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but unfortunately broken in two and wanting the upper part. A Hebrew ritual inscription is engraved upon it. Near the Torre degli Anguillara, during the works on the Tiber, a marble plinth has been brought to light, with the lower portion of a statue, probably of Esculapius.
Near the bridge of Roviano, where the ancient road of Subiaco separated from the Valerian, milestones have been found with the numeral 'xxxvI.,' and, what is of more importance, a square stone block on which is cut the same number, with an arrow pointing to the direction taken by the Valerian Road where the Via Sublacensis began. * * * In making a sewer in the Via Agnello, a piece of an old road, formed of the usual polygonal blocks of lava, was found at a depth of four mètres and a half below the street in modern Rome.
* * At the village of Avlon, in Euboea, two ancient tombs have been discovered containing funeral vases and two statuettes. Near one of the sarcophagi stood a pithos, having within it a hydria, both of terra-cotta. On the same island, while destroying the castle of Chalcis, some inscriptions have been found, one being a long decree, and some well-preserved mural paintings belonging to the long-buried ruins of an ancient Byzantine
* In the excavations at the tumulus on the plain of Marathon, begun six years ago by Dr. Schliemann and now resumed by the Archæological Society of Athens, an important discovery has been made of the remains of burnt human bones, which will, most probably, establish the identity of this mound with that raised for the burial of the Athenians who fell in battle against the Persians. Several painted vases and cups with black figures have been found on the site; but further researches are still necessary and are being made, as latterly the traditional identity of
the tumulus has been discredited.
At Megalopolis, the British School will resume operations in October. The wellpreserved seats in the cavea of the theatre are all inscribed on the first row, and bear
the names of different tribes. On all of them is to be read in addition the name of a certain Antiochos, who, in capacity of agonothetes, had dedicated the seats, and also the water conduit. The Greek Inspector of the excavations, Dr. Kastromenos, has found in the house of a peasant an inscription of 248 lines, which appears to have come from the city Agora. It is a list of prices of various things, and dates from the lower Roman Empire, probably from the time of Diocletian. The slab has been placed in the museum of Megalopolis, which is now rapidly growing in importance.
* * *
The Morgenblad of Christiania contains two interesting papers upon the earliest inhabitants of the Christiania Valley-i.e., the district around the capital. The earliest immigrants were those of the Stone Age, and traces show that they came up along the west coast of the Fjord from the Swedish Province of Bohus. Of remains found in and around the capital of these primæval dwellers are axes, spear-heads, and wedges, all of flint. However, no traces have been found of the domestic animals kept by them, as the case has been in other parts of Scandinavia. Neither has a single grave from the Stone Age been found near the capital; in fact, only two or three such have been found in the whole of Norway, although frequent enough in Sweden and Denmark. It seems that no graves from this age are found on the fjord north of the province of Bohus, on the south-west coast of Sweden, nor, even in the neighbouring province of Smaalenene, in Norway, otherwise rich in flint implements, has a single grave been found. In addition to flint implements, some thirty others of various kinds of hard stone have been found around the capital. * * *
Coming to the Bronze Age very few objects from the same have been found in Norway, as these, being manufactured in the south of Europe, were no doubt costly. Around Christiania only two objects have been found, viz. a handsome buckle, from about the second century B.C., and a bronze celt. Whilst few objects from the Bronze Age have been found, there are none whatever from the transitory period-perhaps many centuries
between that age and the Early Iron Age; and even objects from the latter are scarce. Near the capital, however, several so-called "loom shuttle" shaped stones of quartzite have been found, worn by the men in their Celts or hanging from the same, which were, no doubt, used for the striking of fire. These may be said to date from the second or third century B.C. Of other objects from this age there have been found in and near Christiania swords, arrow-heads, part of a shield, a spear-head, and a pair of spurs-all of iron, and a gold bracteat. The latter are thin round pieces of gold, chased on one side, and worn as medallions. They appear to have been imitations of West-Roman coins of the fourth and fifth century; but the present ornament is assigned to the sixth century.
of finds from the Late Iron Age-the Viking era-there are many from Christiania, where, no doubt, many tumuli have stood. They consist of double-edged swords, a hammer, a fire steel, an arrow, and spear-heads, axeheads, etc., with calcined bones and clay urns, and-curiously to relate the fragments of a wooden chess - board, with three dice and eleven figures of bone. Dating from this age are also some oval convex bronze buckles and some shamrock-shaped ones, richly chased with the figures of animals, characteristic of this age, and a silver treasure, consisting of seven armlets, silver bars, and wire, and sixteen Arabic coins struck in the period from the eighth to the tenth century. The coins are Cufic, viz.: hailing from the town of Cufa, near Bagdad, and numerous such have been found in Scandinavia and even Iceland. They are, no doubt, spoils of the Vikings.
During some excavations in the ancient cathedral of Lund, in Sweden, a sarcophagus of burned bricks has been encountered in the centre of the nave and facing the pulpit. When uncovered it was slightly damaged in one corner, whereby is displayed a skeleton, part of the swathing, and some bits of silver, the latter being no doubt the plates from the coffin. The sarcophagus awaits opening pending the arrival of a State Archæologist from Stockholm.
The annual meeting of the Swedish Antiquarian Record Society, of Stockholm, has just been held. The number of members is 183. Among deceased members last year was Dr. Gudbrand Vigfusson, of Oxford University. The Society has published Nos. 97, 98, and 99 of its Records, containing a collection of poems from the mediæval age, the Saga of Karl Magnus, and the continuation of a dictionary of the Swedish language during the medieval age, etc. * * * Northern Antiquarian Memorials is the title of a new annual publication to be issued by the Royal Northern Antiquarian Record Society, of Copenhagen. It is illustrated, and accompanied by a résumé in French. *
The last portion of an interesting work, Drawings of Ancient Northern Architecture, has just been issued in Copenhagen. There are eighteen handsome plates, among which are six of the ancient castle of Vadstena, in Sweden, a splendid specimen of the Renaissance style, and a drawing of an altar-table in Linköping Cathedral, originally Roman in style, but with additions and restorations in pure Gothic. The original dates from the transition period between the two. From Thelemarken, now in the Bygdö Park, near Norway we have portion of a "Stabur" from Christiania, where are many ancient Norse buildings collected by King Oscar. Among the Convent Chapel over a burgher and a Danish plates is an epitaph from Horsen's councillor, from 1635, and one representing the southern portal of Velling Church, richly ornamented with fantastic forms of animals. * *
An important discovery of ancient frescoes has been made in Vigersted Church, in the Island of Seeland, Denmark. They are painted in the dome and on the walls, and represent the Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, the Saviour in the Garden of Gethsemane, and other events from the Old and New Testaments. There are also two paintings, by Kund Lavard, of great historical interest.
A case of great interest to antiquarians has just occurred in Denmark, and illustrates the excellent laws respecting archæological remains in force in that country. Some time
ago a peasant found, on ploughing a field, a spiral-shaped finger-ring of gold, which he sold to a man for five shillings. The latter in turn offered it to the Royal Museum of Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen, and, to his surprise, was informed that the ring being "Danefæ," or an antiquarian object found on Danish soil, could not be the object of sale, and was, by law, the property of the crown-i.e., the museum. Moreover, although its weight in gold would be paid, it could not be paid to the holder, but only to the finder, as the sale was illegal. Finders and purchaser had to settle the matter afterwards between them. The metal value paid was 195., with 3s. 6d. reward to the finder for the discovery.
A Recent Uisit to Pompeii.
BY PROFESSOR FREDERICK HALBHERR.
HE excavations of the last few months have been carried on at the southern extremity of the city, viz., in the suburban quarter of the Porta Stabiana, and at some houses of the second Island of the Eighth Region, situated to the south of the Forum, where the so-called Via della Scuola crosses the Vicolo dei Teatri.
Already last year, on the left of the road leading from the Porta Stabiana, was found the beginning of a series of sepulchral monuments, two of which are now completely excavated; while a third cannot for the present be cleared of the superincumbent earth, on account of its proximity to some modern dwelling-houses. These two funereal monuments are in the form of a high-backed semicircular seat, like the tombs of the priestess Mamia, and of the duumvir A. Veius, on the road to Herculaneum. They were erected, as we learn from their respective inscriptions, by decree of the decurions, and at the public expense, the one to a certain Marcus Tullius, Marci filius; the other, to one Marcus Alleius Minius, Quinti filius. During the last few weeks at hole has been made in the pavements of both
tombs, but without finding the place of burial, or any trace of funereal deposits, which will now be sought for in the small area at the back.
On the right side of the road, on which hitherto no tombs have been found, there is a low wall of fine opus reticulatum, and buried in the soil before this were found the objects lately described in the "Foreign Notes" of the Antiquary, viz., the trunk of a tree, four cavities formed by human corpses, showing on the mould-taken by means of the Fiorelli process-painful contortions in the mouth and members of the body, and the lion's head in tufa, with pierced and open mouth, evidently used as a waterspout, or gargoyle.
The excavations in the Eighth Region have during the last few days thrown light upon the houses numbered 16 to 21 of the second Insula, Via III. and Via IV., where the remarkable discovery has been made of a building five stories high. Houses of any great height are not common at Pompeii, and none so high as this has been found before, though houses several stories high have indeed been found in this very quarter of the city, which looks towards Stabiæ, and enjoys a fine sea view. It is well known that ancient Pompeii was built on a platform or ridge of prehistoric lava, which finished by slanting abruptly down to the seashore. Consequently, the houses built at a later period of the city's history, after the old circuit-walls on this side had been destroyed, were built several stories high, the upper ones being entered from the higher level, and the others from the basement at the lower level. The upper story of this five-storied house was profusely decorated with mural paintings of various kinds. The principal room or hall presents in the middle of the wall, which has fortunately remained entire, a half-ruined and much faded painting of the myth of Bellerophon. The hero is represented nude, holding with one hand the bridle of a horse ready to start on a journey, while he receives a letter and order from King Proetus, who is seated on a throne before him. To the right and left of this principal picture are two paintings of an architectural character, having figures in the centre. That on the left represents a door of some building, with standing in it
the figure of a man, richly clothed, who is on the point of entering, having in his hand at papyrus roll, probably a teacher, savant, or philosopher. The picture on the right hand also shows a man entering another door, holding in his hand a cantharos, and having his brow crowned with laurel, in the act of going to perform a sacrifice. The other walls are decorated in a simple manner with statuesque figures of women, each on a pedestal, represented on a black ground. In other rooms are seen gracefully-twining vine-branches, on which are perched birds, lizards, and other animals, all on a black ground.
Two covered porticoes (cryptoportici) pass under these rooms just described, and lead by a steep descent to the floor below. While, however, the upper story appears to have been a private dwelling-house, the part below seems to have contained a bathing establishment in the hands of the proprietor, to which the public would be admitted by payment. One of the galleries gives it an exit direct on the Via della Scuola, the other connects it with the house above and the Via dei Teatri. In this second story, just below the level of the higher part of the city, can be seen the calidarium and the frigidarium, the latter in perfect preservation. There are three steps by which the water was entered. The surrounding walls of this apartment are painted in their upper portion red, and in their lower portion blue. On the former can be seen ornaments of an architectural character, with some figured scenes. Some further excavations, however, will have to be made, and some of the upper walls, which have been broken through, will have to be reconstructed on the old lines before a full examination can take place. One picture, however, must be mentioned, though of not perfect style, which occupies the centre of the right wall. Here we see a nymph, semi-nude, riding over the waves on a seahorse. The ornamental band which divides the red from the blue surface is formed of scenes of a caricaturist or comic character, representing dwarfs and pigmies in combat with various animals. The scenery is that of the Nile country. One dwarf is in the act of throwing a large stone at an Egyptian ibis. Another is endeavouring to save the life of a woman,
who has fallen into the river; but while drawing her to the bank he is himself seized by a crocodile. Hereupon he is represented fastening himself with fastening himself with a rope to another dwarf behind him, who is seen straining every nerve to prevent his comrade from being drawn down by the weight into the The ceiling of the frigidarium was formed of a vault, of which now only a few pieces remain. It was decorated both with stucco and with painting. The stucco ornaments represent graceful figures of animals, fishes, centaurs, marine monsters with nymphs, an amorino with the club of Hercules, Hermæ of Apollo, and of Mercury, the latter with a cock, etc., etc. The calidarium was adorned only in stucco. Only one lunette of the vault has been preserved, in which are seen two genii, or winged fantastic figures, with between them a cantharos, and another of a gladiator or gymnast coming fresh from the palæstra, and in the act of wiping off the dust from his right arm with a strigil.
Adjoining this house, another, which has been numbered 16 on the Via della Scuola, has been excavated during the last few days. It consists of a wide vestibule, leading to a spacious atrium, with white mosaic pavement bordered with black, of which the impluvium is in a very ruined condition. The vestibulum is flanked by two small recesses, one probably used by the porter, close to which is seen a small corridor, with traces of a staircase (now destroyed) leading to an upper story. The atrium is surrounded by seven rooms, three on the right, and four on the left, one of the latter serving as the lararium, containing a chapel, of which the lower part alone is preserved entire. The upper portion, adorned with small columns, appears to have been divided into two compartments, one above the other. Here, on the pavement amidst the ashes and lapilli, were found a number of small common lamps, a fine mask of terracotta in the shape of an anthemion, and a coin. From the atrium we pass into a small peristyle, not yet cleared out, which gave a view of the beautiful country before Stabiæ and of the sea. Indeed, most of the houses hereabout have very large openings for windows, that the inhabitants might enjoy the view of the gulf. On the left other rooms are entered, of which one had its walls
At the Mill the 4th Maye 1612 placed & piled in bondells ech conteyning fyve
incrusted with marble, a rare occurrence in Pompeii. A border of square tessera of variegated marble, and above it an ornamental band of flowers cut out of pieces of porphyry serpentine and giallo-antico, may still be seen adhering to the wall.
Amongst the small objects found during the most recent excavations are eleven vessels of bronze, rectangular at the base, but with the mouth wider, and provided with two handles, which are believed to be crucibles. Some fragments of inscriptions recently disinterred, which appear to refer to a priestess of Venus, are now being studied by Professor Sogliano of Naples.
A plan and descriptions of the five-storied house, containing the public bath, will shortly be published by Dr. Mau, of the German Institute in Rome, to whom Pompeii already owes so much illustration. The three floors beneath the therma seem to have been used as stores for merchandise or shops, and were evidently entered from the lower level on the seashore.
Pompeii, June 28, 1890.
Thomas Lem my old Serv't & brickmaker came into my service to hew smothe Ashler, make brick, or what els I should imploye him in concerning building, the 9th of April 1611 who coven'ted with me by a paier of Inden
Paid him in June 1611 24th December 1612 1613 aid hir more by Ruth for me Junij 1613... 255. Thomas the yonger his sonne after the rate of 2d. a day & dyett 28th September 1613 Thomas Lem the elder 1 Novembris 1613 by Ruth Reve for me £4
Masons Octobris 1611.
Bargained with Crowe of Bromsgrove a free mason the 7th October 1611 that he and his sonne shuld hewe 3 tones Asheler & mouldinge at the rate of 11S. the weeke for both of them they finding themselves meate, drink & lodging & tooles & that they must contynue winter and sommer at that rate. And to contynue in the work without going out or changinge during the time I shall sett them to work & pay that wages. Md Crowe Md to Crowe. . . because St. Luke was holyday & for that 22d. was abated of a whole week 20s. 2d. To Crowe upon St. Andrewes day the last of November 1611 for 5 weeks work for him & his boye 55s. and so even till then what time I discharged him till my Sheriff work ended 55s.