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Robertus de Tresgoz, Henricus de Gray, Ricardus de Argentiis, Ricardus Silvanus, Revellus clericus;1 Ex parte regis Francie Johannes de Rous, Hugo de Maudester, Hugo et Willelmus de Capella, Hugo Brancharcht, Cadoc, Hugo de Melleto.2
Predicti acceperunt cordam unam que continet viginti teysas et mensuraverunt totam terram que est a muro civitatis Ebroycarum usque ad murum Castelli de Novo burgo et posuerunt metas in medio vie. Meta vero posita est in quo [loco] qui dicitur vallis de Karlon, scilicet in divisione feodi de Bakepuid 3 et de Bernoivilla inter campum Rogeri Laval 5 de feodo de Bernoivilla et campum Willelmi Boudrot de feodo de Bakepuid. Ab Ebroycis usque ad medium vie Novi burgi ubi meta posita est sunt cccix cordae, que corda continet xx teysas.
Ad eandem vero mensuram posita est meta inter Ebroycas et Conches, scilicet inter Glisores et Angervillam" in loco qui dicitur haya de Talcund, scilicet ad parvam pirum quod est in feodo Mathei Foliot in campis de Angervilla in divisione campi Londr. Le Caron et campi Petri Billard. Ad eandem similiter mensuram que est inter Ebroycas et Novum burgum posita est meta inter 1. Of these Norman jurors, all except Robert of Harcourt were engaged in local administration. Robert of Tresgoz was bailiff of the Côtentin, Henry Gray of Verneuil, Richard of Argences had been bailiff of the Honour of Evreux, Richard Silvain of the Avranchin and other parts. Master Revel was apparently a clerk of Henry Gray's (Rot. Scacc., ii, 314).
2. Guillaume de la Chapelle, and Hugh Brauchart, the king's squire, appear in the Acts of Philip-Augustus. Cadoc is the famous mercenary of that name.
3. Bacquepuits, 12 kilometres from Evreux.
4. Bernienville, 131 kilometres from Evreux.
5. For this person, see Charpillon, Dict. hist. de l'Eure, i, 337-9.
6. Ad Ebroyc (Rot. Chart.).
7. Angerville-la-Rivière, a commune now joined to Glisolles, 13 kilometres from Evreux. The bridge of Angerville crosses the Itun at Glisolles. (Blosseville, Dict. Topographique du dép. de l'Eure, 1878, p. 5; Charpillon, ii, 288.)
Ebroycas et Aquineum et est meta apud vacariam ad Nucerium qui appellatur Nucerium de Valle in valle, 1 scilicet subitus monasterium ejusdem ville ex parte Aquiney inter Walteri Calet.
NOTE B. GUÉRIN OF GLAPION.
The career of Guérin of Glapion is an interesting example of the way in which a man of comparatively humble origin could rise to great importance both as baron and official under the Angevin empire. He held the small fief of Glapion of the Honour of Sainte-Scolasse-sur-Sarthe, near the borders of Maine. In 1195 he is found in the ranks of Norman officials as farmer of the prepositura of Moulins and Bonmoulins.3 Stapleton has suggested that he came under the notice of King John during the lifetime of Richard, when John held Sainte-Scolasse as part of the Gloucester inheritance, in right of his wife. However this may be, the records of the next few years show that Guérin had rapidly amassed estates throughout Normandy. In 1200 he succeeded William Fitz Ralf as seneschal of Normandy, but he only held this office from 6th June 1200 until 6th November 1201, when he gave way to Ralph Tesson, who in his turn was superseded by William Crassus in August 1203.5 It is possible that the strain of the office was so heavy in John's troubled reign that its holders
1. Stapleton translates "La Vacherie-au-noyer, which is called Le Noyer du Val." No Nucerium seems to exist in this part of the Evrecin to-day, but La Vacherie lies between Evreux and Acquigny, in the valley. Unfortunately it is 16 kilometres from Evreux, and we must suppose either that the surveyors saved space by cutting across corners of the valley, or that another vacaria is meant, nearer to Evreux. For La Vacherie, see Charpillon, ii, 945-6.
2. For Guérin and his estates, see Stapleton, Observations, II, ccxix seqq, supplemented by Delisle in Cart. Norm., pp. 153-4.
3. Rot. Scacc., i, 244.
4. Ibid, ii, 501, 502. Ralph Tesson was seneschal on November 23rd, 1201 (Rot. Pat., 3).
5. Rot. Pat., 33b.
sought early relief from its labours, but more probably the king was pursuing the policy of frequent changes which he seems to have adopted in less important cases. Both Guérin of Glapion and Ralph Tesson continued to take a prominent place in Norman politics after their retirement from office. The former was especially useful in Maine, where, by reason of his origin, he had many acquaintances.1 In 1203 he followed the barons of Maine in deserting John.2
For a short time Philip Augustus placed him again at the head of Norman administration. He appears as seneschal in two cancelled charters issued by Philip in his favour.3 Memories of his doings are recorded in the Querimonia Normannorum of 1247, where like another novus homo, William Crassus, he appears as a notorious robber of other men's property. According to one of these complaints he had joined John again but returned to Philip. He was, however, finally deprived of his lands on the charge of having relations with the Emperor Otto.5 In 1208, according to Stapleton, he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, from which he never returned, and his scattered estates, which had not had time to form themselves into a single honour, were divided
1. Cf. Rot. Pat,. 14, 20.
2. He turned before Michaelmas, 1203, since in the roll of that year Robert of Vieuxpont accounts for his land at Belboeuf among the escheats of the Romeis (Rot. Scacc., ii, 552). References in the other rolls begin in October (Rot. de Lib., 67).
3. Actes, nos. 117B, 825A (1204).
4. Querimoniae Normannorum, nos. 516, 522, 527, 530, 549 (Recueil des historiens de France, xxiv, part i, pp. 68-70, 72).
5. Ibid, no. 530. Guérin had spoken with Otto, Philip's adversary, "sine Hugone de Surgeriis, milite." The confiscation seems to have resulted from double dealing during negotiations between Otto and Philip in this critical year.
6. Guérin's lands are treated as one in a privilege of February 28th, 1202 (Rot. Pat., 6b): no plea regarding any of his Norman lands was to be put forward except before the king himself.
A cryptic document enrolled on the Patent Rolls, which I add below, may possibly refer to pledges whom Guérin de Glapion had found in 1202. If this supposition is correct, the letter enables us to study the procedure of pledging. We see the person who has found pledges going the round of his pledges and procuring their sealed promises of support. It is significant that, with the exception of the earl of Chester, all the persons mentioned belong to Maine or Anjou.
Two objections may be raised against the view that this document preserves the procedure in binding pledges. In the first place, the terms are mandatory and vague; in the second place, there is no evidence that Guérin of Glapion had incurred the king's suspicion in the spring of 1202. It must be noted, however, that the practice of suretyship had become exceedingly common in John's reign on all sorts of occasions: in 1203, for example, both the Marshal and Guérin found mainpernors for the payment of the Gascon loan.2 Again, as regards the first objection, it should be observed that the mandatory phrases are technical commonplaces, often found in royal letters, and consequently of small value as evidence. John's letters ran as follows:
Rex etc. R. comiti Cestrie salutem. Mandamus vobis quod de sigillo vestro apponendo scripto quod per Guarinum de Glapion vobis mittimus et de hiis que in scripto illo continentur assecurandis faciatis statim visis litteris istis quod idem Guarinus vobis dicet. Teste me ipso apud Rothomagum xxix die Marcii. [1202.]
1. Lists of pledges, with the amounts pledged, which must have been based upon some document, were sometimes copied into the rolls, e.g.. Rot. Norm., 43-Plegii Rogeri de Planes.
2. "Thomas de Sancto Walerico 1. li de prestito Gasconie per plegium Garini de Glapion. Idem xl. li. pro eodem per plegium Willelmi Marescalli." (Rot. Scace., ii, 551.)
The clerk adds the following note:
In eadem forma mittuntur littere Rogero de Tony,1 Mauricio de Crohon, Willelmo de Rupibus, Episcopo Cenomanensi, Vicecomite de Bello Monte, Archidiacono Turonensi, Joello de Meduana, Guido de Walle § Has litteras portavit Guarinus de Glapion et scriptum predictum, et illud scriptum debet reportare.2
NOTE C. NORMAN DESERTERS DURING 1203.
The following list contains the names of those who are known to have deserted John during 1203, and whose lands are recorded among the confiscations entered on the rolls. The list is not exhaustive, for, apart from omissions due to oversight, the barons and knights whose lands were not granted away must have been numerous, and their names are not entered in the records of terra data. Moreover, the inhabitants of those parts of Normandy which fell into Philip's hands were not mentioned by name except in a few cases of those who, like Roger of Portes, remained with John and received compensation, or of those who, like the count of Evreux, possessed lands elsewhere which were confiscated.
The names given in the list fall for the most part into two divisions, the names of those who followed the barons
1. Roger of Tosny, though a Norman, had close connections by marriage with William des Roches and Ralph of Beaumont. Richard, Comtes de Poitou, ii, 359.
2. Rot. Pat., 8. With the concluding note compare the note on p. 7b, after the enrollment of a charter of suretyship issued by the archbishop of Canterbury and two others in behalf of the Earl of Chester: "Missa est hec carta per Ricardum de Wilekier Radulfo Tesson senescallo Normannie custodienda in thesauro."
3. e.g., the Exchequer rolls show that the land of Guérin of Glapion in the Roméis was escheated during the summer of 1203, but there is no reference to his desertion on the rolls before October (above p. 256). 4. Above p. 253.