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LURGAN, a post and fair town in the County of Armagh and province of Ulster in Ireland, 67 miles from Dublin. It is a flourishing town, agreeably situated in the midst of a much improved country; and the inhabitants are extensively engaged in the linen manufacture. It stands on a gentle eminence, about two miles from Lough Neagh, of which it commands a most beautiful and extensive prospect. The fairs are three in the year. Lon. 6. 31 W. Lat. 54, 35 N.
LURGAN-green, a post and fair town of Ireland, in the county of Louth and province of Leinster, 37 miles from Dublin; a mile beyond which is a handsome seat of the earl of Charlemont. It has three fairs in the year.
LURID. a. (luridus, Latin.) Gloomy; dismal (Thomson).
LURIDÆ. In botany. (Luridus, a dusky or livid colour. Linnéus makes it synonymons with fuscus.) The name of the thirtythird order in Linnéus's Fragments, and of the twenty-eighth in his Ordines Naturales.
To LURK. v. n. To lie in wait; to lie hidden; to lie close (Spenser).
LURKER. s. (from lurk.) A thief that lies in wait.
LURKINGPLACE. s. (lurk and place.) Hiding place; secret place (Samuel).
LUS, a town of France in the department of Upper Pyrenées, and chief place of a canton, in the district of Argellez; league south-west Berege, and three south Argellez.
LUSATIA, a country of Germany, bounded on the north by the mark of Brandenburg, on the east by Silesia, on the south by Bohemia, and on the west by Meissen. It is about twenty-eight leagues long, and fifteen wide, and is divided into Upper and Lower." Upper Lusatia abounds more in mountains and hills, and enjoys a purer air, than the Lower, in which are found many boggy and moorish tracts. The latter, on the contrary, has a great number of woods, and those finer ones than are to be met with in the first, the fat tracts of which generally feel a great scarcity of timber, with which the others, notwith standing, are sufficiently provided, and even the very great heaths themselves to exuberance. In Lusatia are made all sorts of linen, from unbleached yarn, common and fine, as also fine white damask for table and bed cloths, and white tick. The black and fine dyings also support many hands; and, exclusive of these, there are in Lusatia good manufactures of hats, leather, paper, gunpowder, iron, glass, and wax-bleaching, together with other works of artists and handicrafts-people. By means of these manufactures, and in particular by means of the -cloths and linens, a considerable trade is carried on there, which, indeed, is not at present so great as it was formerly, but still is not unimportant, being productive of great advantage to Lusatia, as it exceeds the importation in wool, yarn, and silk, which are
employed for their manufactures in foreign silk, and woollen commodities, gold and silver lace points, &c. in wines, spices, corn, fresh and baked fruits, garden-stuff, and hops. The great trade carried on in linen, had its beginning in the year 1684. Upper Lusatia formerly belonged to Bohemia. Lower Lusatia, which alone, till the fifteenth century, was called Lusatia, was first erected into a marquisate in the year 931, by Henry I. king of Germany. In the middle of the sixteenth century, they were both ceded to the elector of Saxony, in consideration of a large sum of money, which the elector had advanced to the emperor, in his war with the Bohemians, with condition only that the kings of Bohemia should retain the armorial bearings. The whole is now divided between the king of Prussia and the elector of Saxony.
LUSCIOUS. a. (from luxurious.) 1. Sweet, so as to nauseate. 2. Sweet in a great degree (Dryden). 3. Pleasing; delightful (South).
LUSCIOUSLY. ad. Sweet in a great degree. LUSCIOUSNESS. 8. (from luscious.) Immoderate sweetness. (Decay of Piety). LU'SERN. s. (lupus cervarius, Lat.) A lynx. LUSH. a. Of a dark, deep, full colour, op. posite to pale and faint (Shakspeare).
LUSIGNAN, a town of France, in the department of Vienne, seated on the Vonne, 15 miles south-south-west of Poitiers, and 200 of Paris. Lon. 0. 10 E. Lat. 45. 25 N.
LUSITANIA (anc. geog.) one of the divisions of Spain, extending to the north of the Tagus, quite to the sea of Cantabria, at least to the Promontorium Celticum. But Augustus, by a new regulation, made the Anas its boundary to the south, the Durius to the north; and thus constituting only a part of the mo dern Portugal. Lusitani, the people, (Dio. dorus, Stephanus).
LUSO, a river of Italy, which rises in the duchy of Urbino, crosses part of Romagno, and falls into the gulf of Venice, 10 miles west of Rimini.
LUSK. a. (lusche, Fr.)Idle; lazy; worthless. LU'SKISH. a. (from lusk.) Somewhat inclinable to laziness or indolence.
LUSKISHLY. ad. Lazily; indolently. LU'SKISHNESS. 8. (from luskish.) Á disposition to laziness (Spenser).
LUSO'RIOUS, a. (lusorius, Latin.) Used in play; sportive (Sanderson).
LUISORY. a. (lusorius, Latin.) Used in play (Watts).
LUSSAN (Margaret de), a French romance writer, was the daughter of a coachman, and born in 1682. Attracting the notice of the famous Huet, he gave her an education which she highly improved. She died in 1758. Her works are numerous, the best of which is entitled, Anecdotes de la Cour de Phillippe Auguste, 6 vols. 12mo.
LUST. s. (lunt, Saxon.) 1. Carnal desire (Taylor). 2. Any violent or irregular desire (Peacham). 3. Vigour; active power: not used (Bacon).
To LUST. v. n. 1. To desire carnally (Roscommon). 2. To desire vehemently (Knolles). 3. To list; to like: out of use (Psalms). 4. To have irregular dispositions (James).
LU'STFUL. a. (lust and full.) I. Libidinous; having irregular desires (Til.). 2. Provoking to sensuality; inciting to lust (Milton.)
LUSTFULLY. ad. (from lustful.) With sensual concupiscence.
LUSTFULNESS. s. (from lustful.) Libi.
LUISTIHED. Į s. (from lusty.) Vigour: LU'STIHOOD. sprightliness; corporal ability not in use. (Shakspeare.) LU'STILY. ad. (from lusty.) Stoutly; with vigour; with mettle (Southern).
LUISTINESS. 8. (from lusty.) Stoutness; sturdiness; strength; vigour of body (Dryden).
LUSTLESS. a. (from lust.) Not vigorous; weak (Spenser).
LUSTRAL, an epithet given by the ancients to the water used in their ceremonies
to sprinkle and purify the people. From them the Romanists have borrowed the holy water used in their churches.
LUSTRAL-DAY, (Dies Lustricus), that whereon the lustrations were performed for a child, and its name given; which usually the ninth day from the birth of a boy, and the eighth from that of a girl. Though others performed the ceremony on the last day of that week wherein the child was born, and others on the fifth day from its birth. Over this feast-day the goddess Nundina was supposed to preside; the midwives, nurses, and domestics, handed the child backwards and forwards, around a fire burning on the altars of the gods, after which they sprinkled it with water; hence this feast had the name of amphidromia. The old wo men mixed saliva and dust with the water. The whole ended with a sumptuous entertainment.
LUSTRATIONS, in antiquity, ceremonies, by which the ancients purified their cities, fields, armies, or people, defiled by any crime or impurity. Some of these lustrations were public, others private. There were three species or manners of performing lustration, viz. by fire and sulphur, by water, and by air; which last was done by fanning and agitating the air round the thing to be purified. Some of these lustrations were necessary, i. e. could not be dispensed with, as lustrations of houses in time of a plague, or upon the death of any person: others again were done out of choice, and at pleasure. The public lustra tions at Rome were celebrated every fifth year; in which they led a victim thrice round the place to be purified, and in the mean time burnt a great quantity of perfumes. Their country lustrations, which they called ambarvalia were celebrated before they began to reap their corn: in those of the armies, which t called armilustria, some chosen
soldiers, crowned with laurel, led the victims, which were a cow, a sheep, and a bull, thrice round the army ranged in battle-array in the field of Mars, to which deity the victims were afterwards sacrificed, after pouring out many imprecations upon the enemies of the Romans. The lustrations of their flocks were performed in this manner: the shepherd sprinkled them with pure water, and thrice surrounded his sheepfold with a com position of savin, laurel, and brimstone set on fire; and afterwards sacrificed to the god. dess Pales an offering of milk boiled, wine, a cake and millet. As for private houses, they were lustrated with water, a fumigation of laurel, juniper, olive-tree, savin, and such like: and the victim commonly was a pig Lustrations made for particular persons were commonly called expiations, and the victims piacula.
LU'STRE. s. (lustre, French.) 1. Bright ness; splendour; glitter (Davies). 2. A sconce with lights (Pope). 3. Eminence; renown (Swift). 4. The space of five years. LU'STRING. 8. (from lustre.) A shining
LU'STROUS. a. (from lustre.) Bright; shining luminous (Shakspeare).
LUSTRUM, in Roman antiquity, a gene ral muster and review of all the citizens and their goods, which was performed by the censors every fifth year. They afterwards made a solemn lustration.
LUSTY. a. (lustig, Dutch.) Stout; vigorous; healthy; able of body (Otway). LÚTANIST. 8. (from lute.) One who plays upon the lute.
LUTA'RIOUS. a. (lutarius, Latin.) 1. Living in mud, 2. Of the colour of mud (Grew).
LUTE, in music, a stringed instrument formerly much in use; anciently containing only five rows of strings, but to which six, or more, were afterwards added. The Lute consists of four parts, viz. the table; the body, which has nine or ten sides; the neck, which has as many stops or divisions; and the head, or cross, in which the screws for turning it are inserted. In playing this instru ment, the performer strikes the strings with the fingers of the right hand, and regulates the sounds with those of the left. The ori gin of this instrument is not known, though generally believed to be of very early date. Indeed, authors are not agreed as to the country to which we are indebted for its invention. Some give it to Germany, and derive its name from the German word Latue, which signifies the same thing, while others ascribe it to the Arabians, and trace its name from the Arabic Alland.
LUTES, in chemistry, (Lutum, clay, Lat.) Clay or substances of similar tenacity, made use of to close the joinings of chemical vessels, in order to prevent the escape of vapours and gases during the process of distillation, sublimation, and the like; or to protect vessels from the action of the fire which might crack or fuse, or calcine them;
From the vast variety of receipts for lutes, the following may be selected as best capable of answering the purposes of the experimental chemist.
To prevent the escape of the vapours of water, spirit, and liquors not corrosive, the simple application of slips of moistened bladder will answer very well for glass, and paper with good paste for metals. Bladder to be very adhesive, should be soaked some time in water moderately warm, till it feels clammy: it then sticks very well. If smeared with white of egg instead of water, it adheres still closer.
Another very convenient lute is linseedmeal moistened with water to a proper consistence, well-beaten, and applied pretty thick over the joinings of the vessels. This immediately renders them light, and the lute in some hours dries to a hard mass. Almondpaste will answer the same purpose. These, however, both begin to scorch and spoil at a beat something about boiling, and therefore will not do as fire-lutes, a number of very cohesive cements impervious to water and most liquids and most vapours, and extremely hard when once solidified, are made by the union of quicklime with many of the vegetable or animal mucilaginous liquors. The following is in frequent use: Take some whites of eggs, with as much water, heat them well together, and sprinkle in sufficient slacked lime to make up the whole to the consistence of thin paste. The lime should be slacked by being once dipped in water, and then suffered to fall into powder, which it will do speedily, with great emission of heat if well burnt. This cement should be spread on slips of cloth, and applied immediately, as it hardens or heats very speedily. A strong solution of glue may be employed with the lime instead of the white of eggs. A mixture of liquid glue, white of eggs, and lime, makes the lute d'ane, which is so firm that broken vessels united with it are almost as strong as when sound. None of these lutes, however, will enable these vessels to hold liquids for any great length
A very singular and firm lute is obtained by rubbing down some of the poorest skimmed milk cheese with water to the consistency of thick soup, and then adding lime and applying as above.
Lime and blood, with a small quantity of brick-dust or broken pottery stirred in, is used in some places as a very good water
cement for cellars and other places liable to damp.
None of these lutes will confine very corrosive acid vapours perfectly for a great length of time, but they will bear nearly a red heat, and may be employed where an apparatus is required to be air-tight.
For confining acid vapours, the fat lute, as it is called, is one of the best. This is made by taking any quantity of good clay, tobacco-pipe clay for example, thoroughly dry, but not burnt, powdering it in an iron mortar, mixing it gradually, with drying linseed-oil, and beating them for a long time to the consistence of thick paste. Much manual labour is required, and it should be continued till the mass no longer adheres to the pestle. Then make the edges of the glass or other vessels about which it is to be used perfectly dry, and apply the lute carefully, and it will stand the longest process without failing. Good glazier's putty, which is made of chalk beat up with drying linseed cil, much resembles the fat lute in quality.
The following will be found useful, applied round glass retorts when distillation with a full red heat, is wanted to protect them from the sudden action of the fire, and to give them firmness, and enable them to bear this heat without flattening or falling together when red-hot, or melting with the fuel; and a glass vessel so prepared with a thick earthen coating, may be considered as an earthen vessel glazed on the inside. Let sand be mixed with just sufficient quantity of clay to make it adhere together, and beat them up with some fibrous material, so as mechanically to increase the tenacity. A natural earthy mixture of this kind is Windsor loam, or an equally good one may be formed with fragments of pottery coarsely ground, (the fine part being separated by sifting and rejected), mixed with more or less clay, according to the quality, so that it will just mould together when wet. For the fibrous matter some use horses' dung, which appears the best, others chopped straw or chaff, and cow-hair or tow, all of which answer the same purpose. Beaumé recommends about an ounce of cow's hair to five pounds of the earthy mixture.
For joining the covers to crucibles, a very valuable lute is prepared from glass of borax, brick-dust, and clay, finely powdered together, and mixed with a little water when used. About a sixth part of borax is sufficient to bring the earths to that state of semivitrification which is desired. Litharge may be used instead of borax, but the latter is by far the best, as it promotes that thin spreading fusion, which is admirably calcu lated for an even application down an uneven surface.
Another species of lute is what the French call Mastich chaud, and consists of different kinds of oily and resinous substances, liquid when hot, and which become more or less
solid by cooling. These are useful for a variety of miscellaneous purposes; for experiments with gases over water cury, and others where only a very moderate warinth is used, and where it is of importance to keep out air and water. These will also confine acid vapours, but not the vapours of alkohol, turpentine, or essential oils, which
dissolve most resinous substances. greater number of these will stick very well to glass of these cements common sealing wax is one of the most useful. But a cheaper and less brittle cement is made simply by melting bees' wax, with about oneeighth of common turpentine.
The use of gum-arabic dissolved in water for cementing paper-labels to bottles, and a great variety of miscellaneous purposes, is known to every one. A still better cement for the same uses is isinglass dissolved in vinegar to a pretty thick consistence when warm. This congeals in cooling, and before it is used it should be gently warmed.
Many of the varnishes and oil paints are employed in rendering vessels air and water tight. Thus when canvas bags are fastened to a stop-cock tube for air-holders, the joining is made perfectly air-tight by tying over it slips of cloth or bladder soaked in spirit
Yet, after all, from the inconveniency of making lutes, and often of their application when made, it is far better, and saves much time to the chemist, to fit glass vessels to each other by grinding, whence this practice is much more in use now than formerly.
To LUTE. v. a. To close with a luting. LUTEA CORPORA. See CORPORA Lutea.
LUTENIST, a performer on the lute. The office of the Lutenist to the king's chapel was formerly an active one, like that of organist; but since the lute has fallen into disuse, this has become a sinecure place.
LUTETIA, now Paris, a town of Belgic Gaul, on the confluence of the rivers Sequana and Matrona. J. Cæsar fortified and embellished it, from which circumstance some authors call it Julii Civitas. Julian, the apostate, resided there some time. Cæs. Strab.
LUTHER (Martin), the great luminary of the Reformation, was born at Isleben in Saxony, of mean parentage, in 1483. In 1501 he was sent
the university of Erfurt, where he studied philosophy and the civil law, with a view of rising at the bar, but happening to walk one day into the fields, his companion was struck with light ni: g, and died on the spot. This affcting incident operated so much on the mind of Luther, that he determined on withdrawing from secular concerns, and to retire into a monastery. He chose the order of St. Augustine, and led in the convent a most pious and studious life. Having met with a copy of the Latin Bible, he set himself to the study of it with great application, and was surprised to see the difference between the word of God and the practices of the Roman In 1512 he was deputed to go to Rome
on some business appertaining to his order, and there had an opportunity of seeing more clearly the corruptions of popery. On his return be created D D. and became professor of dinew university founded vinity at Wittemburg, a by Frederic elector of Saxony. In 1517, Leo X. published general indulgences, in order to com. pardons for all sorts of sins, present and to come, plete his magnificent buildings at Rome. were sold in Germany by the Dominicans in the most shameful manner, and gave great offence to all religious persons, and to Luther in particular, who published a Thesis on Indulgences at Wittemburg, consisting of 95 propositions, in which he exposed this odious traffic, and totally denied the efficacy of indulgences. These propositions were opposed at Frankfort by Tetzel, the papal agent; but the generality of the people gave credit to the opinions of Luther, and the dispute made so much noise, that other divines engaged in the controversy. At length matters began to grow serious, and the ecclesiastics made a formal complaint to the pope, who made light of a quarrel between a few monks, and neglected to put his authority in force on the occasion. the emperor Maximilian seeing the dispute running fast through all Germany, applied to Leo to put a stop to it, on which he ordered Luther to be cited to Rome within sixty days. He also called upon the elector of Saxony to give up the reformer to his legate. This prince, however, had too great a regard for Luther to obey the injunction, and requested that his cause might be heard in Germany. To this the pope assented, and car. dinal Cajetan was appointed to decide the business. Luther accordingly appeared before the cardinal at Augsburg; but finding that he was required to make a full submission and reconci liation, his honest spirit took fire, and he positively refused, though all the terrors of the church were denounced against him. The pope upon this issued a brief, in which he threatened to excommu
nicate all who denied his power to forgive sins by indulgences. Luther, not at all daunted by this bull, published an appeal from the pope to a By this time the opinions of general council. Luther had gained him many followers, and
advice was of great service to him. the rest the learned Melancthon, whose
taken to bring over Erasmus also, but though he wished well to the work of reformation, he had not courage to break with the pope. In 1519 Luther had a famous dispute at Leipsic with John Eccius, a divinity professor at Ingoldstadt, which
ended in the manner common to those kind of conferences, neither party being convinced of the other's arguments. In 1520 the pope issued out a formal condemnation of Luther, which affected him so little that he immediately wrote a book in which he called it "the Execrable Bull of Antichrist;" and calling all the students of Wittemburg together, he flung the pope's bull and decretals into the fire. The year following he attended the die. of Worms, by virtue of a safe-conduct from the emperor, and when some of his friends would have dissuaded him from going, by urging the case of John Huss, he boldly said, that .. If he knew there were as many devils at Worms as tiles upon the houses, he would go." Here he was required to retract his opinions, and to promise submission to the pope, both of which he refused, and left the city without a single step being advanced in the way of reconciliation. On his return through a wood, he was suddenly seized
by a party of horsemen, who conveyed him to the
a vast understanding, which raised him up to a pitch of learning unknown to the age in which he lived; his knowledge in Scripture was admirable, his elocution manly, and his way of reasoning with all the subtilty that those plain truths he delivered would bear: his thoughts were bent always on great designs, and he had a resolution fitted to go through with them; the assurance of his mind was not to be shaken or surprised; and that waffner of his (for I know not what else to call it), before the diet of Worms, was such as might have become the days of the apostles. His life was holy; and when he had leisure for retirement, severe; his virtues active chiefly, and homilitical, not thore lazy sullen ones of the cloister. He had no ambition but in the service of God; for other things, neither his enjoyment nor wishes ever went higher than the bare conveniences of living. He was of a temper particularly averse to covetousness, or any base sin; and charitable even to a fault, without respect to his own occasions. If among this crowd of virtues, a failing crept in, we must remember, that an apostle himself had not been irreproachable; if in the body of his 'doctrine one flaw is to be seen, yet the greatest lights of the church, and in the purest times of it, were, we know, not exact in all their opinions. Upon the whole, we have certainly great reason to break out in the phrase of the prophet, and say, "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth glad accuse him of immorality and impiety; but tidings." His works were collected into 7 vols. folio, Luther was not to be abashed by their charges. at Wittemberg after his death. Catherine de Bore He defended what he had done, and lived happily survived him, and died of a fall from a carriage at with his wife, who brought him three sons. In Torgau in 1552. Some of their descendants were 1529, the emperor called a diet at Spires, to call living in good repute at the close of the 17th cenfor aid from the German princes against the Turks, tury. and to devise some means to allay the religious disputes which raged more violently than ever, and in which it was decreed, that the mass should be observed in all those places which professed the reformed religion. Against this decree the electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, and other princes, made their protest in a famous writing, which brought upon the reformed the name of protestants. The protestant princes then found it expedient to enter into a league for their mutual defence against the emperor and catholic princes. In 1530. was drawn up by Melancthon, the celebrated confession of Augsburg, which gave great satisfaction to Luther, and was received as the standard of the protestant faith in Germany. In 1534, Luther's translation of the Bole into German was printed, and published the year following. In 1537, an assembly was bed at Smalcald about religion, at which Luther and Melancthon were present. At this meeting, Lather was seized with so severe an attack of the stone, that his life was despaired of. However, it pleased God to recover him, and he went on as before, writing books, and labouring to promote the great work for which he was raised up by Providence. He died at Isleben in 1546, and his body was removed to Wittemberg, where it was interred with great pomp, being attended by princes, earls, nobles, and a great number of and private gentlemen students. 66 Martin Luther's life," says Bishop Atterbury, " was a continual warfare; he was engaged against the united forces of the papal world, and he stood the shock of them bravely, both with courage and success. He was a man certainly of high endowments of mind and great virtues; he had VOL, VIL
The late Dr. Campbell in his "Lectures on Ecclesiastical History," says, "Luther had certainly great qualities and virtues; he had also great faults: but the former much preponderated. His penetration and abilities were considerable. I mean his knowledge, his eloquence, his skill in disputation, and his readiness in finding resources, even in the greatest difficulties. But these are only intellectuai talents; he was largely supplied with those active virtues, which are necessary for putting the aforenamed qualities to the best account. An unconquerable zeal for what he believed to be truth, constancy in maintaining it, intrepidity in facing danger, an indefatigable industry in employing every opportunity that offered for exposing error and superstition, and defending what he thought the unadulterated religion of Jesus Christ. But his virtues were not without defects: nay, his great qualities themselves were not untainted with those vices which they are thought to bear an affinity. Thus his logical acuteness sometimes degenerated into chicane. But this was the fault of the age he lived in, and of his education. His zeal and the warmth of his temper often betrayed him into an unjustifiable violence. His magnanimity was not untinctured with pride and resentment. His transports of rage, and even his buffooneries against the pope, did unspeakable injury to his cause with the wiser and more intelligent part of mankind; even with those who desired nothing more ardently than a reformation from the corruptions which prevailed, and a defence of Christian liberty against the too well established ty ranny of ecclesiastical superiors. His perseverance would, perhaps, on some occasions, be