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13 during two years and a half When Adelbald lawless, for two years and a of licentiousness after his king of Wessex had held his half, he held the helm of the father he held the government kingdom in peace five years, West-Saxons, after the death of the West-Saxons.

of his noble father.


MATT. WESTM. In the year of
Grace 859, Æthelbald king of the
West-Saxons, growing wise out of
his error aforesaid, disinissed Judith

his step-mother, whose bed he had polluted, and having done penance, governed his kingdom with peace and justice, for the rest of his life,



he was cut off by an early in the year 360, the 12th Died Æthelbald king death : all England mourned after the birth of the noble and was

the youth of king Adelbald, prince Elfred, Ethelbald died buried at Sherborne. and great woe was made for and was buried in Sherborne.

him. They buried him at
Sherborne, and England

afterwards felt how much it

had lost in him. After his death his brother brother Æthelbert, as Adelbricht the brother of the Ethelbyrht added these profitting, joined Kent, Surrey, aforesaid king, reigned after vinces to his own kingdom; and Sussex also to his him over Wessex, who before that is Kent, Surrey and dominion. was king of Kent. Sussex, with all their towns


and territories, as was fitting. In his days a large army of

In his days

In the course of that year, Pagans, came up froin the a naval host, and a great army of pagans, com


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Saron Chronicle


Ethelwerd 860 and the crews stormed Win- sea, and attacked and des- destroyed the royal city which chester. And alderman Osric troyed the city of Winchester. is called Winton. They were with the men of Hampshire, As they were returning laden encountered by Osric duke of and alderman Æthelwulf with booty to their ships, Hampshire, and Athulf duke with the men of Berkshire, Osric, earl of Hampshire, of Berkshire: a battle ensued; fought against the army, and with his men, and earl Æth- the pagans were routed, put them to flight, and had elwulf, with the men of the English gained the vicpossession of the place of Berkshire, confronted them


bravely ; a severe battle took
place, and the pagans were
slain on every side; and,
finding themselves unable to
resist, they took flight like
women, and the Christians CHARTERS IN 860. 1. ÆTHEL

BERHT of Wessex, subscribed also by were masters of the place of

“ Æthelred filius regis," and others. death.

II, 68. 2. ÆTHELBALD king of Wessex, signed also by “ Æthelberht

"" Judith regis filius (sic MS.)," and others. II, 69. 3. A third charter, subscribed by rex,", "Æthelred fili. regis," “ Elfræd fili, regis," and otbers, without a date, is givențin II, 70, as belonging



to either 860, 861, or 862.

(2) A. 861.

CHARTERS IN 861: none.

(1) A. 862.

(3) Here died S. Swithun thə


might stir them into activity :
when lo, a woman carrying eggs for
sale passed by on her way to the city.
The workmen all ran round her,
making fun, as men of that kind oft-
en do, and broke all her eggs for her.
When the news of this shameful deed
and the poor woman's complaint
reached the bishop's ears, he sighed at
her loss, and moved to kindness,
made the sign of the cross over the
broken eggs, whereby they all became
whole again. Of the humble-mind-
edness of this holy man, it is a
memorable example, that, as often
as he was about to dedicate a new
church-building, he always went thi-
ther on foot, and not on a horse or in
a carriage, however long the journey
might be. And that this might not
furnish ridicule to the ignorant, or
be set down by the proud for vain
glory, he used to withdraw himself
from the sight of men, and travel al-

ways by night. He was a lover of
solitary holiness and thought that he
should sacrifice his interests to any
external show. At length, when he
was on the point of bidding farewell
to this present life, he commanded
his domestics, on their obedience to
his episcopal authority, to bury his
body outside the church, where it
might be trodden under the feet of
passers-by, and wetted by the dew
from heaven. His successor in the
bis) was Ealferth, a man suffi-
ciently learned in church matters,
who for some time had wisely fulfil-
led the duties for his predecessor :

As St Swithin is such a well-known personage, the following notice of him by MATTHEW of WESTMINSTER, may amuse some of my

readers. "In the year of Grace 862, Saint Swithin, bishop of the city of Winchester, departed to the Lord. This holy man, whilst he still lived, was the possessor of many virtues, but was most famous for mildness and humility. It happened once, that this servant of God was sitting by chance with the workmen at Winchester bridge, that his presence

(5) A. 863

6) A. 864.

2 In the year of our Lord's After four years, from the 8 Here the heathen arıny sat incarnation 864, the pagans death of king Æthelbald, the down in Thanet, and made wintered in the isle of Thanet, pagans strengthen their peace with the men of Kent, and made a firm treaty with position in the isle of Thanet, and the men of Kent pro- the men of Kent, who pro- and promise to be at peace mised them money for the mised them money for adher- with the men of Kent, who peace; and during the peace ing to their covenant; but on their part prepare money


864 Florence


Simeon sea, and attacked and des- landing destroyed Winches- ing from the sea, assaulted troyed the city of Winchester.

ter : and so

and destroyed the city of As they were returning laden An ancient city fell

Winchester. But when the with booty to their ships, That many years had ruled.

aforesaid army was on its way Osric, earl of HampshireThen duke Osric with (the back to the ships, loaded with with his men, and earl Æth- men of] Hamptonshire, and booty, Osric the worthy leader elulf, with the of duke Edelwlf with the men of the men of Hampshire, Berkshire, confronted them of] Berkshire, fought against came up with his people, and bravely; a severe battle took the same army; and, when the good earl Ethelwlf with place, and the pagans were

they had put them to flight the men of Berkshire, manslain on every side, and, with great slaughter, our men fully met them with an imfinding themselves unable to were victorious.

mense army, and joining batresist, they took fight like

tle, the pagans were slain on women, and the Christians

all sides by the English, who were masters of the place of

were aided by the angelic death.

spirits. And when the dreadful enemies were unable to stand any longer for their wounds, a great multitude cruelly fell, others hid themselves among the thick bushes, and some like women, took to flight. The English, with fortune smiling upon them, were mas.

ters of the field of death.

MATT. WESTM. In the year of (2) 861.

Grace 861, ... died Rethun bishop
of Leicester, to whom sûcceeded

(3) 862. Saint Swithin took CHARTERS IN 862. 1. ÆTHEL-
his flight to heaven, the 10th

RED: subs. by Alfred frater regis

and others. II, 71. 2. ETHELBERT Indiction, sixth before the king of Wessex : subscribed also by nones of July (JULY 2] the

Ætherred fil. regis," “ Ælfred fil.

regis" and others. II, 73. 5th day of the week.

(4) 863.

CHARTERS IN 863. 3, ETHELBERT, subscribed also by Ethered fil. reg. and others, II, 74. 2. A charter

of 'EDWARD king of Mercia, &c. at II, 77, belongs to 860-865.

The pagans

In the 5th

In the year 864, the pagans (5) 864.

year of king Adelbrict, the wintered in the island which

army of the pagans came to is called Thanet, and is surwintered in the isle of Thanet, Tenet; and, when the men of rounded on every side by the and made a firm treaty with Kent had purchased of them

stream of the sea. the men of Kent, who pro- a truce with money, they They made a solemn treaty mised them money for adher- suddenly broke away with the men of Kent, who


Saron Chronicle and the promise of money the army stole away by night, and ravaged all Kent to the



Ethelwerd 865 the pagans, like cunning ignorant of the future. But foxes, burst from their camp

the Danes break their comby night, and setting at pact, and sallying out privinaught their engagements ly by night, lay waste all and spurning at the promised the eastern coast of Kent. money, which they knew was less than they could get by plunder, they ravaged all the eastern coast of Kent.

CHARTERS IN 864. BURGRED of Mercia, Juiy 25. subscribed also by

“ Æthelswyth regina." II, 79.

MATT. WESTM. In the year of
Grace 864, died Humbert bishop of
Lichtield, to whom succeeded Kine-



ANNALS. ANNO 865. The Normans (7) A. 865.

came into France in the middle of

July. (9) A. 866.

1 Æthelberht governed his After one year king Æthel

kingdom five years in peace, byrht died, and his body rests 1 And Æthelbryht reigned

with the love and respect of peaceably in the monastery five years, and his body lies his subjects, who felt deep named Sherborne. at Sherburne.

sorrow when he went the way
of all flesh. His body was
honourably interred at Sher-

borne by the side of his CHARTERS IN 866, 1. BURG

brother. RED king of Mercia, subscribed also dy“ Æthelswyth regina"and others. II, 80. 2. Another of BURGRED, Æthelswyth and others, II, 81. 3. A charter of EALHIERE, (II, 83) very mutilated and imperfect, is refered to some period between 860

Chap. II. OF THE REIGN OF and 866.

KING ETHELRED. Here Æthered, Æthelbyrht's In the year of our Lord's Ethered succeeded to the brother, succeeded to the incarnation 866, which was throne after the death of his kingdom of the West-Saxons.

the eighteenth of king Alfred, brother Ethelbyrht.
Æthelred, brother of Æthel-
bert, king of the West Saxons,
undertook the government of

the kingdom.
And the same

In the same year the fleets of And the same year a great year a large fleet of pagans the tyrant Ingware arrived heathen army came to the to Britain from the in England from the north, land of the English nation, Danube,* and wintered in and wintered among the East and took up their winter the kingdom of the Eastern- Angles, and having establishquarters among the East- Saxons, which is called in ed their arms there, they get Angles, and there Saxon East-Anglia; and on their horses, and make horsed; and the East-Angles there they became principally peace with all the inhabitants made peace with them.

an army of cavalry. in the neighbourhood. * De DANURIO or-Bla is probably a corruption of DE DANTA ** from But, to speak in nautical phrase, I will no longer commit Denmark."

my vessel to the power of the waves and of its sails, or keeping off from land steer my round-about course throngh so many calamities of wars and series of years, but will return to that which first prompted me to this task; that is to say, I think it right in this place briefly to relate as much as has come to my knowledge about the character of my revered lord Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, during the years that he was an infant and a boy.



866 Florence


Simeon ing to their covenant; but night, and plundered the promised to pay them money, the pagans, like

cunning eastern parts of Kent. if they should keep the treaty. foxes, burst from their camp

But in the mean time, breakby night, and setting at

ing forth secretly by night naught the promised

from their camp, like foxes, money, which they knew was

and violating the truce, and less than they could get by

despising the promise of plunder, they ravaged all the money, they remained quiet for a few days. But, oh eastern coast of Kent, horrible! they devastated the eastern coast of the Kentish people. They knew that they should get greater

money by stolen booty than by peace : as also it


(6) 865,

(7) 866.

The same year, when Adel. Thus king Ethelbyrht, for 1. Æthelbert governed his brict had reigned five years five years, peacefully, amiakingdom five years in peace,

over Wessex, and ten years bly, and honorably ruled with the love and respect of

over Kent, he tasted death. the kingdom that had been his subjects, who felt deep After him Adelred his brother intrusted to him; and it was sorrow when he went the way

received the insignia of the to the great grief of his of all flesh. His body was


princes, bishops, and all his honourably interred at Sher

people, that he went the way born by the side of his

of all flesh : leaving the brother,

government of his earthly

kingdom, he began to be a Æthelred, brother of Æthel

partaker of the other, bert king of the West-Saxons,

2 He was buried near his broundertook the government of

ther in Sherborne, where he the kingdom.

awaits the comfort of a future

resurrection. In the following year, that is 866, which was the 18th since the birth of Elfred, Ethelred the brother of Ethel

byrt king of the West-Saxons, This year there came into the undertook the government of And the same

country of the English a very the kingdom. year a large fleet of pagans large army of the pagans, In the same year a great fleet came to Britain from the whose leaders were linguar of pagans from Danubia Danube,* and wintered in and Ubba, very brave but entered the borders of Brithe kingdom of the Eastern- very cruel men. Hinguar tain, and so wintered on the Angles, which is called in was a man of great talent, kingdom of the Eastern-AnSaxon East-Anglia; and but Ubba was a man of won- glia, which is called in the there they became principally

derful bravery. Saxon tongue East-angle, an army of cavalry. Passing the winter among and there the large army

the East-Angles, they receive became cavalry, riding and

ed from them a truce and scouring here and there, + This 'notice of Alfred's early horses, and for the sake of carrying off an years occurs in Florence under 871, but is placed here in juxta-position peace spared their strength booty, and sparing neither with Asser and Simeon.

for a while,

men nor women, widows nor

maids. + I think in right in this place briefly to relate

In these days the prince Elabout his (Alfred's] character

fred began with sweet mediduring the

tation to be imbued with years that he was an infant and a boy.


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