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The parliament assembles, Sept. 30, when thirty-five articles of accusation are exhibited against the king; he is declared deposed, Thomas Merks, bishop of Carlisle, alone venturing to speak in his favour'.

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The duke of Lancaster claims the crown by right line of the blood"," and is declared king, being placed in the throne by the archbishops of Canterbury and York, (Thomas Arundel and Richard Scrope,) Sept. 30.

Merks was one of Richard's chief friends, and was made prisoner with him at Flint, but soon released. He was now committed to the Tower, and deprived of his see, of which William Strickland obtained possession Nov. 15, 1399. In the June following Merks was placed in the custody of the abbot of Westminster, where he had formerly been a monk, and on Nov. 28 he received the king's pardon and was set at liberty. In consequence of his "notable poverty,' he was allowed to receive from the pope, who had conferred on him the title of bishop of Samothrace, ecclesiastical benefices to the value of 200 marks, which the king increased to 300. The abbot of Westminster bestowed on him the rectory of Todenham, in Gloucestershire, in 1404, and he probably died there about the end of the year 1409.

His claim appears thus on the Rolls of Parliament: "In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I Henry of Lancaster challenge the realm of England, and the crown, with all the members and appurtenances, as that I am descended by right line of the blood from good King Henry the Third, and through that right that God of His grace hath sent me, with help of kin and of my friends, to recover it; the which realm was in point to be undone by default of governance, and undoing of the good laws."

A Table of the Kings and Queens of England

since the Norman Invasion,

With the exact date of the Commencement of each Reign.

The legal maxim, that "the king never dies," in virtue of which the accession of each monarch is ascribed to the same day as the demise of his predecessor, was unknown in the earlier periods of our history. From William I. to Henry III. inclusive, the reign of each king was considered only to commence at his coronation, the doctrine of hereditary right not being fully accepted, and the interregnum thus occasioned extended from three days in the case of Henry I., to nearly two months in those of Henry II. and Richard I. From Edward II. to Henry VIII. the accession is ascribed to the day following the death or deposition of the preceding king, (Edward I., Edward III., Edward V., and Richard III., are exceptional cases); but from Edward VI. to the present day the above-cited maxim has prevailed.

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Eldest son of Henry III.

EDWARD I.

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Eldest surviving son of Henry II.

Crowned Sunday, Sept. 3.

Died

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Fifth and youngest son of Henry II.
Crowned (Ascension-day) May 27.

Died Oct. 19.

Eldest son of John, crowned Oct. 28.
Died Nov. 16.

Proclaimed Nov. 20, 1272, crowned Aug. 2, 1274. 1272
Died July 7.

1307

1189

35

36

1189

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. 1199

10

1199

. 1216

18

. 1216

57

335

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EDWARD IV.

EDWARD V.

Eld. son of Henry IV., began to reign March 21.
Died Aug. 31.

Only son of Henry V., began to reign Sept. 1..
Deposed March 4, 1461; restored Oct. 9, 1470;
deposed April, 1471.

THE HOUSE OF YORK.

His grandfather, Richard, was son of Edmund,
fifth son of Edw. III.; and his grandmother,
Anne, was great-granddaughter of Lionel, third
son of Edw. III. Began to reign March 4. 1461
Died April 9.

Eldest son of Edw. IV., began to reign April 9. 1483
Date of death unknown.

. 1483

23

0

1485

3

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RICHARD III. {Died August 22.

Younger br. of Edw. IV., beg. to reign June 26. 1483

HENRY VII.

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Only surviving son of Henry VII.

HENRY VIII. Began to reign April 22.

Died Jan. 28.

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Son of Henry VIII: by Jane Seymour.
Began to reign Jan. 28.

EDWARD VI.

Died July 6.

[LADY JANE GREY

MARY

ELIZABETH

. 1485

1509

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Documents are in existence bearing her scal

as Queen, dated as early as July 9, and as late
as July 18.

Daughter of Henry VIII. by Catherine of
Arragon.

Reign reckoned from July 6, (death of Edw. VI.) 1553
Died Nov. 17.

Daughter of Henry VIII. by Anne Boleyn
Began to reign Nov. 17.

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ANNE

Mary died Dec. 27, 1694; William died March 8, 1702
Daughter of James II., began to reign Mar. 8. . 1702
Died Aug. 1.

THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.

Eldest son of the Elector of Hanover, by Sophia,
daughter of Fred. V., King of Bohemia, and
Elizabeth, daughter of James I.

. 1714

13

GEORGE I.

Began to reign Aug. 1.

1714

Died June 11.

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GEORGE III.

GEORGE IV.

WILLIAM IV.

VICTORIA

Grandson of George II., began to reign Oct. 25.
Died Jan. 29.
Eldest son of George III., began to reign Jan. 29.
Died June 26.

Third son of George III., began to reign June 26. 1830
Died June 20.

Daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son

of George III.

Began to reign June 20.

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1760

1820

60

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