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The accompanying plan shows the position of the trenches cut.1 Trenches A and C revealed the existence of a ditch on the east side ; A and G the composition of the rampart; D and F the ditch on the west ; and H the ditch on the south. Circumstances prevented the carrying of trench B further north than the wall; and the north rampart and ditch (if they exist) must lie

; in the field beyond. The digging was much hindered throughout by the bad weather which prevailed-only three days were quite without rain, and several days less than half a day's work

possible, while the sections of the ditch in some cases could not be measured quite accurately, as the trenches became waterlogged before the original level was reached. For this reason there is a possible error of some inches in sections A, C, and F. The ditch in these cases should probably be slightly deeper.

Detailed description of the work may be divided into three sections: (1) the Ditch; (2) the Rampart; (3) the Internal

) Area.

1. THE Ditch.—In all, five sections were cut, two on the east (A and C), one on the south (H), and two on the west (D and F). Section D is, unfortunately, less accurate than the others, owing partly to what seemed to be an outcrop of stone, and partly to the rapid collection of water. It is probable that the depth of the ditch in this section was originally greater, and its western or external slope steeper, though less so than in section F.

The dimensions of the ditch in the different sections were :

East side : A-Width of mouth, 15 ft. Depth from original surface, 4ft. 5 in. C13 ft. 6 in.

4 ft. South side : H-Width of mouth, 17 ft.

5 ft. 3 in. West side : D_Width of mouth, 22 ft. 6 in.

3 ft. 10 in, F21 ft. 9 in.

6 ft. 6 in.

The considerable diminution in size of the ditch on the east side may be explained by the fact that on this side there is a stratum of rock immediately under the disturbed soil,

1 The scale of the plan is 60 ft.= I centimetre, and of the sections 6 ft.

=1 centimetre, or about 180 ft.=i in. and 18 ft.=r in. respectively.

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and the cutting of a ditch through this must have been a more difficult task than on the other sides, where the subsoil is composed of yellowish stone-brash. The fact that the ditch is smallest on the weakest side and largest on the side best defended by nature is difficult to reconcile with a military origin of the “camp."

2. THE RAMPART.-Two cuts were made through the rampart (trenches A and G and sections A and G), and trench Kwas carried far enough to show its nature. Trench A showed that it is now 6 ft. 3 in. above the original surface level, and 16 ft. in width, and its construction here makes it impossible that it was ever much higher. It is composed of material formed by the upcast from the ditch, which on the east side consisted almost entirely of rough lumps of the soft rotten stone from the top of the rock stratum. These were heaped up at random ---the section showing no definite structure—while the layer of made earth above was of almost uniform thickness, II to 14 inches, and was greatest on the lower part of the east side. It was clear from this section and section C that at most the berm cannot have been more than i ft. 6 in. in width-much less than is usual in Roman constructions. At the south-east angle (trench G) the material consisted almost entirely of earth, which had spread considerably, so that the original dimensions could not be ascertained with accuracy, the colour and nature of the soil at the bottom of the mound being identical with the surface on which it was placed ; and the modern barn built against the outside prevented any estimate of its original dimensions on that side. Its present height above the original surface level is 5 ft., and its width 13 ft., the latter representing only a part of its structure. On the south side the existing rampart is lower and narrower, varying in width from 6 to 1o ft., and in height from 3 ft. 3 in. to 4 ft. 6 in. Trench K shows that it is taken from the ditch, and the section is similar to the section at G. On the west the remains of the rampart were probably to be found in a general increase of the disturbed soil for a considerable distance east of the ditch and over it. The increase was some 9 inches over the average depth of made soil seen in the other internal trenches. It seems likely that at some time the western rampart had been levelled, and the earth spread over the ditch. In section F a black line, which appeared to represent the surface before the demolition of this mound,


1 See (2), page 292.




was observed at an average depth of 2 ft. 8 in. below the present surface. This old surface—if such it was—curved slightly downwards, and its greatest depth over the middle of the ditch was 3 ft. 5 in. from the surface, and this depth decreased to i ft. 6 in. at the edge of the ditch. A line of stones, which was cut through in trenches E, D, and F 10 ft. east of the east edge of the ditch, may have represented some sort of core to the rampart, but though present in each trench the indications were very slight, and the existence of a rampart on this side while very probable was not proved, and its exact position could not be discovered. It may be observed that no line of stones was found in trench B, and that the increase of depth in the disturbed soil in the western end of this trench was very slight—not more than three or four inches. This trench B was carried right up to the north wall of the field, but no indication of the rampart was found on this side. The subsoil rose gradually to the north, and its depth below the present surface became rather smaller as the wall was approached. It is certain, therefore, that if rampart and ditch existed on this side they lay wholly in the next field.

3. THE INTERNAL AREA.—Here the trenches, with one ception, revealed nothing. The subsoil was reached at a depth of 12 to 18 inches, and the upper layer of disturbed earth was free from all evidences of occupation, such as building material, burnt wood, pottery, or any of the other remains generally met with on occupied areas. A very small quantity of modern pottery was all that came to light, except two pieces of coarse pottery-one in trench A and one in trench J-which were possibly, though not certainly, of Roman date. The presence of these can be easily explained by the fact that there is an undoubted Roman site near by-probably a little to the north-east. Trench G, in the south-east corner, showed the existence of an irregularly-shaped hollow of artificial origin some eight feet behind the rampart (see section G), which had apparently served to supply material for the corner of the rampart, where more earth would be needed than elsewhere. It was at first thought that it might represent another system of ditches, but further search failed to find further traces of it. Just inside the modern gate on the south side, in trench K, immediately under the turf, was found a layer of large cobblestones, 12 to 15 inches thick, containing one piece of modern brick. This paving did not extend across the area (trench G

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