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by dividing the number of miles travelled by the time of motion was 7 miles, or half the speed on railroads.

The fare in steamboats and canal boats includes board, and is therefore the cheapest, the stage fares are 40 per cent. higher than the railroad charges, and the average rate per mile for the whole voyage was 5 8-10th


The time spent in travelling, inclusive of stoppages, was 1,835 hours; the stoppages amounted therefore to one-fourth or 25 per cent. of the whole time occupied; and the average speed inclusive of stoppages, was 5 6-10th miles per hour.-Commercial and Statistical Register.


The Susquehannah Division of this great work, extending from Binghamton to Hornellsville, 117 miles, is commenced, and is contracted to be finished so that the cars will run the whole distance, on the fourth of July 1842. On the occasion of driving the first Pile, it was deemed proper by some of our citizens, in conjunction with the Chief Engineer and Agent of the Company, to commemmorate the event by an appropriate celebration. The Ladies, too, actuated by the same spirit which has borne onward this splendid enterprise, had conceived the idea of presenting an appropriate banner to the Company, to be elevated on the stately machine, which is destined, under the guidance of skilful operators, to bear so conspicuous a part in the execution of this grand work.

The day fixed for this "ocular demonstration" that the road will be built, was Wednesday, the 13th inst., and, as rain has been, of late, so frequent and unexpected, its dawn was looked to with intense solicitude. It came, and with unclouded brightness. All hearts were animated with this indication of the favor of a kind Providence, and every countenance beamed forth its gratitude.

At 3 o'clock, the hour designated for the commencement of the work, the ground on which the PILE-DRIVER had been erected, about one mile east of the village, was thronged with an anxious multitude-from the grey headed veteran of the Revolution, to the stripling school boy of six or seven. All were eager to witness the operations of the locomotive monster which, before known, was so much sneered at and abused. And well did the machine vindicate its majesty and power. Seizing the heavy piles with the greatest facility, with a little exercise of manual skill, they were placed in an upright position, directly under the hammers, each weighing 1000 lbs. ; and as soon as adjusted, which was but the work of a minute, these ponderous weights were raised to the height of 30 feet, from whence they descended on the head of the pile, driving it home with resistless force.This hammering continued, until it had attained a sufficient depth, when a circular saw, which projects from the machine between the piles, was put in motion, and the pile sawed off at just the required elevation. This operation is rapidly repeated-without any hindrance-only requiring the constant attention of the hands-the engine being supplied with fuel from the tops of the piles which are sawed off. It is proper to say that the first pile which was driven on this occasion, was also the first one which was cut, on the 20th of February last, by the agent of the Company, of which we gave due notice at the time.

We believe that none who witnessed the operation of the machine, will now doubt the permanency of the work. Indeed, we saw many who were credulous before, now exclaiming rapturously in its favor. It demonstrated with certainty, and with power, its capability of effecting all which its most sanguine friends had predicted; and we feel quite sure that it will go

on conquering and to conquer, removing all the obstacles which prejudice, party feeling, and illiberality have reared, until the New York and Erie Railroad shall be completed.

We saw in the crowd, the lengthened visages of some, who had been assiduously engaged in misrepresenting the views of the Company-denouncing their acts as hypocritical, and intended only for political effect; char ging them with "supporting an idle set of vagrants along the route," and laboring with rancorous zeal to prejudice the people against them. These men are now convinced, though against their will, that the road will be made, and they want only a plausible pretext to take the back track. They saw around them, yesterday, the happy countenances of the many, by whom their jaundiced croakings were heeded as the idle wind, congratulating each other on the opening prospects of the southern tier, under the enlightened auspices of an Internal Improvement administration; and they saw in this" ocular demonstration," the utter discomfiture of all their plans the dissipation, like the mists of the morning before the rising sun, of all their hopes. No wonder they were crest fallen-objects of pity, rather than scorn.

In the course of the afternoon, the presentation of the flag, spoken of above, took place. The ladies marched to the ground in procession, preceded by the Nichols Band in a splendid wagon drawn by six horses. The band, under the direction of their leader, Mr. Tuttle, a gentleman of superior musical talents, enlivened the scene with "sounds which would create a soul under the ribs of death." On reaching the designated spot, the ladies were ranged in a semi-circular form-the gentlemen in a like manner, opposite, forming a circle, with the band, and a platform for the speakers in the centre. On behalf of the Ladies, Mr. I. B. HEADLEY then addressed Mr. Macomber, the agent of the Company, in the following terms, closing with presenting him the flag.

Mr. MACOMBER, Agent of the New York and Erie Railroad Compa


SIR-The Ladies of Owego, with their own hands have wrought this beautiful banner, and honor me with its presentation to the Company, on this joyful occasion.

The work, heretofore done in the prosecution of this noble enterprise, has not been regarded as a sure guaranty of its ultimate achievment. But, Sir, the long night of doubt and despondency has passed away. assembled to witness the first blow on the line of this road, which can be hailed as the signal of its certain and speedy completion. The ladies, whom I have the honor to represent, have therefore inscribed upon this banner the cheering words " ocular demonstration." Every heart in this assembled throng responds to the sentiment. In our souls we feel The preparations of this field proclaim it; this mammoth ma chine as it steps through our beautiful vallies, with this banner floating over it, will give a voice to this inscription; every stroke of its ponderous hammers will thunder in our ears" ocular demonstration!" and the listening hills will give back their answers in startling echoes-" ocular demonstration!"

Upon the reverse field of this banner, the fair givers have written the bold prediction," July 4, 1842," the time appointed for the completion of the Susquehannah Division. They, Sir, do not doubt the company's abili ty and determination to redeem this pledge. And when the day of its redemption shall have come, it will be to us a proud recollection, that the ladies of our own beautiful village graced the first pile driver with this banner, and traced upon its ample folds this prophetic inscription.

To you, Sir, the indefatigable agent of the Company; to the experienced Chief Engineer and his assistants; to the enterprising contractor and the gentlemen connected with him, I cannot offer a more pleasing assurance of the lively interest felt by my fair constituents in the successful prosecution of your gigantic undertaking, than to remind you, that their banner will be

over you.

They tender to the Commissioner, to the Directors, and to the Stockholders, their warm congratulations for this auspicious day. With them, they rejoice in the promised consummation of an event, which is to unite the shores of Lake Erie with the banks of the Hudson. They, and we all unite with the thousands who people these southern counties, in joyfully hailing the prospective completion of a work, which shall hurry, in swift and perpetual circulation, a mighty tide of human life and human enterprise, through this long forgotten and forsaken region.

Sir, In behalf of the young ladies of Owego, I now present to the New York and Erie Railroad Company this banner, attended with their best wishes for the speedy completion of the greatest internal improvement of

our age.

Mr. MACOMBER, on behalf of the Company, acknowledged the compliment, by addressing Mr. Headley, as follows:

MR. HEADLEY-SIR: In accepting this beautiful banner, from the fair donors, allow me on the part of the New York and Erie Railroad Company, as their Agent, to return them through you our sincere and grateful thanks for the gift, and to assure them that if aught was wanting to enhance the value of the presentation, it is found in the pleasing recollection that in all our struggles to reach our present position, we have ever received the encouragement and smiles of the Ladies, and we feel convinced that to this as much as to any other cause, are we indebted for our success in overcoming all difficulties, and triumphing over all opposition.

And as we feel that the clouds of doubt and disappointment are beginning to break away, and the sun of prosperity to burst upon us, we cannot but be grateful to all who have stood by us in the dark days of our noble enterprise, and to pledge ourselves to them, and to all who truly wish for the increasing wealth and happiness of these Southern Counties, and of the Empire State, that nothing on our part shall be wanting to push this work to a speedy completion; and with the broadest and longest Railroad in the known world, to put another link into that iron band which will one day unite the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean, and remain an enduring monument of American enterprise, energy and greatness.

To the ladies whom you represent, and to yourself I would again tender the thanks of the Board of Directors and of the Commissioner, of the Chief Engineer, and his assistants, of the Contractor and his operatives and of myself, and to assure you that with this banner above us, this fruitful soil beneath us, these friends around us, and the blessing of God over all, the New York and Erie Railroad must and shall be made.

The Flag presented on the occasion, exhibited on one side our National Symbol, the stars and stripes, with an inscription on the lower edge, "ocular demonstration." On the reverse, the corner usually devoted to the Stars was occupied by the figure of a Locomotive, on a Pile Road, on a blue ground. On the lower stripe, was inscribed, July 4, 1842, as designating the time when this division is to be completed.

On the close of this ceremony, it was suggested that some one of the numerous spectators, should announce their feelings on this interesting, and auspicious occasion. By intuition, as it were, all eyes were turned to E. S. Sweet, Esq. as the man on whom this task should devolve. Ever ready

to obey the wishes of the people, Mr. Sweet ascended the platform, and though wholly unprepared, electrified the audience with a speech of thril ling eloquence, of half an hours duration.

We wish we could transfer to paper this admirable address, but we cannot. We can only say it was listened to with breathless attention, and answered with a round of cheers from the congregated multitude.

The company then returned to the village-the citizens retiring to their respective homes, while the operatives attending the machine, to wit: Capt. Thomas Sharp, with his men, Albert Savory, Peleg Briggs, George Parkhurst, Benjamin Wood, Elias Phelps, and William Robinson, and the Contractor, Chief Engineer and assistants, Agent, and a few guests, repaired to the Hotel of Mr. Manning, and sat down to a sumptuous repast.

After the repast several toasts were drank, appropriate to the occasion, of which, the following have been handed in.

By C. B. Stuart, Chief Engineer. The Contractors and Operatives.— Their energetic operations on other works, is a sure guaranty that this Division of the New York and Erie Railroad will be finished July 4, 1842.

By D. O. Macomber, Agent. The New York and Erie Railroad.The past all gloom, the present all joy; the future all hope.

By Mr. Manrow, Contractor. The Operatives.-Without them we are powerless, with them we are mighty.

By A. H. Calhoun. The Pile Driver.-It has fulfilled the expectations of its friends, and blasted the hope of its enemies.

By Jonathan Platt. His Excellency WM. H. SEWARD, Governor of the State. The firm friend of the New York and Erie Railroad.

By I. Spalding, Engineer. The Ladies of Owego.-May the flag which they have wrought with their own fair hands, float triumphantly over our Machine, until it reaches the western termination of its labors. By a Guest. The Nichols Band.-Prompt at a pinch, unrivalled in their art, and ever ready to treat their friends.

Mr. Robert Chas. Johnson being called upon for a toast, remarked, that when the citizens of this place first convened for the purpose of petitioning the legislature for a survey of the route, of the New York and Erie Railroad, it was considered by many as wild and chimerical. He well recollected encountering a gentleman, who asked him if he really thought this work would ever be commenced, to which he replied, yes, most surely.The gentleman then replied, in a sneering manner," It can never be you may as well attempt to scull a pot-ash kettle up the falls of Niagara, with a crow-bar, as to effect this visionary project." In view of what has been done, and the certainty of the speedy completion of the road, he would give, The Pot-ash Kettle sculled up.

The company dispersed at an early hour, in good spirits, and high hopes for the future.

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.-Boring Granite Rocks. Mr. Prideaux observed, that a year or two since it had been suggested to him whether some chemical process could not be adopted to bore hard rocks. After some consideration, and trying several experiments, he at last found that a stream of hydrogen-oxygen gas applied to a piece of granite soon produced heat, and on application of cold water the stone became soft, and yielded to the tool. He repeated the experiment with the same result in every case. Mr. P. then explained how the gases should be mixed, and how it might be infused into the hole in the rock. He also said that a great deal of the difficulty of getting the gas at the bottom of the mines

might be obviated by very simple means. Oxygen might be superseded by common air from a pair of double bellows; and the common coal gas would be foud better than hydrogen, because it contained more inflammable matter in a given space, and it might be procured from any neighbouring gasworks, and conveyed down into a mine in a copper vessel. (Mr. Prideaux explained the kind of vessel by diagram.) If said Mr. Prideaux, oxygen gas should be found absolutely necessary, nothing was easier to procure where there was a steam engine; they had only to get a litile iron retort, and in a country like Cornwall, abounding with manganese, they need never be at a loss for oxygen gas. He did not, however, suppose, in the present state of underground management in our mines, this plan would be adopted, but he was of opinion, should the Mining School be continued for two or three years, there would soon be many young men ready to carry it into effect.-Mining Review.


(Continued from page 313.)
No. 2.

Schedule of Accidents to British Steam Vessels.*

No. 3.

Known accidents and Disasters to American Steamboats since the Law

of 1838.

October 27th, 1838, Cynthia, Detroit river, burnt; passengers and crew saved by running on shore.

Nov. 25, Gen. Brown, Mississippi, explosion, thirty lives lost.

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Jan 1839. Clarendon, Sav. and Darien, burnt; crew and passengers saved.
Ploughboy, Mobile, sunk, on arriving at Mobile.
Somerville, Mississippi, sunk.

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Feb. Oswego, Ohio, sunk, near the mouth of the Kentucky.

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Alert, Mississippi, eruption of steam; 4 scalded.

Alice, Pearl river, sunk.

March, Reporter, Ohio, eruption of steam; 4 scalded.


New York, New Haven, burnt.

May, Avalanche, Ohio, eruption or collapse; 5 killed.

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Rhine, Missouri, explosion,

Pilot, Mississippi, explosion or collapse.

Ponchartrain, New Orleans for Tampico, explosion.

Geo. Collier, Mississippi, eruption of steam; forty-five killed or


"Erie, Hudson river, collapse, 1 slightly wounded.

66 Bee, Arkansas, sunk.

66 Indian,

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66 sunk.

Buckeye, Mississippi, explosion; several killed or wounded. June, Empire, Ohio, sunk.




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Tenessee, Cumberland river, burnt and sunk; passengers saved. Nov. Wilmington, Mississippi, explosion; nineteen killed or wounded. 1840. Gallatin, Cumberland river, collapse; three scalded.


Lexington, Long Island Sound, burnt; about 124 lives lost.

* One hundred and one accidents.

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