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A MUSTER ROLL OF CAVALRY.
TEMP. EDWARD III.
By HENRY APPLETON, M.D.
THE chief interest attaching to the accompanying small army roll is the number of Yorkshire names in it. I met with it during a search at the Record Office, and was induced to make a complete copy. The battalion was located for seventy-seven days at the "Ville of St. John of Perth." It would appear as if they were commissioned to defend the stronghold during the early months of the year 1339-40 until the season when Kings go out to battle should arrive.
The regiment consisted of three very differently armed companies.
Its main force consisted of light armed horsemen," Hobilar equites," mounted on small horses called hobini or hobbies -and probably lancers.
Then come the Hobilar pedites," a force I am entirely ignorant of, and can only conjecture that they were armed with the battle-axe like foot soldiers, but were mounted on hobbies for rapid evolutions and long marches.
The "Sagittæ equites " are probably what are frequently alluded to on the army rolls as "moving archers." Is it at all likely that they were crossbowmen?
One hundred of each force would make the battalion 300 strong, which was possibly its full strength.
The roll consists of three membranes, made up from two portions, and there is one or more membranes missing after the first and last membrane. At the beginning there are between 30 and 40 names of the "Hob. equites" which are quite illegible and are lost, in addition to the names on the absent membranes.
It is interesting to notice how in groups of sixes and sevens the soldiers whose time of service expired returned home on the 12th of Febry, the 21st of March &c. &c.
The fact that a Yorkshire regiment was in garrison during
the winter months in the heart of Scotland only 25 years subsequent to the Battle of Bannockburn is of historical interest.
ROLL ARMY, EXCHEQ. QUEEN'S REMEMBRANCER MISCELL
Names of hobilars and archers charged with the safe keeping of the town of St. John of Perth in Scotland from 10th day of January in the 12th year of the reign of King Edward the third since the Conquest, until the 28th day of March next following.
Rics de London
Johs de Helperby
Alans de Cokerton
Johs de Kirkeby
Horse Hobilars who take 6d. a day.
Thomas de Appelton
Johs del Spence vac. 24 Febry
Simon de Wetewang
Wills de Dorpepyng
Alanus de Benington vac. 21 March
Johs del Halgh
Johs de Wetewang
Foot Hobilars who take 4d. a day.
Wills de Wharrum
Johs Taverner vac. 21 March
Johs de Stalingburgh
Reginald de Crouland
Thomas de Dighton
Thoms de Bervile
Rogus Clericus vac. 4 March
Ricus de Acton
Thoms de Mendeham
Johs de Coquina
[The Council have decided to reserve a small space in each Number of the Journal for notices of Finds and other discoveries; it is hoped that Members will assist in making this a record of all the matters of archæological interest which may from time to time be brought to light in this large county.]
NOTE ON THE DOMESDAY BOOK FOR YORKSHIRE.
(Journal, Parts 51 and 52).
IN Mr. Skaife's admirable translation of the Yorkshire Domesday there are a few trifling errors, which have escaped his notice. On p. 495, for example, he reads Loletune as the Domesday name of the place now called Youlton. That Loletune could ever have become Youlton is manifestly impossible. The Domesday name should be, and from a close study of the Fac-simile it was, I think, intended to be, not Loletune but Ioletune, where the I has the old semiconsonantal sound which in the 15th and following centuries came to be represented by the new letter J, and now by Y, so that by regular phonetic law a Domesday Ioletune would have become Youlton in modern English. The capitals I and L resemble each other very closely in the Domesday script, and are easily mistaken. Many years ago Mr. Skaife transcribed the Domesday names for Kirby's Inquest (Surtees Society), and in several cases made this mistake, erroneously reading Lapun, Larun, Ladun and Lugufled, where he now correctly reads Iapun (Yapham), Iarun (Yarm), Iadun (Yeadon), and Iugufled (Yokefleet). That he should have now repeatedly corrected this obvious error, makes it difficult to understand how, in the case of Youlton, it should again have escaped his notice. Moreover, on p. 514 of the Journal, he twice identifies Youlton with a Domesday name which he correctly reads Luctone. It is
impossible for Luctone to have become Youlton. Normally the modern form of Luctone would be Lockton. A sort of fatality seems to attend the name of Youlton, as on p. 572 it is wrongly indexed. The correct entry should be Youlton, 495, and not Youlton, 595.
Mr. Skaife probably thought it would be going beyond the scope of his commission to offer conjectural emendations of the Domesday record, but there are a few instances in which he might well have added a footnote, pointing out that the Domesday transcriber must have wrongly copied the text that he had before him. A good instance is the case of Pockley. On p. 493 Mr. Skaife reads Pochelaf, a well-nigh impossible name. There is no doubt that it ought to be Pochelac, the name by which this very holding is called in the Recapitulation, as well as in another place (p. 511) where it occurs. Very possibly Pochelac and not Pochelaf is the correct reading on p. 493; the letter resembling f being really a smudged c. In any case Pochelac is the right name, the last syllable representing the A.-S. dative singular leáge, now leigh or ley. This is usually lage or lege in Domesday, as in Benetlage, now Bentley; but is sometimes lac, as in Asmundrelac, now Osmotherley, or Elmeslac, now Helmsley.
On p. 513, Mr. Skaife identifies the Domesday Fornetorp with Upper Towthorpe. If, as seems probable. this identification is correct, Fornetorp must have been miswritten for Tornetorp by the scribe. On p. 502, he identifies Ousethorpe or Owsthorpe, a hamlet in the parish of Eastrington, with the Domesday Duuestorp. Here, I think, the scribe wrote D instead of 0, which it much resembles, and a Domesday uu being equivalent to w, the correct reading would be Owestorp, which there is no difficulty in identifying with Owesthorpe, the modern name. Lastly, on p. 329, Yafforth is identified with a Domesday Jaforbe, which is clearly a mistake. If the b is not miswritten for d, it may have been the old A.-S. letter thorn (P), which the scribe, ignorant of Anglo-Saxon, would easily mistake for b. Misreadings of the runic characters thorn and wen are common in modern transcripts of charters and other old documents.
ISAAC TAYLOR, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.