« PreviousContinue »
most devoted readiness to serve him. Glass SNAKE. (See Serpent.) His habits of attending business were ex- GLORY. (See Nimbus.) tremely regular in his counting-house, and Gnipus. (See Cnidus.) generally so in his bank. On discount GOITRE (bronchocele); probably a cordays, he almost always entered the bank ruption of the Latin guttur (throat), called between nine and eleven o'clock in win- by the Germans, kropf (throat); a tumor ter, and six and nine in summer. It was situated in front of the windpipe, and his custom, during the spring and sum- formed by the swelling of the thyroid mer months, to spend an hour or two gland. (See Windpipe.) The goitre is every morning in a garden attached to endemic in the valleys of the Alps, and his bank, where he employed himself in seems to be caused principally by the pruning his vines, nursing his fig-tree and heat, moisture, and stagnation of the air, dressing his shrubs. He was buried in a produced by the narrow and winding Roman Catholic burial-ground, but with- shape of the valleys. It has also been out any religious ceremonies. His for- attributed, by some, to the use of coarse tune was probably the largest ever left by and indigestible food, of water charged any individual in the U. States, and is with lime, and obtained from the melting estimated to amount to about eleven or of snow; but this opinion is now genetwelve million dollars. It was disposed rally abandoned. The disease is someof in the following manner by his will :- times transmitted from the parent to the To the Pennsylvania hospital (subject to child, and, when it is hereditary, often an annuity of $200 to a female slave, exists from birth: when not so, it begins whom he sets free), $30,000; to the Penn- to show itself towards the age of from sylvania institution for the deaf and dumb, seven to ten years. It sometimes makes $20,000; to the orphan asylum of Phila- its appearance at a much later period of delphia, $10,000 ; to the controllers of life, in persons who take up their resithe public schools of Philadelphia,$10,000; dence late in regions where it is endemic. to the city corporation, to be invested, and Instances of the disease have also been the interest to be applied annually to the known in other districts; but they are not purchase of fuel for the poor, $10,000; to common. The habit of carrying burdens the society of ship-masters for the relief of on the head, violent efforts of any sort, distressed masters, their widows and chil- the indulgence of violent passions, childdren, $10,000; to the grand lodge of Penn- birth, &c., sometimes appear to be the ocsylvania, $20,000; for a school for poor casion of its developement. The causes white children in Passayunk, where his of the goitre are, for the most part, the farm was situated, $6000; legacies to indie same as those of cretinism, and it is often viduals, about $120,000; several annuities, found to afflict the same individuals ; but amounting to about $4000; to the city of the diseases are not to be confounded. New Orleans, 1000 acres of improved land (See Cretinism.) The developement of the in Louisiana, and one third of 207,000 tumor is generally retarded by the prevaacres of unimproved land in the same lence of cold, dry weather, and promoted state, the remaining two thirds being be- by warm and damp weather; and it somequeathed to the city of Philadelphia (the times disappears entirely when the patient value of this land is about $500,000); to leaves the infected district. Various remthe city of Philadelphia, stock in the edies, both internal and external, have Schuylkill navigation company, $110,000; been recommended. Ashes of sponge, for the erection and endowment of a soap, alkaline and sulphurous waters, and college for poor white male orphans, the carbonate of soda, have been employed sum of $2,000,000, with provision that with success. Compression, friction, fushould this amount prove insufficient, the migation, lotions of different kinds, and, necessary sum shall be taken from the in some instances, the knife, have been residuary fund; to Philadelphia, for cer- resorted to; but the use of the latter is tain city improvements, to be invested and dangerous. the interest annually applied, $500,000; GOMARA ISLANDS. (See Comoro.) to the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to GOOSANDER. (See Merganser.) be applied to internal improvements by GőThe died at Weimar, March 22, canals, $300,000; to the city of Philadel. 1832. phia, all his remaining real and personal GRAMMARIANS. (See Rhetoricians.) estate (no part of the former to be sold), Gray Monks. (See Vallombrosa.) estimated at about $8,000,000, in aid of GREEN SNAKE. (See Serpent.) the orphan's college, if needed, improve- GREENE, Christopher, à lieutenantments of the city, and the relief of taxes. colonel in the American revolutionary army, was born in 1737, in Warwick, a article Artillery, in the Encyclopædia Metown of Rhode Island. When still very tropolitana. We propose, in this article, young, he was elected a member of the not to treat of artillery as a science, but colonial legislature, from his native place, simply to describe the several apparatuses, and retained his seat until the commence- appointments, &c., which constitute what ment of the revolution, when he was is commonly understood as the artillery chosen a lieutenant in the Kentish guards. of an army, prefacing that description by Subsequently, in May, 1775, he was pro- a historical sketch of the progress and moted to the rank of major in “an army successive changes which have taken of observation,” under the orders of his place in this important branch of the milrelative, general Nathaniel Greene. He itary art. In the most ancient times, was soon afterwards appointed to the when war was made with quickness and command of a company in a regiment impetuosity, the use of artillery was which formed a part of the army destined unknown: the club and the dart were, to act against Canada, and, at the siege at this time, the only instrunients of of Quebec, was taken prisoner. In attack and defence; and it was probably 1777, having been previously exchanged, some time before the bow and arrow he was intrusted, by Washington, with were thought of as offensive weapons. the charge of fort Mercer, on the river As the destructive means of attack were, Delaware, commonly called Red Bank, a by the latter invention, made to operate at post of great importance, where he was a distance, corresponding means of deattacked by a large detachrnent of Hes- fence became necessary; and trunks of sians, under colonel count Donop. He trees, interlaced with branches and suprepulsed the enemy, however; and among ported with earth, constituted the first fortheir slain were Donop himself, and colo- tification, which was afterwards improved nel Mingerode, the second in command. by substituting a wall with a parapet, for For this service congress voted colo- shooting arrows at the assailants. Afternel Greene an elegant sword, which, in wards, the walls were carried higher, and 1786, was presented by general Knox, holes left in them of sufficient size only to secretary of war, to his eldest son. In enable the archers to discharge their ar1778, Greene was with the army under rows effectually upon an enemy. To atSullivan, which, with the aid of a French tack, therefore, with any chance of sucfleet under D'Estaign, attempted to break cess, some powerful engine became neup the enemy's post on Rhode Island, cessary to batter down the walls: this but failed. He then returned to head- gave rise to the battering ram, which was quarters, and continued to serve under probably one of the first engines of anthe commander-in-chief, until the spring cient artillery. To what date we are to of 1781, when, having been posted on the refer the invention of this powerful maCroton river, in advance of the army, he chine is uncertain. We are informed, in was surprised by a corps of refugees, and the Second Book of Chronicles, that Uzwas barbarously murdered, in the forty- ziah, who began his reign 809 years befifth year of his age.
fore the Christian era, “ made in JerusaGRÉGOIRE, count, died at Paris, in lem engines, invented by cunning men, to May, 1831.
be upon the towers and upon the bulGREGORIAN CHANT. (See Music, Sa- warks, to shoot arrows and great stones cred.)
withal.” It is therefore probable that the Gross-Glogau. (See Glogau.) ram was at least known in those days, GROSSULAR. (See Garnet.)
although we have no distinct mention of Guanaco. (See Llama.)
it till the time of Pericles the Athenian GUANCHES. (See Canaries.)
(409 B.C.). To oppose this powerful enGUERRERO was taken in arms against gine of attack, further means of defence the government, and shot, in February, became necessary; and the invention of 1831.
ballistæ and catapultæ resulted probably GuildFORD. (See North.)
from this necessity. But these soon beGum-TREE. (See Tupelo.).
came instruments not only of defence but GUNNERY. In the body of the work, of attack ; for, in the siege of Motya we referred to this head the history of the (about 370 B. C.), Dionysius, afier having different kinds of artillery which have battered down the fortification with his been used among different nations. The rams, advanced to the walls towers rolled article intended to have been inserted upon wheels, whence he galled the behaving been accidentally omitted, we sieged with continual volleys of stones give here the following sketch from the and darts thrown from his catapultæ
(Ancient Universal History, vol. vi.) A endeavor to present the reader with number of other instances are mention- the description of these several maed soon after this time, in which machines chines, according to the best authorities. of various descriptions were employed At the same time, it must be acknowlboth for defence and attack, of which we edged that the account of many of them may inention, in particular, the siege of is so very obscure, that it may be quesSaguntum, by Hannibal (219 B. C.), in tionable whether they are precisely such which the Saguntines prevented his sol- as those described by the ancient historidiers from using the battering ram by a ans. The ancient artillery may be divided continual hurling of darts, stones, and into three classes of machines, namely, other missiles. From this time, these first, those intended for projecting bodies; warlike engines increased, both in num- secondly, those for approach and demoliber and in magnitude, to an almost in- tion; thirdly, a miscellaneous class, used credible extent, of which the reader may for various offensive operations. Of the form some idea by the inventory that dif- first class, the most important are the ferent bistorians have given us of those ballistæ and catapultæ, which are, by found in certain cities, which had been some authors, confounded with each othobliged to capitulate to the enemy, and er; but, according to their etymology, by the enumeration of those which ac- ballista (from Baldw, to shoot or throw) is companied particular armies. Thus we an engine for propelling stones, called are informed that Titus employed, in the also 120oßodos, alipoßodos, petraria, &c.; siege of Jerusalem, three hundred cata- while catapulta (in Greek, karunid:75, from pultæ, of divers magnitudes, and forty bál- means, a spear or dart) was an instrument listæ, of which the least projected stones employed to dart forth spears or arrows. of seventy-five pounds weight. And, The force of the ballistæ was prodigious. when the consul Censorius marched The stones cast from them were of enoragainst Carthage, and obliged the inhab- mous weight, and of any form; and, for itants to give up their arms, they surren- the further annoyance of the besieged dered to him two thousand machines place, they would throw into it from the proper for throwing darts and stones; ballistæ dead bodies of men and horses, and, afterwards, when Scipio made him- heads, and detached limbs. Athenæus self master of the same city, there were mentions one of these ballistæ that threw no less than one hundred and twenty a stone of three talents, namely, about three catapultæ of the larger size, two hundred hundred and sixty pounds weight. Cæsar and eighty-one of the smaller, twenty- employed these machines not only to dethree of the larger ballistæ, fifty-two of a stroy men, but to batter down strong and smaller kind, and an innumerable number high towers. We have already menof scorpions of different sizes, arms, and tioned the machines employed by Titus missile weapons. Two years previous to against Jerusalem, some of which, Josethis, Marcellus had laid siege to Syracuse, phus states, projected stones of a hundred a city proverbially fatal to the armies that weight; and Archimedes is said to have attacked it. Archimedes was at that time cast bodies of twelve hundred pounds, by resident in the city, and, at the earnest means of bis ballistæ, against the Roman solicitation of Hiero, king of Sicily, exert- fleet, in his defence of Syracuse. A baled the powers of his mind in the inven- lista may be briefly described as a strong tion of artillery, and other warlike instru- frame-work, susceptible of easy separa. ments. Marcellus had brought with him tion, for the purpose of conveyance, and an enormous engine, mounted on eight then of being rejoined in frame, having on galleys, called sambuca, which Archime- each side a toothed wheel. The wheels des destroyed by discharging at it single have each a strong cross-piece. A strong stones of enormous weight, while it was cord, well stretched, passes several times at a considerable distance from the walls. from the cross-piece of one wheel to that This was effected by ballistæ ; but he also of the opposite wheel, and forms thus sevemployed crows, grapples, and scorpions, eral intersecting twists, at the centre of by the former of which the Roman ves- one of which is inserted the handle or sels were lifted out of the water by the stem of a capacious spoon. The wheels prow, and plunged to the bottom of the are turned by means of pinions, and the
It would be useless to record the cords fastened to the cross-pieces are made numerous other sieges which took place to twist more and more about each other. between this period and the invention of When, by this process, the twisted cords cannon, where these instruments were have received a sufficient tension, the employed. We shall therefore now wheels and pinions are retained in their places by the application of a pall or their tension by means of wheel work, rachet. This done, the stem, which has and are kept at the requisite twist_by waxed cord coiled closely about it to give means of detents, as in the ballista. The it additional strength, is brought down to arms are also strengthened by ligatures the horizontal position by means of a of waxed cord, as in the latter machine. windlass, and retained there by another The impulsive energy of these machines pall or detent. In this state of things, the far exceeds the ideas we should form of body which it is intended to throw from them from their description. It is said the ballista, is placed in the cavity of the that Montfaucon possessed a small model spoon. At a given word, the detent is of a catapulta only five inches in length, struck away with a mallet, and the stem, which projected its dart to the distance obeying the enormous elastic force which of four hundred feet; and Folard, the now acts upon it, remounts, and dis- learned editor of Polybius, had a model charges the projectile with great impetu. only a foot in each dimension, which proosity. At the moment of the discharge, pelled its dart with such force as to cause the stem strikes against the frame at a it to enter and remain in hard freestone at point where, to soften down the shock, a the distance of thirteen hundred feet. thick horse-bair cushion is placed. The Cæsar also relates that, at the siege of machines called by the Romans tormen- Marseilles, the besieged propelled, from tum were only varieties of the ballista, and the top of their walls, beams of twelve served to project stones and other ponder- feet long, armed at one end by pointed ous masses. According to Vitruvius, the iron heads, which pierced four ranks of cords employed in these machines were stout hurdles, and then stuck firmly into made sometimes of hair, at others of the the earth.-Of the Scorpion. This is anbowels of animals, prepared like our cat- other of the propelling machines of the gut. All were not twisted by the same ancients, and is probably of anterior date process, but sometimes by means of a to those we have been describing, being windlass, at others by toothed wheels. far inferior to them in its action, although The ultimate effects, however, were the still a very powerful engine. The prosame in all cases. Of the Catapulta. pelling power was produced by the deThese, as we have before observed, were scent of the weight placed at the shorter employed in throwing darts or arrows, arm of the machine, which raising the which, it is said, were sometimes poison- longer arm, the stone was delivered from ed, and at others set on fire. A catapulta the sling attached to it with a very conof the smaller kind consists merely of an siderable force; but, as we have stated immense bow of elastic wicker work, above, by a very inferior one to that proplaced on a suitable carriage, and having duced by the twisted cord in the ballista its upper part drawn down by the force and catapulta. It is needless to add thet of several men applied to a strong rope. the stone being discharged, the long arm Several arrows are lodged upon a suitable was drawn down by manual strength, and frame, and at different elevations. The the machine recharged by another stone. tightened cord being set at liberty by This is by some authors called a fundidrawing out a pin, the bent surface, recov- balle.—The arcoballista is a smaller proering itself by its natural elasticity, ad- pelling apparatus, which might be worked vances to its original vertical position, and by one man. It is little more than a thus drives before it all the arrows with fixed bow, with a simple mechanical conconsiderable velocity. This kind of cata- trivance for bringing back the line. The pulta is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, above are the principal machines which as being employed at the siege of Cyprus. the ancients possessed for distant means Catapultæ of the larger kind were much of annoyance. It still remains for us to more powerful, and were used to shoot describe those employed on a near apdarts and arrows of great length and proach to an enemy's works for the demweight. It is not ungptly assimilated to a olition of the same, and the opposing enbroken bow, although there is this differ- gines of the besieged.-Machines of Apence, that, in the latter, the elastic force proach and Demolition. Of the Battering resides in the bow itself, whereas here, as Ram. The ancients employed two differin the ballista, the elastic force is in the ent machines of this kind, an account of twisted cords, between which the two arms which will be found under the head Batare inserted, not vertically, as in the stem tering Ram.-Movable Towers, Tortoises, of the ballista, but horizontally. At the &c. The movable towers employed by extremity of the two arms is attached a the ancients in their sieges, and which strong rope. The twisted cords receive they called helepoles, were often of an astonishing maguitude. Vegetius de- ably gave rise to the machines we are scribes them as being formed of strong about to describe, which were of different planks. To preserve them from risk of kinds, some being used in sieges, and fire thrown from the walls of the besieg-' others in engagements at sea. The deed place, they were covered with raw scription we have of these engines, and hides, or with pieces of woven horse-hair. of the effects produced by them, is scarceTheir height was proportional to the di- ly credible. Plutarch informs us that, mensions of their bases, which were when Marcellus had advanced his galleys sometimes thirty feet square, and their close under the walls of Syracuse, Arheight forty or fifiy feet. Sometimes their chimedes directed against them enormous height was still greater, that they might machines, which, being projected forward, be above the walls, and even above the there were let down suddenly from them stone towers of the city. They were sup- large beams, from which were suspended ported upon several small wheels, by long vertical arms of rope, terminated means of which they might be moved with grappling hooks, which, laying hold from place to place, notwithstanding their of the vessels, and rapidly elevating them, enormous size and weight. It was gen- by the operation of counter weights, upset erally reckoned that the besieged place and sunk them to the bottom of the sea; was in imminent danger whenever the be- or, after raising them by their prows, and siegers had succeeded in placing one of setting them as it were on their poops, these near the walls. The helepolis was plunged them endwise into the water. supplied with ladders, by which to mount Others, it is said, he swung round towards from stage to stage; and each stage pre- the shore by the application of his cranes, sented its particular means of attack. In and, after whirling them in the air, dashed the lower one, there was commonly a them to pieces on the rocks beneath. Alram; and the middle stage, or a higher though it is impossible not to suspect one, was furnished with a bridge, made some degree of exaggeration in these of mutually-intersecting levers, which statements, yet we cannot, at the same could be easily projected out, and thereby time, doubt that very powerful means of form a communication between the tower this kind were employed in this celebrated and the wall. Sometiines baskets, fixed to siege, in which Archimedes, the prince projecting levers, carried men, who were of Grecian mathematicians, performed an let down upon the wall. On the upper important part, and where he at length stages were soldiers armed with halberts, fell beneath the sword of one of the soland archers, who continually played upon diers of the conqueror.- The telleno was the besieged. Vitruvius states that the a machine employed for raising a few. weight of the helepolis brought against soldiers higher than the top of the enemy's Rhodes by Demetrius weighed 260,000 wall, to ascertain what was going on pounds, and that to man and manceuvre within them, and sometimes for taking it, employed 3400 soldiers.—The tortoise possession of them, and thus facilitating was a kind of moving sheet, used to de- the escalade. In the former instance, it fend the assailants in their advance upon was formed by a great pile driven into the the place. These were also of great mag- ground, which served as a fulcrum to a nitude. One of those employed by Cæsar, long lever, which was placed across it at the siege of Marseilles, was sixty feet and balanced. At one of its extremities long, and served to cover the space be- was a light wooden or wicker case, capatween the helepolis and the city wall. In ble of holding a certain number of men, some instances, a long rank of these was who, when the opposite end was drawn placed end to end, and served as a com- down by cords, were raised so as to be plete protection to the soldiers. They enabled to look over the walls, or to were covered, as we have already said, mount upon them. Others were mountwith raw hides, or with moistened horse- ed on carriages.—Of modern Artillery. hair, to protect them from the fire of the At what time gunpowder was first embesieged.— Miscellaneous Machines. Of ployed for the purposes of war, is very Crows (corvi) and Cranes. As, in the ap- uncertain ; but it is pretty evident that plication of the engines last described, it cannon were in ,use very early in the was necessary for the besiegers to ap- fourteenth century; but they were, of proach close under the walls of the be- course, of the rudest and most uncultivatsieged city, it was natural that the lattered character. (See Gunpowder.) Their should attempt a means of annoyance, or first denomination was bombarde, from defence against their enemy, which Boußos, or bombo et ardore, on account of might counteract their efforts. This prob- the great noise produced by the discharge.