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threefold aim of this book is to relate in concise form the history of Dulwich, without the story of the college to overshadow the story of the village; to make a first attempt towards a history of Norwood; and to write a brief, relevant, and accurate life of Edward Alleyn, the founder of the college.
Of the large wood, Northwood or Norwood, to the north of Croydon, there can be but little to say, but that little has been gleaned and put together in an interesting way. Its position and condition, a century and a half ago from the present time, is made clear by a reproduction from Rocque's map of London and its environs, taken in 1746. The perambulations to the Vicar's Oak in Elizabeth's reign, Cromwell's seizure of the wood, the Horns Tavern, the Norwood gipsies, the mineral spa, and the present condition of the district of Norwood, are all faithfully set forth.
The manor of Dulwich was bestowed on the priory of Bermondsey by Henry I.; the few references to the manor in the priory annals (which are among the Harl. MSS.) are given. Edward Alleyn bought the property in 1606 from the family to whom the king had sold it after the dissolution. The old college was begun in 1613, but not formally opened till 1619. In describing the college chapel, Mr. Galen notes that it is inscribed with "a curious anagram in Greek." This is not a correct description. The words are the Greek version of Ps. li. 2, and form a palindrome inscription, that is, it is capable of being read forwards or backwards. Nor is it stated that this same inscription is to be found on several old English and Continental fonts. The story of the once famed wells of Dulwich, and of its various noted houses, is well told, and there is a good chapter on local celebrities. Alleyn's life has often been given, but this is the first time that it has been set out with clearness and accuracy, "with a due rejection of the many spurious facts that have obtained credence, owing to the spurious additions to the college manuscripts." The volume is profusely illustrated; it is sure to be deservedly popular.
VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.
By Sir G. F. Duckett, Bart. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co. Royal 8vo., pp. 52. The Order of Cluni possessed thirty-five subordinate houses in England, the first established of which was the Priory of Barnstaple. The VicarGeneral of the Order was, in almost every instance, the Prior of St. Pancras of Lewes. The Order of Cluni obtained from Gregory VII., who had himself been a Cluniac monk, special immunity from diocesan supervision, but its monasteries were regularly visited by delegated ecclesiastics from the parent house. These visitations were undertaken for the purpose of promoting uniformity in discipline, for the correction of abuses, for the reformation of morals, and for the maintenance of each convent's temporal rights. The visitors, selected from their own Order, were nominated yearly by the General Chapter held at Cluni. The General Chapter was composed of the heads of all abbeys and priories, attendance being compulsory under pain of deposition; but the abbots and priors of England, together with those of other distant provinces, were exempted from attendance save once in three years. Sir George Duckett has done
excellent service to ecclesiology in translating, from the original records in the National Library of France, the English visitations of 1262, 1275-6, and 1279, together with parts of those for the years 1298, 1390, and 1405. The first of these are the earliest visitations extant of any English houses. To these visitations are added an important ordinance, of the year 1247, regulating the Bede and Obit Rolls of the Order.
THE ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. By Rev. Canon Isaac Taylor, LL.D. Walter Scott. Crown 8vo., pp. xi., 349. Price 3s. 6d.
That this account of the prehistoric ethnology and civilization of Europe is of much value and research is guaranteed by the very name of the author. Canon Taylor tells us that this volume does not aim at setting forth new views or speculations, but that it is rather a summary of the labour of many scholars, and a critical digest of a considerable literature. He has drawn largely upon the works of four German scholars, Cuno, Pösche, Penka, and Schrader; but as these are practically unknown authors, especially the first named, to the great majority of well-informed Englishmen, this book is for England an almost new revelation. Professor Max Müller's argument, first put forth some thirty years ago, as to a common primitive Aryan ancestry for Indians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Slaves, Celts and Germans, based almost exclusively on philological grounds, although at one time so universally accepted, has already been undermined, and Canon Taylor now blows it once for all to the winds. He proves to the hilt that identity of speech does not of necessity imply identity of race, any more than diversity of speech implies diversity of race. "The language of Cornwall is the same as the language of Essex, but the blood is Celtic in one case, and Teutonic in the other. The language of Cornwall is different from that of Brittany, but the blood is largely the same. Two related languages, such as French and Italian, point to an earlier language, from which both have descended; but it by no means follows that French and Italians, who speak those languages, have descended from common
Canon Taylor's speculation as to the relations of the Basques and Iberians is quite original, and, to our mind, one of the most valuable sections of the book. But he is for the most part more at home as a destructive critic of mistaken theories of the past, rather than the builder of lasting erections. With some of his theories we are uiterly at variance. There is nothing very original in making religion almost entirely a matter of skull formation; such reasoning is to be expected from agnostic professors and German rationalists; the originality comes in when we find these arguments cleverly marshalled by a canon and a rector of the Church of England. The awkward part of it is that such theories are in absolute antagonism with the mission of Jesus Christ to the founders of the faith, which was to be as wide as the world itself, and with the assertion of St. Paul that his message was as much for the Scythian as the Greek, as much for the freeborn Roman as for all the sweepings of the slave marts of every clime. But the missionary, according to the gospel of Canon
Taylor, would have to go about armed with a measuring-tape, and would have to first satisfy himself by the skull index whether there was any use in preaching at all, and then if he thought it worth while to make the attempt, the tape would tell him what kind of preaching would pay the best, for the dolichocephalic race is Protestant, and the brachycephalic race is Roman Catholic.
Valuable as this book is in many respects, its anthropology has to be received with caution. Canon Taylor, in his preface, speaks of Dr. Rudolph Virchow as "the greatest of the Germans," but he breaks away from him in some important particulars. As an instance of Dr. Taylor's occasional slips, from lack of wider reading, that vitiate some of his arguments, it may be mentioned that, on page 173, the controversy as to the antiquity of the practice of shaving is introduced in order to show the way in which philological conclusions have been corrected by archæology." It has been contended that the primitive Aryans shaved their beards on the ground of the identity of the Greek Eupov and the Sanskrit kshurd, words which both denote a razor. Dr. Taylor, however, quotes with approval the statement of Helbig that the Sanskrit word only means a flint-flake for scraping hair off hides, as it would be difficult to shave with a stone, however sharp"; and the Swiss pile buildings show that the early Ayrans were still in the stone age. This sounds very conclusive, only we happen to know, and Dr. Taylor ought to have known, that stone razors are even now in use, not only among wild tribes, but in comparative civilization. In the Land of the Quetzal, recently published by Mr. W. T. Brigham, the writer speaks of the strange experience of being thus shaved, stating that a little care was needed to avoid taking away the cuticle, but adding, "these stone razors are admirable substitutes for Sheffield steel, and are always sharp."
BOOKS, ETC., RECEIVED. Many antiquarian magazines have reached us this month, including
several from America; the American Antiquarian
and Oriental Journal for May is a specially good number. Two attractive little guide-books have just been published, Ficturesque Wales and New Holidays in Essex; these are both wonderful sixpennyworths, and the brief archeological information contained in them is accurate and careful.
We have received the History of Russia, Monu mental History of the British Church, A Calendar of Wills relating to the County of Kent (1384-1559), the History of Okehampton, The Annals of the BarberSurgeons, and many others; but owing to pressure on our space, the reviews will appear in our next issue.
LOW SIDE WINDOWS.
I AM glad to find from the numerous communications on the subject of the use of the Low Side Window which appear in the last issue of the Antiquary, that the interest is not only being kept up but is increasing; I therefore beg, as an advocate of what may be called the Hand-bell Theory, to offer the following observations, which, I trust, may strengthen the case of those who first suggested this view of the use to which these curious openings were applied.
Thinking that, perhaps, in the ceremonies of the Mass, as used in the Roman Catholic Church at the present day, some relic of the custom might be traced, I find that it is the usage to ring a bell three times during the service. First, at the words Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus, Deus Sabaoth, towards the end of the Preface; secondly, when the priest spreads his hands over the oblation; and thirdly, at the elevation of the host and chalice. The first and second ringings are made by the small bell, and the third on a larger bell or gong, and in places where they possess them on one of the bells in the tower. The smaller bell is used to give notice to the congregation of the approach of the most solemn part of the Mass; and I think it at least probable that such notice might have been given in former times from the Low Window, to warn those passing the church of what was about to take place within, in order that they might prepare to make fitting reverence and adoration.
As it is admitted that the ceremonies of the Mass (except in some small particulars) have been strictly retained, and are nearly identical with those of mediæval times, I think that the present custom of ringing the bells inside may have been only adopted for the purpose of secrecy in the troublous times of openings, it may be accounted for from the fact that persecution. As to the various positions of these believe traces of them have been found even in roodaltars were placed frequently in the aisles, and I
I was greatly interested in the account given by Rev. G. H. Lightfoot in the April Antiquary of the restoration of the elaborate series of wall-paintings of the parish church of Pickering. I own, however, to having felt more than doubtful as to the expediency and fitness of the reparation that had been undertaken, so far as I was able to judge from the printed account. But the article induced me to make a pilgrimage to the church of St. Peter, Pickering, and I wish to put briefly on record the great pleasure that the sight of these fifteenth-century church pictures gave me. Ecclesiologists owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Lightfoot for the scholarly ability and painstaking conservation with which he has superintended this delicate task of reparation. All my scruples as to the propriety of the steps taken at once vanished on my actually seeing the accomplished work. Pickering Church can now give an incomparably better idea of medieval wall decoration of the legendary character than any other ecclesiastical edifice in England. I write this, because I think that many summer visitors to Scarborough, Whitby, or Filey, may like to know of the exceptional interest that attaches to this church.
Our Lady's, Orton.
Normandy, Horsham. ? Lewes.
Holy, Witherslack. -? Brougham Castle. Worcestershire.
St. Anne's, Malvern.
St. Peter's, Doncaster.
St. Hilda's, Hinderwell.
St. Catharine's, Loversall.
SS. Margaret and Helen's, Burnsall.
And any in the counties of Bedford, Bucks, Cambs, Durham, Gloucestershire, Hunts, Monmouth, Rutland, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex.
Answers should be sent to me direct: Albion Crescent, Scarborough.
R. C. HOPE.
Intending contributors are respectfully requested to enclose stamps for the return of the manuscript in case it should prove unsuitable.
During June, July, and August, the CONFERENCE will be suspended.
It will be resumed in the September number, subject: "Suggestions for the better Management and Usefulness of Archaological Societies."
The "Low Side Window" discussion can be continued in the Correspondence columns.
Motes of the Month.
ALL archæologists will be pleased to hear that at last some steps have been taken to preserve the very curious paintings on the backs of the stalls in Carlisle Cathedral, executed under Prior Gondibour in 1484. One represents the legend of St. Augustine, another that of St. Anthony, a third that of St. Cuthbert, and the fourth the Twelve Apostles. Two of these, those representing the legend of St. Anthony and the Twelve Apostles, were long covered with whitewash (probably at the Reformation), and were brought to light by Dr. Percy (Dean of Carlisle 1778-82). The others, if ever whitewashed, were uncovered in Dr. Todd's time (Prebendary of Carlisle 1685 to 1728). 咖 k
Two of these legends, St. Augustine and St. Anthony, were most beautifully copied in water-colour by Mr. Thomas Carlyle, a local artist, organ-builder, and carver, father of Mr. Robert Carlyle, a well-known artist. These copies are now in possession of Mr. William Forster, of Houghton Hall, near Carlisle. Copies were also made, some fifty years ago, by Mr. M. E. Nutler; these were purchased by the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle some fifteen years ago at the sale of the library of Mr. Cowen, of Dalston and Carlisle. Other copies were made at a later date by Lady Frances Harcourt. These various copies serve as milestones on the road to ruin of these curious paintings, and their progress down that road has been regarded with curious equanimity and in
difference by some, at least, of the authorities. This progress during the last twenty years has, under a régime of gaslights and cokestoves, been most rapid, and recent investigation showed that the paint was parting from the woodwork in large scales. Canon Richmond took the matter in hand, and, acting on advice from his father, Mr Richmond, R.A., called in experts, who syringed the paintings with fine parchment-size, which soaked in behind the flakes, and thus secured them to the woodwork. For the present these curious paintings, or as much as remains, are safe, but it is necessary that they should be protected with glass. This, we are glad to hear, the Chapter contemplates doing.
The fabric fund of Carlisle Cathedral has recently been freed from the charges imposed upon it for the restoration of the fratery by the late Mr. Street, and signs of activity on the part of the Dean and Chapter are apparent. Sir Arthur Blomfield has been called in to advise upon a new lodge at the Castle Street entrance, and the model of a font occupied the west end of the nave for a few hours, and not a little startled some people by its lofty and towering cover, which, rumour says, is to be of wrought-iron. Carlisle Cathedral is justly famed for beautiful woodwork of various periods: its traditions are, so to say, of woodwork. The late Mr. Street made a huge mistake in intruding a stone pulpit (the Paley memorial pulpit) into Carlisle Cathedral, and we do hope Sir Arthur is not going to repeat the error and introduce an iron font-cover! We should suggest, further, that some opportunity should be given to the inhabitants of the diocese of expressing an opinion on anything that may be proposed to be done in their cathedralthe possession of funds to spend may lead the authorities into mischief.
Courtesy and gratitude are too rare virtues to be in any way sneered at, but surely the hon. secretaries of our provincial antiquarian societies just occasionally obtrude these virtues in the wrong place. In two circulars or programmes of excursions for July, 1890, we note the following expressions: "The Council desire to present the thanks of the association to Rev. for his kindness in E
throwing open his church to the members." "The society is under great obligations to Rev. for allowing them to see the church." It cannot be too often insisted on that the parish churches of England do not belong to the parsons, still less to the squires or patrons, but are the churches of the people.
In the grounds attached to the house of Minsteracres, situate about midway between the Tyne and the Derwent, are three Roman altars, each about five feet high. Two of these altars are stated in the Lapidarium Sept. to be letterless, but Mr. Robert Blair, F.S.A., during a recent visit in July, found that this was not the case, as two of the altars bear traces of inscription, though in only one case can any sense be made of the letters. The inscription on this one is in well-formed though faint letters, and is NVMINIBVS. AVG. COH. T. On one side of this altar is carved in good relief the sacrificial patera, and on the other the prefericulum, each in a sort of wreath. The second altar has on one side a figure of a Roman soldier helmeted (a Mars) in high relief, with a spear in one hand and a shield in the other; beneath the latter a bird, probably a goose. The third altar has not the least trace of an inscription. Near the altar is a group of three female seated figures, holding fruit, etc., in their laps. The figures are, as usual, headless. All these objects come from the not distant Roman station of Ebchester, situate near the point where the Watling Street crosses the river Derwent, and on the south side of that river, which there divides the counties of Northumberland and Durham.
large slab inlaid with the brass effigy of a lady, C. 1390-1400, a little over 5 feet 1 inch in length. She is represented as attired in the nebulé headdress, sideless mantle, mittened sleeves, etc., and has at her feet a dog with a collar of bells. The execution of the brass is of the best description of the period. There has been no male figure, but the slab bears indents of a fine triple canopy, having on either side the effigies of four saints under small canopies. On each side of the central pediment of the canopy is an effigy on a bracket. On one side that of an angel with a scroll, probably the Annunciating Angel; on the other that of a female figure, probably the Blessed Virgin. On each side of the lady's head is the indent of a large shield, and round the whole composition the indent of a marginal inscription. It is supposed that the lady commemorated was one of the Welby family, formerly for many centuries owners of property in Gedney, and some of whom have monuments of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the same aisle, but more precise indentification is needed. Adjacent to the slab described is a large altar-tomb, bearing on its slab the indents of a very large shield and of the four evangelistic symbols, apparently c. 1408, which may possibly be the memorial of the husband of the lady above referred to.
This is one of the most interesting discoveries of a long-hidden brass that has been made for many a year. Information has reached us that there has been a disposition shown to floor over the brass again, or, at the best, to muralize it. The former fate would be an outrage, the latter, in this case, altogether unnecessary. There is abundance of spare space in the large church of Gedney, and no injury could possibly result from its occupying its present position in situ on the pavement. We understand that the chief person concerned in the present rebuilding and restoration of this aisle is the Rev. Dr. Bellamy, President of St. John's College, Oxford, and Vice-Chancellor. Surely, if his attention is drawn to the matter, the brass will be allowed to remain in its original position.