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the Marquis of Conyngham, below, incorporates half a round tower of 13th-century work, belonging no doubt to the stone castle which succeeded the motte.1 [B. T. S.]

THURLES, Tipperary (Dorles, Cal., i., 81).—A castle of Theobald Walter. Thurles Castle has a late keep with trefoil windows, and according to Grose was built by the Earl of Ormond in 1328. From information on the spot it appears that there used to be a motte in the gardens behind the castle; mentioned also by Lewis. [B. T. S.]

TIBRAGHNY, or TIPPERAGHNY, Kilkenny (Gir., i., 386; Cal., i., 19).-Granted to William de Burgh in 1200; built by John in 1185.2 A motte, with ditch and bank, and some trace of a half-moon bailey to the north. About 200 yards away is the stone castle, a late keep with ogee windows. [B. T. S.]

TIMAHOE, Queen's Co. (Gir., i., 356).—Built by Hugh de Lacy for Meiler Fitz Henry. A motte, called the Rath of Ballynaclogh, half a mile west of the village. The bailey, the banks and ditches of which seem remarkably well preserved, is almost circular, but the motte is placed at its edge, not concentrically. There are wing-banks running up the motte. Near it are the ruins of a stone castle built in Elizabeth's reign (Grose). [B. T. S.]

TRIM, Meath.-The Song tells of the erection of this castle by Hugh de Lacy, and how in his absence the meysun (the keep-doubtless wooden) was burnt by the Irish, and the mot levelled with the ground. This express evidence that the first castle at Trim had a motte is of great value, because there is no motte there The castle was restored by Raymond le Gros,3


1 See Appendix M.
3 Giraldus, v., 313.

2 Annals of Loch C.



but so quickly that the present remarkable keep can hardly have been built at that date.1 [B. T. S.]

*TRISTERDERMOт (Gir., v., 356).—Castle of Walter de Riddlesford. Tristerdermot is now Castledermot; there used to be a rath of some kind here close to the town. But Mr Orpen inclines to believe that the castle Giraldus alludes to was at Kilkea, another manor of De Riddlesford's, where there is a motte, near the modern castle. "In the early English versions of the Expugnatio Kilcae is put instead of Tristerdermot as the place where Walter de Riddlesford's castle was built."

*TYPERMESAN (Cal., i., 110).—Mr Orpen writes that this name occurs again in a list of churches in the deanery of Fore, which includes all the parish names in the half barony of Fore, except Oldcastle and Killeagh. He suspects that Typermesan is now known as Oldcastle, "where there is a remarkably well-preserved motte and raised bailey."

WATERFORD (Cal., i., 89).—We are not told whether Strongbow built a castle here when he took the town from the Ostmen in 1170. The castle is not mentioned till 1215, when it was granted by John to Thomas FitzAntony. Waterford was a walled town in 1170, and had a tower called Reginald's Tower, which seems to have been the residence of the two Danish chieftains, as they were taken prisoners there. Here too, Henry II. imprisoned Fitz Stephen. It is possible that this tower, as Mr Orpen supposes," may have been considered as the castle of Waterford. But the existing "Ring


1 This keep has a square turret on each of its faces instead of at the angles. A similar plan is found at Warkworth, and Castle Rushen, Isle of Man.

2 Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 248.

3 Figured in The Tomb of Ollamh Fodhla, by E. A. Conwell, 1873.

4 Gir., i., 255, 277.

6 Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 457.

tower" on the line of the walls, which is sometimes called Reginald's Tower, is certainly a round mural tower of the 13th century; there are others of similar masonry on the walls. [B. T. S.]

*WEXFORD (Gir., v., 314).-Probably built by Maurice Prendergast; first mentioned when taken from his sons in 1176. Mr Orpen writes: "The site of Wexford Castle is an artificial mound. Two of the scarped sides still remain, and the other two are built up above streets. When recently laying some drainpipes, the workmen came upon no rock, but only made earth."

WICKLOW (Gir., i., 298).—Existing when Henry II. left Ireland in 1173; he gave it to Strongbow. The Black Castle at Wicklow is a headland castle; it preserves the motte-and-bailey plan, though there is no motte, as there is a small triangular inner ward (about thirty paces each side) several feet higher than the outer bailey, from which it is separated by a very deep ditch cut through the rock. [B. T. S.]

We have here a list of seventy-two castles mentioned in the contemporary history of the Norman invasion. If the list is reduced by omitting Aq'i, Kilmehal, Loske, Rokerel, and Incheleder, which are not yet identified, and five castles of which the identification may be considered doubtful, Caherconlish, Croom, Clahull's Castle, Lagelachan, and Typermesan, sixty-two castles are left, and out of these sixty-two, fifty-two have or had mottes.1 In five cases the place of the motte is taken by a natural rock, helped by art; but as the idea and plan are the same it is legitimately classed as the same type.

This list might easily have been enlarged by the addition of many castles mentioned in the various Irish annals as having been built by the Normans.

1 In five cases the mottes are now destroyed.

But this



would have involved the identification of a number of difficult names, a labour to which the writer's limited knowledge of Irish topography was not equal. The greater number of these sites have now been identified by Mr Orpen, and to his papers, so frequently cited above, we must refer the reader who wishes to study the fullest form of the argument sketched in these pages.

One can easily sympathise with the feelings of those who, having always looked upon these mottes as monuments of ancient Ireland, are loath to part with them to the Norman robber. Many of us have had similar feelings about the mottes of England, some of which we had been taught to regard as the work of that heroic pair, Edward the Elder and Ethelfleda. But these feelings evaporated when we came to realise that it would have been highly unpatriotic in these founders of the British empire to have built little castles for their own personal safety, instead of building cities which were "to shelter all the folk," in the words of Ethelfleda's charter to Worcester. In like manner, wretched as were the intertribal wars of Ireland, it would have been a disgrace to the Irish chieftains if they had consulted solely their own defence by building these little strongholds for their personal use.

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The Irish motte-castles furnish us with interesting proof that this type of castle was commonly used, not only as late as the reign of Henry II., but also in the reigns of his sons, Richard I. and John; that is to say, at a time when castle-building in stone was receiving remarkable developments at the hands of Richard I. and Philip Augustus of France. This, however, need not surprise us, since we know that as late as 1242,

1 The dates of the building of numbers of these castles are given in the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Loch Cè.

Henry III. was building a motte and wooden castle in the Isle of Rhé, at the mouth of the Garonne.1 But those who imagine that the Normans built stone castles everywhere in England, Wales, and Ireland, will have to reconsider their views.

Note. Mr Orpen's work on Ireland under the Normans did not appear until too late for use in this chapter. The reader is referred to it for a more careful tracing of the history and archæology of the Norman settlements in Ireland.

1 Cal. of Pat. Rolls, 1232-1247.

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