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description runs : frome the said Pantre westwarde towarde Treton a large Kitchyn and diverse other Rowmes and Chambers conteynyng in lengh vj** fote."! The actual length from the west face of the arched recesses on the west side of the west wall of the hall to the east side of the gateway opening is almost exactly 120 feet. The dotted lines on my plan indicate the probable lines of these buildings, though nothing now mains of them above ground between the hall and the gateway.

The gateway (fig. 5), which has a clear opening of 9 feet 8 inches, has splayed jambs towards the north, rebated towards the south, where the crooks for the hinges of the doors still remain. The opening is covered by a low four-centred arch, the mouldings of which die into the splayed jambs. Above a horizontal string-course are two small windows, each of a single light, trifoliated within a square head, which lighted the upper story of the gateway. Between these windows, under a canopy, is an angel holding a shield bearing the arms of cardinal Langley (paly of six, on the second piece a mullet in chief). All (

? the southern side of the gateway has been destroyed. The structure is of brick, but all the architectural features are of stone.

WEST SIDE. The description in the survey of 1561 of the buildings on the west side, “from the southe west gate northwards” reads as follows:

Ther is on the west syde of the courting within the B. mannor at Howden, benethe, on the grounde, vj severall rowmes; whereof the northe-most rowme hath a chymney and the rest have been made for stables, and the hakks and mangers are gone, but a place or twoe. The same rowmes cont. all in lenketh vij** fote and xx fote in wydnes. All this syde is buylded from the grounde to the roufe of stone-worke, and is imbattld on both sydes; and gutters and spowts of eyther syde the roufe to voyde the water.''3

The survey of 1577 speaks of “certen Stables and Garnars, and other Howses; in lenght vijxx fote,” on the west side of the court.4

The ordnance map of 1847 shows, as then standing, all this western range, SUADT on the plan (fig. 1), as well as a Raine, op. cit., p. 300.

to Tonge's Visitation (Surtees Soc. xli), 2“ Busshap Lonlie. Paly of six, argent

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3 Ibid., pp. 299-300. and vert, on the second piece a mullet

* Ibid., p. 301.

Cf. the description in chief." Elizabethan Roll of Northern

in Hutchinson's Durham, note 3, p. 260 Heraldry, printed in the Appendix


p. XXXV.

part of the northern range, ABCD, and also the existing building, QRST, at the south end of the western range, to the south-west of Langley's gateway; and the map does not indicate any division between the existing building and the rest of the western range. The western range and the western part of the northern range are also shown in an engraving? by E. Francis after a drawing by W. Westall, A.R.A., 3 here reproduced (fig. 6). The map and the engraving both indicate that the western range extended through to the north wall, and both show an external stair in the north-west corner of the court. The engraving also shows the condition at that time of the north wall to the east of what then remained of the northern range.

Of these there now remain the building QR ST at the south end of the western range, and the lower parts of the west and north walls (RSU ABE), though these latter have been considerably altered by repair or reconstruction. With these exceptions, the western and northern buildings shown on the engraving (fig. 6) were destroyed in 1850, according to a history of Howden which was published in that year. On the ordnance map of 1847, the whole western range, including the existing building, is marked "Manor Court House," and, after the demolition of the rest of the western range, the existing building was used as the Manor Court House and for the storage of the market stalls.5

The existing north wall of the western range is faced on its northern (outer) side with large ashlar, which extends eastward to A, just beyond the present doorway into the vicarage garden. This doorway is of old masonry, but it has been inserted here, probably when the present vicarage was built; it has a low four-centred arch, the mouldings of which die into the splayed jambs. West of this doorway, at V, is the lower part of a



The lines of these have been added on my plan from the ordnance map.

2 From Great Britain Illustrated, London, 1830.

3 William Westall, born 1781 ; A.R.A. 1812 ; died 1850 (Dict. Nat. Biog.)

4 History of the Church, Parish, and Manor of Howden (Howden, published by W. F. Pratt), 1850. This book speaks of the buildings then being demolished as “ the Prebendal Residences" (which of course they never were), forming the eastern boundary of the churchyard, and it records a protest to the bishop of Ripon and his lessee, the Rev. J. D. Jefferson, against their demolition (pp. 16, 54 and 85). From what information I have been able to gather locally, there does not appear

to be any doubt that these so-called

Prebendal Residences " were the buildings shown in the engraving here reproduced as fig. 6.

5 I owe this information to the kindness of Mr. Henry Green, deputy-steward of the manor of Howden.

6 There are four doorways of this kind still existing : that mentioned above, the doorway on the east side of the building QT, the doorway to the porch of the vicarage house, and the doorway on the north side of the fruit-house. All appear to date from Langley's time, but only that of the fruit-house is in situ. The window by the side of the vicarage doorway is also an old one reused.



window, with splayed jambs. The angle buttress at the northwest corner U is built of the same large ashlar as the north wall, but the greater part of the west wall is of stone rubble. In the west wall, a little to the south of the angle, is the lower part of another window, with splayed jambs. Further south, at W, is a projection, 4 feet 2 inches in width and 43 inches in projection, surmounted by a quarter-round corbel course, which probably carried a chimney. The outer face of the west wall has a chamfered plinth, which is stepped down at X to suit the fall of the ground, and is continued along the existing building up to (but not including) the angle buttress at R. This plinth is apparently continued northward, and around the angle buttress at U along the north side, though much of it is now buried. The masonry of the lower part of the west wall, RS, of the existing building is of the same character as that of the wall SX northward, and the wall from R to X is of one build.

The existing building QRST, to the south-west of Langley's gateway, shows in places the same chamfered plinth which occurs on the outside of its west wall. The doorway on its east side is like that in the north wall of the western range described above, and is probably of Langley's time. Both Canon Raine and Mr. Hutchinson, however, considered the building to be comparatively modern, with old materials reused in it. This view is confirmed by the fact that no place for it can be found in either of the sixteenth-century surveys. If the length of 140 feet, which both surveys give as the length of the western range, be taken as its external length, and measured along its eastern face, the south wall of the range would have occupied the site of the north wall of the existing building. If, on the other hand, the 140 feet be taken as an internal length, the south end of the western range would overlap the northern part of the existing building, and may have extended to the south face of Langley's gateway. In neither case, however, could the western range have included the present building. The non-existence of this building when the survey of 1561 was made seems to be indicated by its mention of “a wall of bryck, runyng from the gate of this syde” (Langley's gateway) “to ye barne-wards, of lj fote long, besides a brode gatewaye therin, agenst which hathe been a brewhouse and bakehouse ; of which is now left no mensyon.”2

The building, or at any

1 Yorkshire Archæological Journal, ix, 392.

2 Raine, op. cit., 299.


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