods much better. (See PRACTICE.) Case 5. Sometimes it may so happen, that your given quantity, though considerably great, may be wrought by the continual product of three numbers, as the following: EXAMPLES. (45) 112 Bushels of oats, at 1s. 10 d. per bushel. Of WEIGHTS and MEASURES. (1) Multiply 14 lb. 10 oz. O dwts. 21 grs. by 4. 17 tons, 17 cwt. O qr. 24 lb. by 2. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 14 cwt. O qr. 21 lb. O oz. 14 drs. by 7. (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) 74 lasts, 7 qrs. 4 bu. 1 p. by 7. 4 B. hhds. 47 gal. 6 pts. by 9. APPPLICATION. (1) What number, taken from the square of 54, will leave 19 times 46 ? (2) Suppose 50 men to take a prize, and each man's share comes to 1457., what is the value of the prize? (3) What is the difference, and what the sum, of six dozen dozen, and half a dozen dozen? (4) A certain island contains 52 counties, every county 42 parishes, every parish 246 houses, and every house 10 persons. I demand the number of parishes, houses, and persons, that are in the whole island? (5) What difference is there between twice eight and twenty and twice twenty-eight: as also, between twice five and fifty, and twice fifty-five? (6) By God's blessing upon a merchant's industry, in ten years' time he found himself possessed of 13,000l. It appeared from his books, that the last three years he had cleared 8731. a-year: the three preceding but 5861. ayear, and before that but 3647. a-year. What was the state of his fortune at every year's end that he continued in trade, and what had he to begin with? (7) A robbery being committed on the highway, there was assessed on a certain hundred, in the county of S., the sum of 3731. 14s. 8d. The four parishes paid 377. 16s. 4d. each, the four hamlets 281. 3s. 10d. each, the four townships 19 guineas each. What was the deficiency? (8)* At Leicester and several other places they weigh their coals by a machine, in the nature of a steel-yard, waggon and all; three of these draughts together amount to 137 cwt. 2 qrs. 10 lb. and the tare or weight of the waggon was 13 cwt. I qr. How many coals had the customer to pay for? (9) A person dying left his widow 17807, and 1250l. to each of his four children, 30 guineas a piece to 15 of his poor relations, and 150l. to charities; he had been 25 years in trade, and at an average had cleared 1261. a-year. What had he to begin with? (10) Suppose a gentleman's income is 500l. per annum, and he expends daily 19s. 11d. What does he lay up at the year's end? (11) If a gentleman expend daily 11. 12s. 6d. and at the year's end lay up 294l. 12s. 6d. I demand his yearly income. (12) The remainder of a division sum is 20, the quotient 423; the divisor is the sum of both, and 19 more. What was the number to be divided? for small repairs What did my te use of 5000l. To (13) Suppose that for a quarter's rent I paid in money seven guineas and sixpence, and was allowed 18s. 6d. and for the king's tax 88. 9d. nement go at a-year? (14) A person dying left his widow the a charity he bequeathed 8467. 10s. To each of his three nephews 12301. To each of his four nieces 10501. To 20 poor house-keepers five guineas each, and 200 guineas to his executor. What must he have died pos sessed of? (15) A gentleman gave his daughter to her portion a scrutoir, in which were twelve drawers; in each of these were six divisions, and in each division there were 1001. a moidore, and half-a-guinea. What was the young lady's fortune? QUESTIONS for Exercise at leisure Hours. (16) The silk mill at Derby contains 26586 wheels, and 97746 movements, which wind off or throw 73726 yards of silk every time the great water-wheel, which gives motion to all the rest, goes about, which is three times in a minute. The question is, how many yards of silk may be thrown by this machine in a day, reckoning ten hours to a day's work? and how many in the compass of a year, deducting for Sundays and great holidays, 63 days; provided no part of it stands still? (17) Trajan's bridge over the Danube is said to have had 20 piers to support the arches, every pier being 60 feet thick, and some of them were 150 feet above the bed of the river; they were also 170 feet asunder. Pray what was the width of the river in that place? and how much did it exceed the length of Westminster bridge, which is about 1200 feet from shore to shore, and is supported by 11 piers, making the number of arche's 12? (18) There are two numbers, the less is 187, their difference 34. Required the square of their product, ditto of their sum, and difference and sum of those squares. (19) There are two numbers, the greater of them is 73 times 109; and their difference 17 times 28. I demand their sum and product. (20) In the partition of lands in an American settlement, A. had 757 acres allotted to him; B. had 2104 acres; C. 16410; D. 12881; E. 11008; F. 9813; H. 13800; and I. 8818 acres. Now, how many acres did the settlement contain, since the allotments made as above want 416 acres of one-fifth of the whole? (21) How many different ways can four common dice come up at one throw?-Note, One may come up six ways. |