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same tin, the three pachas of Widdin, Silistria and Brailow, with 10,000 Turkish troops, nered Walachia and Moldavia. At Jassy, where the Hetairists had wrested the administration from the boyards, complete anarchy prevailed. Jussuf, seraskier of Brailow, defeated the Greeks at Galacz, May 13, took the city by storm, destroyed the French flotilla on the Danube, and compelled the Hetairists, May 18, to evacuate Jassy. George Cantacuzeno retired, with about 3000 men, without opposition, behind the Pruth. Meanwhile Wladimiresko had regained possession of Bucharest, where he continued to negotiate with the Turks. May 28, he relinquished the city to Kiaya Mehmed, pacha of Silistria, and, after some inconsiderable skirmishes with the Turks, retreated to Pitescht, to make advances to prince Ypsilanti. But Ypsilanti caused him to be seized by captain Jordaki (called also Gorgakis, or George of Olympus), conveyed to Tergowist, and, after a trial by a court-martial, to be beheaded as guilty of high treason, June 7. This transaction excited much dissatisfaction and defection, because Theodore Wladimiresko had never formally acknowledged Ypsilanti's supremacy. A portion, indeed, of his Arnaouts, Walachians and pandoors joined the Hetairists; but the pacha of Brailow was soon able to enter into secret communications with these Arnaouts. When Ypsilanti left his fortified position at Rimnik, and marched towards Dragaschan, his van, of 1000 men, led by the brave Jordaki, being attacked by the Turks, on June 19, the Walachians and pandoors took to flight, and Jordaki, with a few hundred men, was obliged to fall back to the sacred band of the Hetairists. A part of the Arnaouts now fled, and abandoned the artillery, consisting of five pieces of cannon. At this moment, a nephew of the murdered patriarch Gregory (q. v.) stepped forward, and exhorted his companions to show the sacredness of their cause by a heroic death. The youths advanced in close order, and fell by files in the conflict. A few only succeeded in saving themselves, with Ypsilanti, in the fortified monastery of Costia. Thus was the flower of Greece destroyed. Alexander Ypsilanti now gave up the cause of Greece. Having crossed the frontiers, he was arrested in Transylvania, and, with his brother Nicolas, conveyed as a prisoner of state to the fortress of Mungatsch, in Hungary. From this place they were both removed, in August, 1823, to the fortress of The
resienstadt, in Bohemia, where they were treated with great mildness. The abovementioned division of Greek troops, under prince George Cantacuzeno, was attacked by the Turks, June 25, at Stinka, on the Pruth, and defeated, after an engagement of six hours. Moldavia and Walachia remained occupied by the Turkish troops, who committed the greatest outrages, and were not entirely withdrawn from both principalities till 1826.-See Nouvelles Observations sur la Valachie, etc., suivies d'un Précis historique des Événemens qui se sont passés dans cette Province en 1821, par un Témoin oculaire, avec le Plan de la Bat. de Dragaschan. Par F. G. L. (Paris, 1822).-After prince Alexander had remained two years in Mungatsch, and four years and a half in Theresienstadt, Russia demanded his release, in August, 1827. This, however, was not granted until the end of November, and then under the condition, imposed by Austria, that the prince should not leave the Austrian dominions. Alex. Ypsilanti died at Vienna, in January, 1828, hardly thirty-six years of age.-During this time, Demetrius Ypsilanti, with full powers from his brother Alexander, had repaired to the insurgents in Greece. Demetrius (born Dec. 25, 1793) entered the Russian hussar regiment of guards, as a cornet, in 1815, and was soon after appointed adjutant of general Rajewsky. As second captain (equal in rank to lieutenant-colonel in the troops of the line), he distinguished himself in the campaign of 1814. He now appeared as commander in the Morea, where, as long as the Russian party had the preponderance, he was held in respect. He took the lead in the Greek government at Argos, was then proclaimed prince of Peloponnesus, and appointed general-inchief in that peninsula. At the end of 1822, he became president of the legislative council. But the English party having begun to prevail, he was removed from his situation in 1823, and retired from public affairs, but on important exi gencies took an active part.. He saved the Peloponnesus on the invasion of Dram Ali, by throwing himself, with a band of Hellenists, into the fortress of Argos, and giving the other companies time to assemble. Against the resolution of the third national assembly of the Greeks at Epidaurus, requesting the British ambassador in Constantinople to negotiate a peace between the Porte and the Greeks, which should provide for an independent Greek government, on condition or a yearly tribute, Demetrius Ypsilanti entered a protest
When Capo d'Istrias was appointed president of the Hellenic republic, in 1828, prince Demetrius received a command in Acarnania.-A third brother, George, born at Constantinople, March 21, 1794, accompanied Alexander Ypsilanti on the expedition to Moldavia and Walachia, and shared his misfortunes and his long imprisonment. The fourth brother, Nicolas, born at Constantinople, August 16, 1796, was commander of the Sacred Band. He had the same fortune as Alexander and George. Of the two sisters, Catharine and Maria, the latter, born in 1798, devoted to the cause of her country her whole dowry, amounting to 350,000 francs. The youngest brother, Gregory Theodatius, born at Bucharest, in 1805, received his education in Paris. The annual incomes of the family amount to one and a half million roubles.
YRIARTE. 1. Juan de Yriarte, royal librarian and member of the Spanish academy, a bibliographer of note, was born in 1702, on the island of Teneriffe. He studied classical literature at Paris. After eight years, he went to London, and soon after home, where he chiefly occupied himself with English literature. In 1724, he went to Madrid to study law; but his inclination to philology and bibliography predominated, and, being constantly in the royal library, then under the direction of the historian Juan de Ferreras, the latter soon made him secretary of the library. The fruit of his biographical studies was the catalogue of Greek manuscripts in that collection, the first volume of which appeared in 1764, folio, under the title Regia Bibliotheca Matritensis Codices MSS. Joannes Yriarte excussit, recensuit, Notis, Indicibus, Anecdotis pluribus evulgatis illustravit, &c. This volume contains accounts of nearly sixty manuscripts, which Constantine Lascaris had copied with his own hand. This work was completed by a second volume. Yriarte also prepared catalogues of the geographical, chronological and mathematical works contained in the royal library, which appeared in 1729 and 1730, made many corrections and additions to Antonio's treatise on Spanish authors, &c. As a member of the Spanish academy, into which he was admitted in 1742, he was very active, and contributed many observations to the treatise on Spanish orthography, to the Castilian Grammar and the Dictionary of the academy. Among his Latin poems, his numerous epigrams deserve mention. He was an industrious contributor to the
Diario de los Literatos. His favorite literary occupation was the collecting of Spanish proverbs, of which he brought together about 15,000, from books as well as from the mouths of the people. His Latin Grammar, on which he labored forty years, contains rules in Spanish rhymes, with explanations in prose: it was not published until after his death, by his nephew in 1771, at Madrid, who also published, in 1774, the miscellaneous works of his uncle. He died in 1771, at Madrid.-2. Tomas de Yriarte, of whom a few words were said under the head Iriarte, nephew of the preceding, one of the best Spanish poets of modern times, was born in 1752. He first appeared as a poet in 1770, with a comedy (Hacer que Hacemos). This was followed by several translations of French plays for the royal theatre, and a few original dramatic compositions. But they are forgotten and his literary fame is founded on his Fables. Before the publication of these, he produced a didactic poem, in five cantos, On Music (La Musica), the first edition of which (Madrid, 1779) is distinguished by typographical beauty. This poem is written in elegant language, but is deficient in poetical conception. Grainville translated it, in 1800, into French. In his Literary Fables (Fabulas Literarias), which first appeared in 1782, Yriarte attacked what he considered the faults and errors of literary men. They are the productions of an unpoetical period, in which the French manner was predomi nant in Spain. They are, therefore, cold, and without humor; but the language is easy, and there is much variety and elegance in the metres. They have been translated into French and German. In 1787, he collected his works in prose and verse, at Madrid, in six volumes, of which the first contains the Fables and La Musica. In the second are eleven Epistles, mostly satirical, also chiefly directed against the errors of scholars. The other volumes contain, besides, a number of imitations and original poems, also a metrical translation of the Epistles of Horace to the Pisos, with explanatory notes. One of his enemies, Juan Pablo Forner, irritated by his satires, wrote a bitter attack on him under the title of El Asno erudito (The Learned Ass). Yriarte replied with his Para Casos tales suelen tener los Maestros oficiales. In 1788, he published a comedy, La Señorita mal Criada, in which, as in a former, El Señorito mimado, the Spanish critics praise the strict observance of the three unities. Yriarte
died in 1794. See Ensayo de una Biblioteca Española de los mejores Escritores del Reynado de Carlos III, por Sempere y Guarinos (Madrid, 1789, 6 vols.).
YSENBURG. (See Isenburg.)
YTTRIA is the name of a very rare earth, discovered in the composition of a mineral found at Ytterby, in Sweden; hence its name. The name of the mineral is gadolinite. (q. v.) The earth may be obtained by fusing the gadolinite with two parts of caustic potash, washing the mass with boiling water, and filtering the liquor, which is of a fine green. This liquor is to be evaporated till no more oxide of manganese falls down from it in a black powder; after which the liquid is to be saturated with nitric acid. At the same time, digest the sediment that was not dissolved in very dilute nitric acid, which will dissolve the earth with much heat, leaving the silex and the highly-oxidized iron undissolved. Mix the two liquors, evaporate them to dryness, redissolve and filter, which will separate any silex or oxide of iron that may have been left. A few drops of a solution of carbonate of potash will separate any lime that may be present; and a cautious addition of hydrosulphuret of potash will throw down the oxide of manganese that may have been left; but if too much be employed, it will throw down the yttria also. Lastly, the yttria is to be precipitated by pure ammonia, well washed and dried. It is perfectly white. Its specific gravity is 4.842. It has neither taste nor smell. It is infusible alone, but with borax, melts into a transparent glass, or opaquewhite, if the borax is in excess. It is insoluble in water, and in caustic fixed alkalies; but it dissolves in carbonate of ammonia, though it requires five or six times as much as glucine. It is soluble in most of the acids. The salts have the following general characters:-Many of them are insoluble in water. Precipitates are occasioned in those which dissolve, by phosphate of soda, carbonate of soda, oxalate of ammonia, tartrate of potash, and ferroprussiate of potash. If we except the sweet-tasted, soluble sulphate of yttria, the other salts of this earth resemble those with a base of lime in their solubility. When yttria is treated with potassium in the same manner as the other earths, similar results are obtained. The potassium becomes potash, and the earth assumes the appearance of a metal. Its texture is scaly; its color gray-black, and lustre perfectly metallic. This scaly texture distinguishes it from aluminum
and glucinum. Yttrium-for this is the name of the metallic base-is not oxidized either in air or water, at common temperatures; but, when heated to redness, it burns with splendor, and becomes yttria.
YTTRO-CERITE; a massive mineral, of a reddish, grayish-white, or violet-blue color. It occurs in crusts, sometimes having an indistinct cleavage; opaque; yields to the knife; specific gra ity 3.447. Its constituents are oxide of cerium 13.15, yttria 14.6, lime 47.77, fluoric acid 24.45. It has hitherto been found only at Finbo, near Fahlun, in Sweden, imbedded in quartz.
YTTRO-TANTALITE occurs massive, has a degree of hardness above apatite, a specific gravity of 5.3, or 5.8, a metallic lustre, and a blackish-brown color. It is opaque. Under the blow-pipe, it decrepitates at first, but melts, by an increase of heat, into a greenish-yellow slag. It consists, according to Vauquelin, of 45 oxide of columbium, 55 of yttria and oxide of iron. It is found, along with gadolinite, at Ytterby, in Sweden, but is exceedingly rare.
YUCATAN; the most easterly state of the Mexican confederacy, in the form of a peninsula, jutting out into the gulf of Mexico, bounded north-west by the gulf of Mexico, south-east by the bay of Honduras, south by Guatamala, south-west by the state of Vera Cruz. The isthmus which connects it with the continent of North America is about 120 miles wide. Square miles, 30,000; population, 496,990; chief towns, Merida, the capital, Campeachy, and Valladolid. The soil is very fertile, and, when under proper cultivation, produces great crops of cotton, tobacco, pepper, the sugar-cane, indigo, maize, and other kinds of grain. The scarcity of water in the central parts of the state renders the crops variable; and years occur in which the poorer classes are driven to seek subsistence from roots. Cattle, fowls, and bees, are very numerous; wax and honey plentiful; but there are no mines. The forests abound with wild beasts. The principal article of commerce is logwood. The climate is hot, the summer beginning in April and ending in September; but January and February are also warm. The English have some small settlements on the east coast of Yucatan for procuring logwood, the chief of which is at Balize.
YUG, in the Hindoo theology; the name of the ages of the world. The duration of the universe was fixed by the deity at 12,000 divine years, each of which contains 360 human years; so that the
whole amount is equal to 4,320,000 human years. This duration was divided into four ages, which are to each other as 4, 3, 2, 1. The first age, Krita-Yug, comprises 4000; the second, Treta-Yug, 3000; the third, Dwapar-Yug, 2000; the fourth, Kali-Yug, 1000 divine years. After each age, is a period of darkness, the first of 800, the second of 600, the third of 400, and the fourth of 200 divine years, which complete the period of 12,000 years. The whole period is called Maha-Yug, the great Yug, or Sadir-Yug, a period of four ages. 1000 Maha-Yugs form the day of Brama, from morning to evening; and an equal number his night, when he sleeps; the consequence of which is the dissolution of the universe into its original elements; so that every thing is sunk in a great sea. When Brama wakes, every thing revives. 360 such days form Brama's year, and he lives 100 such years. Upon his death, a general dissolution again takes place, and lasts 100 years of Brama: then Brama is born again, and the worlds begin their old alternation of existence and dissolution. The whole life of Brama is one day of Vishnu, from morning to evening. 360 such days make his year. He lives 100 years, and remains dead an equal period. Siva, alone, is immortal. This is evidently the doctrine of the votaries of Siva, while the worshippers of Vishnu claim a similar preeminence for their god. In the Bhagavat-Purana, it is further observed, that, during a day of Brama, or 1000 Maha-Yugs, fourteen dynasties (manvantaras) of men and gods follow each other: each, therefore, continues about 71 Maha-Yugs. Each has the name of its first ruler. We live in the seventh. Rhode has shown that Buddhism and Bramaism are mingled in this fable of the Yugs. The Yugs are also distinguished in a moral respect. As in the Persian, so in the Indian theology, virtue is made to decline in each successive age. It is represented under the figure of a steer, standing, in the first age, on four legs; in the second, on three; in the third, on two; and in the fourth, on one. The Zend-Avesta also says, in the first 1000 years Ormuzd and the good rule alone; in the second, Ahriman begins to appear; in the third the influence of Ormuzd and Ahriman is equal; and, in the fourth, Ahriman's power is superior. The present is the last age of the world, the Kali-Yug, which, according to the calculation of the Bramins, began thirty years after Krishna's death, or 3101 years
before Christ; so that at present, ir 1833, we live in the 4934th year of the KaliYug. Among those who were saved at the time of the third dissolution of the world, and passed over into the fourth Yug, was a pious king named Kistner under whose government virtue continued to flourish. But now the steer (the symbol of virtue) stands only on one foot, and charity is the chief virtue to be practised., At the end of this age, after Kalighi's appearance, fire and water will destroy every thing, and the first Yug will be repeated, the sun, moon, and all the planets, being in the same sign of the zodiac as at the beginning of the world. Besides this, the Indians reckon by several other eras. (See Epoch; also Hindoo Mythology, in the article India.)
YULE; the name formerly given to Christmas. (q. v.)
YUMNA. (See Jumna.)
YVERDUN, IVERDON, or IFFERTEN; a town of Switzerland, in Vaud, at the. south end of the lake of Neufchatel, at the entrance of the river Orbe, on an island, 16 miles north of Lausanne, 34 south-west of Berne, 44 north-north-east of Geneva; population, 4000. It is delightfully situated, is neatly built, and has a public library, and a brisk traffic, chiefly in the transit of goods-an advantage which it owes to its command of water carriage, boats going from it into the Rhine, by the lakes of Neufchatel and Bienne, and the rivers Thiel and Aar. It has also considerable manufactures of linen, calico, &c. At this place is the school of the celebrated Pestalozzi, which was first established here in 1804, and an ancient castle appropriated to its accommodation by the government. There are several other establishments for education. The sulphur baths here were known even to the Romans.
YVERNOIS, Sir Francis d', a Genevan politician, was born at Geneva, in 1756, and received an excellent education in his native city. His restless ambition involved him in the disturbances which distracted the little republic, and he was banished in 1782. After the revolution in January, 1789, he returned to Geneva, and became counsellor of state. But, being unable to prevent the interference of the French republic in the internal affairs of Geneva, or to play a prominent part after the democratic party had attained the ascendency, he went to England, and made various journeys in Europe as travelling tutor to lord Eardley. In the mean time, Geneva had been united to
France in 1798; but Yvernois and others had been declared incapable of ever becoming French citizens. He afterwards settled in England, and published political and literary works, in which he expressed his hatred of France with eloquence and talent. This gained him the favor of the British government, and the king of England knighted him. After the downfall of the French empire, in 1814, the repubic of Geneva appointed him its minister in London, whence he proceeded, in the same capacity, to the congress of Vienna. After Napoleon's second abdication, in 1815, he returned to Geneve Among
the writings of Yvernois are his Réflexions sur la Guerre, in which he shows the necessity of reducing France to her old limits; and his Tableau des Pertes que la Révolution et la Guerre ont causées au Peuple Français. Most of his other
writings had only a temporary interest. YVETOT; a town of Normandy, in France, 90 miles north-west of Paris, with about 10,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of some tribunals, and of considerable woollen, linen and cotton manufactures. The lords of this place bore the title of king from the year 524 till the time of Louis XI.
Z, the last letter of the English alphabet, is a sibilant and semivowel, representing the same sound which the Germans represent by s, or the soft sound of the English s, the only difference between s and z being that the breath is emitted less forcibly in pronouncing the latter: the organs of the mouth are in the same position in both cases. (For further observations connected with this point, see the article S.) The z, in German, has a compound sound, corresponding to our ts; and modern German writers, therefore, omit the t, formerly written before z, in some German words. In Italian, it is sometimes sounded like our ts, sometimes like ds. In Spanish, it corresponds to our th. In French, when pronounced at all, it has the sound of a forcible s. Z was originally a Greek letter (). As a numeral, it signified two thousand, according to the verse
Ultima Z tenens, finem bis mille tenebit. When a dash was added at the top (Z), it signified two thousand times a thousand. On French coins, Z denotes those struck at Grenoble.
ZAARDAM, or SAARDAM; a town in North Holland, near the Y, five miles north of Amsterdam; population, 10,717. It consists of two villages, East and West Zaardam. It carries on an active trade in timber, tar, train-oil, &c.; has extensive manufactures of ropes, tobacco, and paper; but the most important branch of its industry is and has long been, ship
building. It was here that the czar Peter the Great studied the art of ship-building; and the house which he occupied is still pointed out.
ZABIANS. (See Sabians.)
ZABIRA, George; a learned Greek, born in Sialista, in Macedonia, and educated in Thessalonica. About the year 1764, he went, as a clerk, to Hungary. At Colotscha, he learned Latin, and the modern European languages, and collected a library. He afterwards visited several German universities, and established himself at Szabadszallas, as a merchant. In 1795, he caused Cantemir's work on the Cantacuzeni (q. v.) and the Brancowani to be published. Among his manuscripts is the earpov 'Evikov, a biographical catalogue of all modern Greek authors who have lived since the conquest of Constantinople. He died September 19,
ZACATECAS; formerly an intendancy, now a state of Mexico, bounded north by Durango, east by San Luis Potosi, south by Guanaxuato, and west by Guadalaxara; 85 leagues long, and 51, where widest, broad; square leagues, 2353; population, 272,901. It is a mountainous and arid tract, with a rigorous climate, and very thinly peopled
There are eleven convents for males, and four for females, in the state. The table-land, which forms the central part, rises to upwards of 6500 feet above the level of the sea. It is famous for its rich silver mines. The capital, of the same name, lies 240 miles north