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1. Before I commenced an author, I made myself thoroughly master of the whole scheme of his work, (if a table of contents and chapters enabled me to do so,) of the character of his whole system, of the principles on which he had separated and arranged the parts, and of their relation to each other, and to the whole. 2. 1 then studied the author in the following manner. After reading the first sentence, I meditated on it, developing the author's thought, as well as I was able; and reducing the whole, as nearly as possible, to a single, distinct, concise expression. I then read the second sentence, and did the same: and next compared the two sentences together, meditating on them, and gathering out of them their substance. Thus I went through the paragraph, and then reflected on the whole, until I had reduced it to a single sentence, containing its essence. I then studied the next paragraph in like manner: and having finished it. I compared the two together, and gathered out of them their substance. The same plan was followed in the comparison of sections with sections, chapters with chapters, books with books, until the author was finished. This may appear, at first sight, an exceedingly tedious process; but any one, acquainted with the nature of the mind, knows the wonderful facility that would soon be acquired by a faithful, patient adherence to this mode of study, even through a single chapter. 3. A third rule was to pass nothing unexamined. nothing without reflection, whether in poetry or fiction, history or travels, politics, philosophy, or religion. Gratitude will not allow me to pass unnoticed the vast advantages derived from a humble, patient, thankful perusal of Watts' admirable book on the Improvement of the Mind. Nor ought I to omit the three rules of Professor Whitaker, of Cambridge, given to John Boyse, one of the eminent translators of the Bible in the time of James the 1st, to study chiefly standing or walking, never to study at a window, and not to go to bed, on any account, with cold feet.

It is an error to suppose that a course of study is confined to the period of youth, and that when a young man has left school or college, he has finished his education, and has nothing to study but his profession. In truth he has done little more than treasure up some of the important materials, and acquire the elementary habits and discipline, which are indispensable to the continued improvement of his mind. If he expects to be a scholar, not in the literary sense of the word, but in a far higher and nobler sense, as a Christian, patriot, philanthropist, and public servant, in the state or national councils. in literary, benevolent, and religious institutions; if he means to be distinguished for his sense of duty, and his spirit of usefulness, for just principles, enlarged views, dignified sentiments and liberal feelings, for sound thinking, and clear, close reasoning, let him be assured that he has done little more than lay the foundations, in the school, or even in the college, up to the age of twenty. He must make up his mind to be a devoted student, in spite of his professional engagements, for ten years at least; until he shall have been able to deepen and strengthen, and enlarge, and elevate his mind, so as to fit himself for solid, honorable, permanent usefulness. Let him remember, that the school only prepares the youth to enter on the course of study, appropriate to the young man: and that the college only enables the young man to enter on the course of study appropriate to the man. Manhood has its appropriate course of study, and the difference between men arises very much from their selection and pursuit of a right course of study. Many fine minds, capable of enlarged and durable improvement and usefulness, are lost every year to the community, in which their lot is cast, to the country they are bound to serve, to the cause of religion, humanity, justice and literature: because they have failed in this great duty, they have neglected the course of study, appropriate to manhood. And here let it be remarked, that the true student never considers how much he reads, but rather how little, and only what and how he reads.—Grimke on Science, Education, and Literature, p.p. 54–56.


In our last number, [No. 4, or Vol. I. p. 608-624,] we submitted some remarks on the efficacy of domestic and agricultural training, in the reformation of juvenile delinquents, as illustrated in the experience of the Agricultural Colony, or Farm School, at Mettray, in France. We continue the same subject, by giving from Miss Carpenter's Reformatory Schools, brief a notice of


A yet greater monument of the power of faith to overcome mountains of vice and ignorance exists in the Prussian dominions. Near Dusseldorf, on the right bank of the Rhine, rises Dusselthal Abbey. This is rather a refuge for wretched outcast children than a Penal Reformatory School, but it must not be passed over in our consideration of such, because it affords a striking instance of the power of Christian love, and family training, to overcome the greatest moral obstacles. The following short account of it is extracted from a small work entitled "Illustrations of Faith."

"In 1816 Count Von der Recke, a member of a noble Prussian family, renounced the pursuits and pleasures belonging to his station in life, to devote his time, his fortune, and his talents, to the care and education of poor fatherless and destitute children, and of such grown up people as have sought his protection. His country had been recently devastated by war; numbers of unhappy children, deprived of their natural protectors, had become absolutely savage, living, when unable to gain any subsistence by begging or stealing, on wild herbs and roots. His father and he first received a few of these wretched little beings into their own home; then the father gave up a house for their use, and finally, by the sacrifice of his own fortune, and with the help of friends, he purchased an estate, which forms their present abode. Many were so confirmed in their wild habits, that any degree of restraint was intolerably irksome to them; they would run away and live in the woods, until compelled by hunger to return. Yet they were often successful in cases which would lead one to despair." The history of several is given in the narrative. "One of these, Clement, was supposed to be about 13 years of age; more depraved characters have been received into the asylum, but none so nearly resembling the lower animals in appetite and manners. It was not known where he came from, and he could give no account of his earlier life; his language was scarcely intelligible, and partook of the sounds of the four-footed companions of his infancy; among his most pleasurable recollections seemed to be his familiarity with the Westphalian swine, and his most frequent stories related to these favorite animals. While yet a child he had acted as swineherd to a peasant, and was sent to the fields to eat and sleep with the swine; but his unfeeling master, less attentive to the miserable infant than to his bristly charge, scarcely allowed him food sufficient to sustain nature; when hungry and faint, the poor little wretch actually sucked the milch sow! and to satisfy his craving appetite browsed upon the herbage! At his first reception into the institution, he would steal secretly on all fours into the garden, and commit great devastation upon the salad beds; nor was he induced, till after repeated chastisement, to give up his unwonted luxury. The sequel of the story is encouraging:-After unspeakable pains, the more amiable qualities of Clement began to develop; he discovered an uncommonly kind and obliging disposition, which gained him the affection of h companions, and by his humble and subinissive deportment he became not only a favorite with his teachers, but an example to others who had previously enjoyed much greater advantages. He requited his benefactors by cheerfully employing his strength in the lowest services, and continued a faithful Gibeonite, a hewer of wood, and a drawer of water for the institution."

Such is the specimen of their scholars; and yet in an early report the Count and his friends could say," Come, ye dear friends of humanity, come and see what the compassion of God has already done for this little flock, once wild, corrupted, debased beyond conception,-sunk almost beneath the level of the brutes. Oh! come and admire the wonderful transforming power of the gospel, which of these fierce lions'

cubs hath made tame meek lambs. Come and rejoice over the modesty and obedience they evince; their love and attachment, not only to their teachers and benefactors, but even to strangers; see their industry, activity, and desire to be useful;-come listen to the har monious songs with which they praise their Creator and Redeemer, and hear from their tender lips their gratulations over their deliverance! Especially come, oh! come, and unite with us in prayer and thanksgiving to our Lord and Saviour, who has never left himself without a witness among his creatures."

This will seem to many the language of enthusiasm; it is so if we apply that term to deep and ardent faith pervading our daily life, and inspiring with a quickening spirit even the daily drudgery of the work he had undertaken. Ora et labora, was his watchword. He had constant and harrassing difficulties in raising the necessary fuuds. In many instances, his own ardor kindled that of others, and unexpected supplies arrived at a moment of need, which he received as a gift and encouragement from his Heavenly Father; but he had frequently trying disappointments,-still greater trials arose from the condition of the children.

"Great wisdom and prudence," continues the narrative, "as well as incessant labor and attention, were required in managing such children as have been described, even so far as to prevail on them to remain under any partial restraint, and to receive any instruction. Their ideas of right and wrong had to be corrected, and their sense of enjoyment rectified, even in the lower capacities of animal enjoyment. They had no distinct conceptions with regard to property, nor could they perceive any injustice in applying to their own use whatever suited their convenience, and might be easily obtained. Bodily privation, cold and hunger, were the sources of their several suffering; and their highest enjoyments the luxurious indolence of basking in the sunshine, or before a comfortable fire, or a nauseous gluttony iudulged in to repletion. * The vitiated appetites of the children, till corrected, derived more gratification from gluttony at one time, and almost starvation at another, than from the equable and moderate supply received at stated hours, which the rules of a well ordered household provided. Nor was the properly prepared diet itself agreeable to their taste; they relished sour and wild fruits, raw vegetables, half-raw flesh, and a superabundance of bread, more than the same articles properly cooked, and fully but frugally administered. The discipline required was uniform, steady and strict, yet kind. To gain their affections, without indulging their early vicious propensities, was no easy task, but until this was accomplished, nothing could be done effectually for reclaiming such wayward vagabonds The training is threefold; and while the object of each division is distinct, they are all three carried on together in harmony with one another. In the industrial department, mechanical aptitude and such practical habits as may tend to secure a livelihood are aimed at ;-in the mental department, an endeavor is made to develop the powers of the understanding, and impress it with religious truth;-the moral department is conducted so as to awaken the conscience, to inspire the love of God, and to open the heart for the reception of the Holy Spirit."

"The Count considers the 220 persons collected together within the walls of Dusselthal, whether as scholars, servants, or teachers, as one family; he lives among them as a father, taking the most lively interest in every thing that concerns their welfare, bodily or spiritual;-he shares their joys and sorrows pointing both to the same great end."

Did space permit, it would be interesting to watch him in his family at the Christmas fete, at the funeral of his little daughter, which consecrated their cemetery-" Das Himmels-garten." But we must conclude this brief account of Dusselthal, and can not do so better than in the words of its founder, which so vividly exhibit the spirit in which it is conducted.

"Every thing in Dusselthal tends, either directly or indirectly to the promoting the kingdom of God; it is this that makes all my labors so pleasant. Every walk, every step, every employment, all are connected with the kingdom of God; and, oh! it is blessed to labor for that kingdom. I desire life only for this end!"

It is a mournful sequel to this touching record of devotion and love, that the Count's health and strength have been exhausted by his exertions, which have not been supported by others as they ought. The energy and talents which should have been left - unimpaired for the sustaining of the spiritual life of the establishment, have been wasted by pecuniary difficulties, and now the inhabitants of the neighboring town feel obliged to do what they should ungrudgingly have done before, form a regular fund for the support of the establishment. It is individual love and zeal which alone can rightly guide such institutions, but this must be sustained and encouraged by the aid of the many.



It has been proposed in England to transfer the "department of Science and Art," now organized under the Board of Trade, to the office of the Minister of the crown who may be charged with the education of the people.

This proposition called forth, in January last, a letter from Sir R. I. Murchison, Director General of the Geological Survey, in which he objects to such a transfer, so far as it relates to the geological survey and its affiliated museum and school of mines, all of which are now included in the department of Science and Art.

In this letter he thus speaks of the benefits of the school of mines. "The effects which have resulted from our teaching have been beneficially felt, both at home and through the most distant regions, inasmuch as our school has already afforded geological mining surveyors to many of our colonies in the East Indies, Australia, and the Cape, whilst at this moment the legislatures and governments of the West Indies are petitioning for mineral surveyors of their respective islands, and Her Majesty's government joining, as I am happy to say, in this enlightened and liberal movement, have applied to me to recommend suitable persons for such employments.

Next to the officers of Her Majesty or the Hon. East India Company's service have spontaneously taken advantage of our Scientific Instructions, which they know will give them advantages in foreign lands, instruction, too, which they obtain from us at half the usual charges, who can not be had elsewhere in this country.

A striking proof of the interest attached to the useful instruction afforded by our institution, is also given by the presence of 600 worthy men who attend the courses of evening lectures, delivered gratuitously by our professors; the tickets being so sought after that they are applied for and distributed within five hours from the commencement of their issue."

His objection to the proposed transfer is thus stated: "Liberal as the ministers may be under whose control the general education of this nature may be placed, there is little doubt that in this country, the

greater number of its instructors will be drawn from among such of the graduates of the ancient universities, as both by their training and position must be, to a great extent, disqualified from assigning their due importance to the practical branches of science. Such persons may be eminent in scholarship and abstract science, and yet ignorant of the fact that the continued prosperity of their country depends upon the diffusion of scientific knowledge among the masses. They may, with the most sincere and earnest intention, not only fail to advance, but even exercise a retarding influence on such diffusion, and may object to a course of study which, as now pursued, is irrespective of religious teaching. Experience has shown in how sickly a manner practical science is allowed to raise its head under the direction of those persons whose pursuits are alien to it; whilst in every land where it has had due support, the greatest benefits have resulted."


The proposition referred to in the foregoing article has passed into an Order of Council, approving a report of the Privy Council, recommending,-1. That in future the Education Department, (so to be called,) be placed under the Lord President of the Council, assisted by a member of the Privy Council, who shall be Vice-President of the Committee of the said Privy Council on Education; and 2, that the Education Department include the education establishment of the Privy Council-office, and the establishment for the encouragement of science and art, now under the direction of the Board of Trade and called "The Department of Science and Art." Both these establishments are to be under the orders of the Lord President. The new Education Department is to report on such questions concerning education as may be referred to it by the Charity Commissioners, to inspect the naval and regimental schools, and to examine into the instruction in nautical science given in the navigation schools connected with the Department of Science and Art.


The following account of the "great day of Oxford,”— '-a sort of 4th of July of the undergraduates of the University, is copied from a report in the London Times:

"The series of forms and festivities with which it is the time-honored custom of Oxford to celebrate the memory of its many "Founders," culminated yesterday, the 4th instant, in the grand day, emphatically the "Commemoration," under more than usually interesting circumstances. The usages of the week always curiously blend the serious and the gay; on the sermon follows the boat race, the lecture is succeeded by the flower show, the orations by the concert; but this year Oxford has deferred, for a brief space, its rejoicings on the conclusion of peace, and thus a general illumination added a display of national feeling on a great present event, to the more local expressions of gratitude to the past. Nor has the war itself been unfavorable to the commemoration of the year; one of the last important events of the conflict gave to the military history of the nation a name that will forever occupy a foremost place in it; and much, it may be even said, a very great part of the interest with which the proceedings of yesterday were invested, sprang from the announcement that Sir W. Fenwick Williams, the defender of Kars, was among those on whom the University purposed to confer its honors. Indeed, the list of the recipients of this mark of distinction

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