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Gold Coin of Carausius.

A.D. 287. Maximian prepares a fleet and army for the reduction of Britain.

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A.D. 289. Carausius repulses Maximian, who is obliged to make peace with him.



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Brass Coin of Carausius, representing his association with Diocletian and Maximian.

A.D. 292. Diocletian associates Constantius and Maximinus with him in the empire.

Constantius, who now rules over Gaul, Spain, and Britain, divorces Helena.

Constantius reduces Gessoriacum, which belonged to Carausius.

* These coins of the Count of the Saxon Shore are particularly interesting; the one as shewing by its proud inscription, "Roma renova," the lofty hopes the possession of Britain inspired; the other, as perhaps the earliest official recognition of the great truth that the real power of the country is based on its "wooden walls."

A.D. 294. Carausius is slain by Allectus, who as

sumes the purple in Britain.

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A.D. 296. Constantius, passing in a mist by the British fleet, lands in Britain and burns his ships.

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A.D. 304. Albans and other Christians suffer mar

Alban was a pagan resident of Verulam, who charitably gave shelter to a Christian priest, named Amphibalus, and was converted by him. Amphibalus having escaped by Alban's assistance, the latter was seized, and refusing to renounce his faith, was scourged and beheaded. On the spot where he suffered martyrdom "a church built of wonderful workmanship" afterwards arose, to which a monastic institution was added by Offa about 787, which enjoyed from him an exemption from the Rome-scot or Peterpence paid by every family but its tenants for the support of the English college at Rome, and the abbot of which afterwards received from Pope Adrian IV. precedence over all others, on account of its patron saint being regarded the proto-martyr of England. The saint is thus depicted on the brass of Abbot Delamere (who died 1396) in St. Alban's Abbey.

tyrdom; according to Bede 17,000 Christians are martyred in one month*.

A.D. 305. By the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian u Constantius and Galerius become emperors. Constantius chiefly resides in Britain, and makes a successful expedition against the Caledonians.

A.D. 306. Constantius dies at Eboracum, July 25; is buried near Cair Segeint (Caernarvon), according to Nennius.

Constantine, his son, being in Britain, is proclaimed


Maxentius, son of Maximian, takes the title of Augustus at Rome.

A.D. 307. Licinius, brother-in-law of Constantine, is declared emperor.

A.D. 312. Constantine marches against Maxentius, having with him levies from Britain.

Death of Maxentius.

A.D. 313. Constantine embraces Christianity.

Is baptized at Rome by Pope Sylvester".

Leads an army against the Britons beyond the wall of Severus, and subdues them.

A.D. 314. Certain British bishops are present at the council at Arles W.

This was in the tenth persecution, under Diocletian and Maximian; the former persecutions are not mentioned as extending to Britain.

" Maximian survived until 310, and Diocletian till 316.

▾ This is the statement of Bede, but other writers assert that Constantine only received baptism a short time before his death, in 337.

From the signatures to the canons it appears that they were Eborius of York, Restitutus of London, and Adelfius "de civitate Colonia Londinensium," (probably Rutupiæ, now Richborough, but

A.D. 319. Pacatianus, proprætor.

A.D. 325. The council of Nice, at which British bishops are believed to have been present.

A.D. 332. Constantine makes a new division of the empire, which assigns Britain, Gaul, and Iberia to one præfect.

A.D. 337. Constantine dies; in the division of the empire, Constantine, his son, receives Britain, Gaul, and Iberia.

A.D. 340. Constans acquires possession of Britain, on the death of Constantine the Younger.

A.D. 343. Constans visits Britain, and restores tranquillity there.

A.D. 347. The council at Sardica, at which British bishops are present.

A.D. 350. Magnentius, whose father was a Briton, kills Constans, and possesses himself of part of his dominions.

The army in Britain favour Magnentius.

A.D. 353. Magnentius is defeated and killed by Constantius, who thus secures the whole empire.

Martinus, præfect in Britain, kills himself in endeavouring to stab Paulus, who had been sent to inquire into his conduct in the time of Magnentius.

A.D. 357. Julian, nephew of the emperor, builds 800 vessels of small size to import corn from Britain for the supply of the Roman garrisons in Germany.

perhaps Colchester.) At the council of Nice, held in 325, British bishops are believed to have been present, but the list of signatures is imperfect.

A.D. 359. Julian builds warehouses for the corn received from Britain.

A.D. 360. Alypius, vicar (or lieutenant) in Britain. The Scots and Picts invade Roman Britain.

Lupicinus is dispatched to oppose them.

The council of Ariminium (Rimini), at which several bishops from Britain are present*.

A.D. 361. Constantius dies. Julian, surnamed the Apostate, succeeds.

A.D. 362. Julian reforms the fiscal abuses of the præfects in Britain.

A.D. 363. Julian is killed, June 26. Jovian succeeds. A.D. 364. Jovian dies, Feb. 16 or 17; is succeeded by Valentinian, who associates with himself his brother Valens.

Roman Britain harassed by the Saxons by sea, and the Picts and Scots by land.

A.D. 367. Revolt in Britain, in which Fullofaudes and Nectaridus, the commanders of the army and fleet, are slain.

Severus sent by the emperor into Britain, but soon recalled, and Jovinus appointed præfect, who sends Provertuides thither before him.

Theodosius appointed to the command in Britain.

The Picts at this time divided into two tribes, the Dicalidonæ and Vecturiones.

A.D. 368. Theodosius routs the Picts and Scots, and establishes peace.

It is stated by Sulpicius Severus that three only of the British bishops accepted the allowance for expenses offered to all the prelates by the emperor, which is reasonably taken as indicating the opulent state of the island at that period.

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