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"Long live the brave Poles!" were the shouts of most formidable rioters in the Palais Royal and boulevards, who attacked the hotel of the minister for foreign affairs, and committed many other outrages. On the following day, the ministers Périer and Sébastiani were burned in effigy; and the vast multitude which had congregated could only be controlled by the military. The riots continued throughout the whole of Sunday, and, on Monday, were prosecuted with renewed violence, and the most dangerous cries and vociferations, as, "Down with the king!" “Turn out the ministers!" &c. The apprehension of twenty of the ringleaders, who, assembled in the retired apartment of a secluded dwelling, were taken in the act of arranging plans for further riotous proceedings, and the loyalty of the national guard and soldiers of the line, frustrated the designs of the disaffected; and the explanations of the war minister, Sébastiani, contributed materially to satisfy the minds of the more intelligent of the citizens of Paris. "Every pacific exertion," he said, "had been made to assist Poland against Russia. Poland had 3,000,000 men, it was true; but it had neither ports, mountains, nor means of defence. Overtures, nevertheless, had been made at St. Petersburg, and Russia had been made to feel that the fate of Poland was a question of interest to Europe. It had been promised by the cabinet of Petersburg, that the kingdom of Poland should be preserved; and in this all the great powers of Europe concurred." On the 10th of October, the annihilation of the hereditary quality of the French peerage was carried by an overwhelming majority, the numbers having been 324 to 86. With the exception of discontents in the provinces, and the discussions arising from the measures taken by government against the efforts of a few of the refractory editors of public journals, affairs now, for some time, bore an aspect of comparative tranquillity. Such, in the beginning of November, was the internal state of France; and its probability of peace with other nations was equally flattering. The Moniteur of the 22d November contained a list of newlycreated non-hereditary peers, comprising some of the most distinguished leaders of the old Buonapartean army; namely, generals Pajol, Drouot, Drouet, Bonnet, Gazan, Flahaut, Excelmans, Lagrange, Dauthouard, Rogniat, Caffarelli, &c.; two admirals, Jacob and Emerian; Maret (duc de Bassano), count Philippe de Ségur (the historian of the Russian campaign), Alex

ander de la Rochefoucauld, &c.; also several scientific and literary characters, as the baron Cuvier, Cassini and Gilbert des Voisins; with a few of the old noblesse of France, viz. the prince de Beauvieu, comte de Turenne, marquis de Bizemont, and others. The object of the king and ministers, in these selections, appears to have been to conciliate all except the republican party. This creation had been rendered necessary from its having been sufficiently ascertained that a majority of the peers was not only against the abolition of the hereditary principle, but had determined to maintain their opinions in spite of the dangers which might arise from such an opposition to the popular will. The bill was carried through that chamber (Dec. 27) by a majority of thirtysix, exactly the number of new peers that had been created. A bill also passed the two chambers, banishing from France for ever all the members of the elder branch of the Bourbons and their descendants. Although disapproved of by the ministers, it was carried by a large majority, with an amendment, by which the penalty of death, attached by the bill to a violation of the prohibition against entering the kingdom, was omitted. The same bill, by its second section, denounced the same sentence of perpetual exclusion against the family of Napoleon. The crowds that produced the repeated riots which so frequently disturbed the peace of Paris during this year, were principally furnished from the multitudes of unemployed men, whom the unsteadiness of all relations, consequent on the revolution, had deprived of the means of support. Credit, trade and manufactures had all equally suffered. These riots, again, by increasing the feeling of insecurity, augmented the mischief. In the course of the autumn, the chambers had voted 18,000,000 francs to be applied to the relief of the manufacturers, and in providing employment for the people. In asking this grant, the minister of commerce stated that the existing distress arose, in a great measure, from the riots so frequent in the capital; but it existed likewise in the provinces, and, at Lyons, led to disturbances much more serious than those which had molested Paris. A suburb of that city, called the Croix Russe, is inhabited principally by weavers, as are also the suburbs of Vaize, La Guillotière, and Les Bretteaux, the whole population of these suburbs being about 36,000. The weavers, it appears, had been discontented ever since the revolution of 1830, which had so materially

depressed their trade that it was barely possible to subsist on their wages. Some time previous, they had resolved on a tariff or price-list, which, however, in consequence of the state of their trade, the masters were compelled to reject. On the 21st of November, the workmen simultaneously struck for wages, and the tumult immediately commenced, the mob of the town, men, women and children, joining with the insurgent weavers, many of them being armed. The national guard were speedily called out; but their conduct on the occasion appears to have been equivocal, and their interference fruitless. The prefect of the police and commandant of the garrison, general Ordonneau, endeavored in vain to pacify the rioters, the number of whom, well supplied with arms, became hourly more formidable. The mob, at length, after having been fired on by the national guard, and some of them sabred by the cavalry in repeated charges, became desperate, and attacked and disarmed several bodies of the military, and took two cannons; for which, and their muskets, they cast balls during the night, at the same time barricading the streets of their quarter. On the following day, they attacked and beat the troops and national guard in every quarter. Immense multitudes from the faubourgs and the heights of La Croix Russe, marched on the Hotel de Ville, carrying the principal posts and bridges by the way, and driving back the troops. The workmen in all parts of the town cooperated in this movement, by unpaving the streets, raising barricadoes, and firing on the military from the windows. They also burned the buildings of the octroi (tax-houses), and several dwelling-houses, from the windows of which they had observed the firing of their opponents to proceed. Nothing was carried away, but all was burned or broken on the spot, with the view of showing that it was not plunder which was sought. These troubles at Lyons were announced at Paris by the Moniteur of the 23d of November, in the shape of a private letter, and caused the greatest excitement in the metropolis. On the 25th, the same paper published an ordinance of the king, appointing the duke of Orleans and the marshal duke of Dalmatia (Soult) to repair instantly to Lyons, and take the necessary steps for the suppression of the insurrection. The troops of the line being expelled from the city, on the 24th all was quiet. The shops and theatres were opened, and the workmen and their allies (among whom are stated to have been

many of the national guard) were in possession of the city, which was kept then in a state of siege. Its authorities had been deposed by an insurrectionary mob, and its armed force expelled; yet, when victory had thus been obtained, the insurgents of Lyons instantly embraced the opportunity to recall and acknowledge the civil authorities whom they had teniporarily deposed, denying all political motive, and simply demanding such regulations as should secure them food. The consequences of this extraordinary state of af fairs were, that order became perfect, and business and pleasure were at once resumed, though the city was still virtually in possession of the insurgents and their partisans. On the 24th, the municipal council of Lyons voted the sum of 150,000 francs, to provide for the immediate necessities of the distressed workmen, and to afford succor to the wounded and their families. For the same purposes, a public subscription was opened, to which the contributions were considerable. From the most authentic accounts it may be collected, that the number of killed, on both sides, during the sanguinary contention of which Lyons was the scene, was between 500 and 600; of wounded, the amount was much more considerable. On the 4th, the duke of Orleans and marshal Soult, with a formidable escort of national guards, troops of the line, chasseurs and artillery, entered the city without impediment. The prince was received by the mayor of Lyons, who addressed his royal highness, and received a gracious reply. The troops having repaired to their quarters without interruption, an order of the day was issued, dissolving the national guard of Lyons, Guillotière, Croix Russe and Vaize, with disgrace, and commanding the instant surrender of their arms. The colonel of the thirteenth regiment of the line was publicly cashiered for suffering his soldiers to be disarmed, and the men of the regiment were severely reproved. Measures were subsequently taken against a portion of the press, stated to have encouraged the insurrection of the operatives of Lyons; and, the city being placed under military government, and no apprehension being entertained that its tranquillity would be again disturbed, the duke of Orleans and the veteran marshal returned to Paris on Sunday, the 11th of December. Early in the year 1832, a convention was finally concluded between the U. States and France, by which the latter agreed to pay the sum of 25,000,000 of francs to

the former, in six annual instalments of 4,166,666 francs each, in full for all claims of the citizens of the U. States for unlawful seizures, captures, sequestrations, or destructions of their vessels, cargoes, or other property, by that government; the former engaging to pay, on its part, the sum of 1,500,000 francs, in six annual instalments, in full of all claims presented by France on behalf of her citizens. Austrian troops having entered the Roman territory in January, for the purpose of maintaining the papal power, the existence of which was threatened by the subjects, a French force was sent to Italy, which occupied Ancona, February 22; but this movement, which bore a menacing aspect, did not disturb the peace of Europe. In the end of March, the cholera made its appearance in France, and, early in April, the prime minister was attacked by it. His death, which took place on the sixteenth of May, made no change in the spirit of the administration, which has, up to the present time, been conducted on the principles professed by Casimir Périer, on the thirteenth of March, and carried into practice by him while he continued at the head of the government. The department of the interior was given to M. Montalivet; but no president of the council was named. While it is impossible to deny to the administration of M. Périer the praise of vigor in maintaining order, it is to be regretted that it was not conducted on more liberal and popular principles. The incessant prosecutions of the press, the great number of trials for political of fences, and the rigid adherence to a conservative policy, in a country in which so much was to be done to establish a rational, yet full and fair degree of liberty, cannot be too severely condemned. The close of the sessions of the chambers was hastened by the alarm excited by the violence of the disease in Paris, and they were soon after prorogued. Paris was, soon after, again made the scene of bloodshed. On occasion of the funeral of general Lamarque, June 5, the military having attempted to disperse the crowd, skirmishing continued for several days, and the city was declared to be under martial law. The populace were not overpowered without much slaughter, and several distinguished men of the mouvement party were arrested and tried by a court-martial; but the court of cassation pronounced their trial to be illegal. See, on this and other subjects relating to France since the revolution,

Sarrans' Mémoires sur Lafayette (2 vols., Paris, 1832).-At this distance from the scene of action, we cannot pretend to give any authentic information upon these and more recent transactions. We will merely add here, that, after protracted negotiations with the different parties, the king did not reorganize the cabinet until the end of October, when it was thus formed:-Marshal Soult, president of the council (in place of Périer) and minister of war; the duke de Broglie, minister of foreign affairs, in place of Sébastiani, whose infirm health rendered his retirement necessary; Thiers, minister of the interior, in place of Montalivet; M. Human succeeds baron Louis in the department of finance, and Guizot, Girod de l'Ain in that of public instruction. M. Barthe, admiral de Rigny, and count d'Argout, retain respectively the seals, and the portfolios of the marine, and of public works.-We have now to give some account of the state of French affairs in Algiers. On receiving intelligence of the overthrow of the old dynasty, the army in Algiers immediately declared its adhesion to the new order of things; and, on the seventeenth of August, the tri-colored flag already waved over the Casauba and the forts. General Clausel was appointed to the government of Algiers, in the room of count Bourmont; and public opinion was pronounced in favor of the permanent occupation and colonization of the Algerine territory. General Clausel was instructed, therefore, to reduce to obedience all the provinces dependent upon Algiers, and to promote commerce and agriculture, by encouraging the settlement of European emigrants. model farm was also instituted to teach the inhabitants the best mode of cultivation; and land was sold to settlers for two and a half francs an acre. The only commercial marts in the territory were Algiers, Oran, Bona, and Bougia or Boujeia: the three last were yet to be occupied. In Oran (with 20,000 inhabitants), which had been restored to the dey of Algiers by Spain, in 1791, business was chiefly carried on by Spaniards. Bona, with a population of 8000 inhabitants, situated near the ruins of Hippo Regius, and Bougia, forty leagues east from Algiers, belonged to the province of Constantine (with a capital of the same name, twenty days march from Algiers), which had not yet been reduced. Upon this long tract of country were neither towns nor villages; and it


was therefore necessary, if an expedition tion of Algiers had sunk to 20,000 souls, were sent out, that it should carry all its of whom 5000 were Jews. The French supplies. The march led by footpaths government, therefore, at length, deterover barren mountains, through various mined to try the effect of a new organizatribes, which had maintained their inde- tion of the administration of the colony: pendence even under the regency. Un- the military and civil authorities were der these circumstances, Algiers could intrusted to distinct officers. On the first not be made the base of operations, which of December, the duke of Rovigo (Savacould be fixed only at Bona or Stora. The ry) was accordingly appointed to the beylic of Bona was therefore occupied, military command, and baron Pichon was and general Clausel also made an incur- placed at the head of the civil administrasion into the southern province of Titteri, tion, as civil intendant of the colony. where he passed the Atlas, and defeated The whole coast, from Constantine to the troops of the bey, on the twenty-first Oran, was subjected to the government of November. On the twenty-second, of Algiers; and the fortifications of this Mediah, the ancient Lamida, was occu- city itself were to be strengthened by the pied, and, on the twenty-third, the bey erection of seven new block-houses. gave in his submission. But the people Thus the determination of the French were by no means subjected. The bey of government to retain permanent possesTitteri was sent to France, where a pension sion of the new colony, was no longer of 12,000 francs was settled upon him; and doubtful, and will certainly be accomthe bey of Oran was likewise deposed, and plished, unless the state of affairs in Eusent to Alexandria. Still, however, the rope should compel France to recall her war continued. Mediah was evacuated, troops and abandon the African shore. Oran abandoned, and it was said that the In the beginning of 1832, the number of city of Algiers alone would be retained. European colonists in Algiers was about But Southern France particularly remon- 3000; and towards the close of January, strated against the abandonment of a a newspaper, in French and Arabic, was colony so important for commerce. Gen- established, under the title of Moniteur eral Clausel now organized a corps of Algérien. Among the numerous works irregular Arabian troops (zuaves), and de- to which the occupation of Algiers has termined to give the provinces of Con- given rise in France, we mention Renaustantine and Oran to two Tunisian princes, dot's Tableau du Royaume et de la Ville who should be tributary to France. But d'Alger (fifth edition, 1831); Fernel's the government was dissatisfied with his Campagne d'Afrique en 1830 (second edimeasures, and, in February, 1831, de- tion, 1832); Juchereau de St. Denys's clared the treaty which he had made Considérations statistiques, historiques, with Tunis, to carry this plan into effect militaires, et politiques, sur la Régence (December 18), to be null, on the ground d'Alger (with a map, 1831). that he had exceeded his powers. General Berthezène was also appointed to the "command of the troops, although Clausel was allowed to retain the title of governor of the colony. The warlike operations were continued during the ensuing spring and summer, and several expeditions were made into the interior, to chastise hostile tribes of Arabs, Bedouins and Cabyles, or Berbers; but, on the approach of the French troops, these wild hordes would desert their villages, and disperse, and then, again collecting, hang upon their rear on their return. In October, Bona fell into the hands of the Cabyles; the colony was supported at the expense of 1,000,000 francs a month, and, instead of proving a granary for Southern France, as had been anticipated, was obliged to draw all its supplies from that country; and the government found itself compelled to support the emigrants who had settled there. In November, the popula

FREESTONE. (See Sandstone.)
FRIULI, DUKE OF. (See Duroc.)
FUERTEVENTURA. (See Forteventura.)
FUESSLI. (See Fuseli.)

FULMINATING GOLD. (See Gold.) FULMINATING POWDERS. (See Mercury, and Silver.)

FUNDI. (See Fondi.)


FURZE is accidentally placed before Fur Trade.

FYEN. (See Funen.)


GALENA. (See Lead.)

GALLEASSES. (See Galley.)
GARGLE. (See Murrain.)
GARNISHMENT. (See Attachment, For-


GARTER SNAKE. (See Serpent.) GAUNTLOPE. (See Gantlope.) GAZNAVIDES. (See Persia.) GENESEE OIL. (See Bitumen.) GENLIS, madame de, died at Paris, in December, 1830, at the age of eighty-four years.

GEORGIA BARK. (See Pinkneya Pubescens.)

GEORGIUM SIDUS. (See Herschel.) GERMAINE, lord George. (See Sackville, George.)

GHOSTS. (See Visions.) GIAMSCHID. (See Jemshid.) Giovio, Paolo. (See Jovius.) GIRARD, Stephen. This singular individual has rendered himself a subject of public interest by his large bequests for public purposes, and deserves a place among those remarkable men who have achieved great things with small means. He was born in the French city of Bordeaux, in the year 1750, of poor parents, and seems to have received no other education than what is implied in the fact, that he learned to read and write while a child. During his long residence in this country, at a later period of his life, he never acquired a sufficient knowledge of the English language to speak it correctly; but the native vigor of his mind supplied, in a great measure, those deficiencies which, to most others, would have been an insuperable bar to success in the world. Among the events of his early youth, he used to speak of the ridicule to which a deformity in one eye exposed him, as a source of great suffering. At the age of ten or twelve years, he went to the West Indies in the capacity of a cabin-boy, and afterwards sailed from New York in the same humble station. At this time, his deportment was highly exemplary; and the master of the vessel under whom he sailed was so much pleased with his fidelity and industry, that he soon after gave him the command of a small vessel, in which Girard made several voyages to New Orleans and other ports. His great frugality, and his success in such trifling speculations as he could then engage in, put it in his power, before a long time, to become part owner of a vessel, in which he continued to sail as master. In 1769, Girard, then only nineteen years of age, established himself in Philadelphia; and, in the course of the next year, he married Polly Lum, the pretty daughter of a calker, then in her seventeenth year, and a servant girl in his neighborhood. This marriage, however, did not prove a happy one,

owing to the asperity and violence of Girard's temper; and, at a later period, he sued for a divorce from his wife, who was confined in a lunatic hospital during the last twenty-five years of her life (1790 -1815). She bore him only one child, who died in infancy. On the breaking out of the revolutionary war, his commercial operations being interrupted, he took a little shop, and followed the trade of bottler and grocer for several years, when he again entered the West India trade; and from this time (1780) he may be con sidered a rich man. Though Girard was, in general, morose in his manners, and harsh in his disposition, yet he distinguished himself during the prevalence of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, in 1793, by his active benevolence in attending the sick; and on all occasions he manifested a singular readiness to afford medical advice and personal assistance to such sufferers as came under his notice, while, at the same time, he would never relieve the distresses of his friends or relations, whether of body or of the purse, by pecuniary aid. His next commercial enterprises were in the East India trade; and, as is well known, he was subsequently engaged in banking till the period of his death, in 1831. The following description of his person and manners is taken from the Biography of Stephen Girard, written by S. Simpson (Philadelphia, 1832):-Few men made so bad a first impression upon the spectator as Stephen Girard. His person was altogether unprepossessing. His humble and vulgar exterior, his cold, abstracted and taciturn habits, did not fail to excite in the mind of the superficial observer a feeling approaching to contempt. He resembled a short and square-built old sailor. His wall-eye and the contrast exhibited between his person, his habiliments and his fortune, contributed to complete a picture of the most repulsive kind. He was partially deaf in one ear, and his conversation was disfigured by a broken French dialect. He spoke, with few exceptions, only upon business; and then never said more than was necessary to the proper understanding of his subject. When excited to anger, however, especially among his dependants and workmen, his volubility of tongue, though not couched in the most refined language, was without a parallel. But to compensate for these ebullitions of temper towards his inferiors, he had the art of conciliating them by the most fascinating displays of occasional good nature, which impressed them with the

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