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AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL,
AND ADVOCATE OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT NO. 132 NASSAU STREET, NEW-YORK, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.
NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD.-It is We have seen the model of a Dry Dock, with most sincere pleasure that we record by J. W. Holly, as exhibited at the Exthe final passage through the Senate, and change for several days. The principle of approval by the Governor, of the bill to ex-its operation is very simple. A chamber pedite the construction of this road.
Our legislature has proved to us that the best interests of the people at large are still consulted, in spite of all the noisy bullying and artful sophistry got up on this occasion. No public work has ever been projected, leading to more splendid results. The North and the South, East and West, city and country, will all share in common, its benefits.
closed by lock gates is to admit the vessel; water is to be thrown in until it can be floated into a basin, the bottom of which can be kept dry, when the gates are closed. The vessel is to be properly supported, and the water let out as usual.
This form of a dry dock would be most economical and expeditious in its operations, where a stream of water could be had to supply the basin, and in most cases this could be accomplished with ease.
The inventor proposes to throw water into the basin by means of a steam engine, when the natural advantages of a stream cannot be obtained.
The great simplicity and, trifling cost are prominent advantages in this dry dock
Now, gentlemen of the New-York and Erie Railroad Co., the State has, at length, in part done its duty to the inhabitants of the Southern counties, and if you are the men we have always taken you for, you will show them such a work as has never yet been seen, either for solidity of structure, rapidity of transit, or utility of purpose; and, what is still more important, executed with a promptness that shall disap- NEW-YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. point its friends, and shame its enemies. TO CONTRACTORS.-Proposals will be reThe aid of the State is now pledged, and ceived at the Engineer's Office of the New-York and you should, as we are sure you will, com. Erie Railroad Company, in the village of Binghampplete your road as rapidly as your enterprise ton, on and until the 30th day of June next, for gramay dictate, and the nature of the case willding 69 miles of the Railroad, from the village of Oweadmit. Your reward is before you. How go, in Tioga County, to the village of Deposit in Delaware County. can we better close our advice than in that homely but expressive phrase," Go ahead."
Proposals will also be received at the Engineer's Office, in Monticello, on and until the 11th day of July next, for grading 48 miles of the Railroad through the county of Sullivan, extending from the Delaware and Hudson Canal up the valley of the Neversink, and
thence to the mouth of the Callikoon Creek, on the Delaware River.
In consequence of the delay of the Journal, after the fire, the numbers have been, since that time, generally issued about We do most heartily congratulate the four weeks later than the date on them. public upon this event, so important to our This unavoidable delay, on my part, has city and to the whole State, and venture to been a source of much inconvenience and predict that in less than five years, the nodisappointment to some of our readers, and blest Railroad in the world will be in sucof course, of deep regret to us-and there-cessful operation. fore, in order to obviate the difficulty as Since the above was written, we learn, soon as possible, we have endeavored to as will be perceived by the following notice, print two numbers a week, in order to re- that the directors have resolved to offer im-specified. move the cause of the complaint-and as we mediately one hundred and eight miles for, are now within two weeks of the regular addition to the forty now under, contract. date, we hope soon to be able to say that we This looks indeed as though the Company are, at least, "even with the world." had adopted our motto-" Go ahead."
Plans and profiles of the line above mentioned, staked out in convenient sections, wi.h printed forms of the contracts, will be ready for exhibition at the said offices twenty days before the days of letting above
The Company reserve the privilege of accepting only such proposals as they may deem for their advan. tage.
New-York, 26th April, 1836.
JAMES KING, President.
For the Railroad Journal.
spoken of, will be found with Pittston at the || before it reaches your wharves,* while the mouth of the Lacka wana, in almost a direct Pittston coal can be brought by railroad, a line. Nature has painted out the ground distance not exceeding 125 or 130 miles, perTO THE MERCHANTS, TO THE SHIP-OWN- and enterprize marshals the way to fortune. haps less-but little more than one-half the ERS, TO THE MECHANICS, to all who are in- I wish, Mr. Printer, some competent en-distance you get your present supply terested in the prosperity of New. York, Igineer,* would make an estimate, as nearly Were it only to open to New-York the vast address myself. My purpose is to enforce as can be, from the data before him of-first, anthracite deposites of Luzerne, wisdom, I salutary truths of the highest moment to the cost of a railway, on the nearest practi-am persuaded, would say: "yes, by all your interests. Pennsylvania, under her cable route, from New-York to Lake Erie.means; make, forthwith, by the nearest new order of things, is pushing her canal Secondly, the quantity of merchandize and aud best route, a railroad to Pittston. Two through to Lake Erie. The present summer, produce (excluding coal) that would proba-hundred thousand tons of coal a year would and one more being past, will, in all human bly pass on the road. Thirdly, the cost, || certainly descend upon it; paying a handprobability, see canal boats passing from per ton, toll and transportation included, some per centage in tolls, and the value of that Lake to the western division of her per mile. Fourthly, the time cars, with the increased trade, to supply the fertile regreat canal. New-York, from her position, lighter kinds of merchandize, dry goods, gion along the Susquehanna, would of itself is practically cut off from the immense &c., and passengers, might pass from the be an object of importance." My advice, trade of the Ohio. True, by the grand ca-city of New-York to Buffalo. And fifthly, in relation to the road would be, to make it nal and the Lake, she can throw in, through|| the probable extent of the canal trade, both on the cheapest plan possible, calculating in the Ohio canals, late supplies of goods, ways, from Pittston-i. e. from Pittston to the course of ten years gradually to renew while your active rivals of Philadelphia and New-York, and from Pittston to Buffalo and it, with the improvements which time and Baltimore work wide awake-both up and the intermediate country. experience will most certainly develope and doing-are in the full supply of the market Let the fact make its due impression. approve. Fifteen thousand dollars a mile three weeks before you. If this cannot be Let it be talked of in every intelligent cir- would put the work in operation. Miles wholly, it can be partially, remedied. But cle; let it be borne constantly in mind, that 190+ $15,000 $1,950,000-say two milthe western country is, from its vastness, the rich and inexhaustible coal mines of lions. Now, 200,000 tons of coal a year, at a world of itself, and while the trade on the purest anthracite, at Pittston, Luzerne one cent a ton per mile toll would amount Ohio will be immense, who can measure County, are on an air line, only one hundred to 260,000, the interest at 5 per cent of more the business, the demand for goods, the and six miles from the city of New-York! than five millions, and this without taking abundant returns in every thing that con- Do you doubt it? Do you say it is impos-into the amount the return trade, or carriage stitutes the element of mercantile businesssible? I reply, go take your map; put one of other articles. and profit of their inland seas, Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Superior, and onward, nearly equalling in extent and fertility the Mediterranean and its tributaries?
point of your dividers on New-York and ex- My whole plan embraces a continuous tend the other to Pittston at the mouth of railway from New-York to Buffalo. This the Lackawana, in Luzerne County, (direct- may be divided into three sections. First, ly in a line to Buffalo, too,) and now mea- the railroad to Pittston, at the mouth of the sure the distance on the scale-see! it is Lackawana; secondly, up the Susquehanonly one hundred and six miles!-as true as na to the New-York State railroad, through you live: and that very soon-the sooner the southern tier of counties; thirdly, from the better for us all-there will not only be that railroad to Buffalo. It should be here a railroad from the city to those coal mines distinctly stated that the State of Pennsyl in Pittston, but we shall see cars laden with vania is now prosecuting to early complecoal ccme from those mines and unload tion the canal from the State line down to their burdens at our wharves the same day, Pittston, to which point the Pennsylvania while passenger ears will in all probability | Canal from Columbia is finished, and now in go and return in a day.
The great and growing trade of this extensive region it is in your power, if not to monopolize, at least to secure a large proportion of, by prompt and energetic action. I mean, by a railroad in the most direct line practicable from your city to Lake Erie. Every mile saved is important, every hour gained is worthy of consideration. The Tioga branch of the Susquehanna, from Bath, by Painted Post, and Newtown, cuts the State line of Pennsylvania, a few miles I wish this matter would be duly appreabove Tioga Point, where it meets that ri- ciated. The coal trade is yet in its infancy; ver, and descends in its main direction to thus far the demand has outrun the supPittston in Luzerne County, not consider- ply. What the value of coal has been in ing its sinuosities, but taking its general New-York the past winter you can best tell course in almost a direct line to New-York. I presume from seven to nine dollars a Indeed, this point is of so great importance to your interest, that all your intelligent men, your enterprising young men especially, ought to make themselves fully masters of the subject. Instead of inquiring, "What news from Washington? Has the expunging resolution passed? Have Wise and Bynum kissed and made friends?" the exciting question should be, "By what route can we reach Lake Erie by railroad to most advantage? Have you examined the map? Have you measured the air-line distance? Do the waters of the Susquehanna, for near a hundred miles, cut through the ranges of mountains, and open an easy way to form a railroad from the Lake to our city?" Put a thread, one end at New-York, and the other on the Lake, so as to touch Buffalo, and be hold! the valley of the upper Susquehanna
perfect operation. And that the State of New-York is going on with her railroad, (which comes within four or five miles of the State line, where the Pennsylvania canat will strike it,) westerly to Portland on Lake Erie. So that, if the first division indicated, that is, from your city to Pittston, ton. A necessary of life, indispensable to should be pushed vigorously to completion, existence as bread, the demand will go on the two upper sections of the road might be augmenting with increasing population, all made at perfect leisure, as there would be a along the sea-board; and from the fact sta-perfect communication from Portland on ted of the nearness of the Pittston coal Lake Erie, to Pittston, by the time the first fields, it is apparent that New-York may division from Pittston to New-York would share largely with Philadelphia the new be finished. and increasing business resulting from the coal trade. It should be borne in mind that now a large, if not the principal, supply of coal comes from Schuylkill County, and is transported more that two hundred miles
* Doubtless you have many engineers of ample skill; but permit me to say there is one, a young man of first-rate talents and attainments, now engaged on the railroad from Brooklyn down Long-Island, who, I wish, could be drawn to look into this matter. I know he is competent and worthy of all confidence. Should this meet the eye of Mr. L., will he accept the respect ful salutations of CLINTON, and turn his attention to this interesting subject?
Let this striking fact be placed in a paragraph by itself, that, by Pittston and the Susquehanna, the distance from New-York to Lake Erie is sixty miles shorter than by any other route. CLINTON. *In Parker's Report to the Senate of Pennsylvania, the distance is set down as 2344 miles.
NEW-YORK AND ALBANY RAILROAD.-It will be recollected that in 1832 a charter was granted for this Railroad, with a capital of $3,000,000. This Road, however,
has not been, as we were in hopes it would be, commenced-and it is therefore necessary that the subject should be again brought before the Legislature.
whole winter-and of course a continualed facilities which the Railway will afford.
The facts, estimates, and statements herewith submitted were collected and made several years since, and it will be proper, in coming to a conclusion at this time, to take into the account the wonderful increase of business, as well as the astonishing im. provements in the construction of Railroads and Railroad machinery.
Pig and bar iron, &c.,
Manufacture of Iron, &c.
Shoe tacks and sparables,
Value. $293,000 00
Of the importance of this route to the citizens of the city of New-York, the counties through which it is designed to pass, and to all whose business requires them to travel between the Commercial Emporium and the political Capital, or the interior and extreme parts of the State in a northerly direction, it is entirely useless to speak. Those who have had the misfortune to pass over the route between New-York and Albany during the winter season, can at least appreciate its value; and we should suppose that our citizens would be able, from the rigors of the past winter, during which "The county of Westchester is the first time, they have been shut out from supplies, rected. This large, populous and wealthy district to which our inquiries will be dito estimate its importance to them. There county will be intersected by the Railway are, however, many residing beyond its in-at nearly equal distances between the shores Augers, fluences, who are not like to be materially of the North and East Rivers. The inhabi- Steel, affected by the want of it, who may be call. tants of the most productive parts of this Pitchforks, ed upon to act upon the measure, and it, city markets, and the impulse which will county will thus obtain ready access to the Ploughs, therefore, will not be deemed inoportune, thereby be given to the agricultural and or improper in us, to publish, or rather re-manufacturing industry of the county must, publish some important facts in relation to from the very circumstance of its contiguithe business of the counties near and through annual amount of tonnage and passengers Woollen cloths, ty to the city of New-York, afford a large Wool, which it will pass, collected by a commit- to the Railroad. In one of the remote Cotton tee of gentlemen appointed for that purpose, towns in this county the tonnage for a Railwhich, if correct-and we have reason to way has been estimated at near 2000 tons believe them, at this time, entirely within annually, and the passengers at 800 in each direction. The population of this county, the amount demonstrate that it will be in 1830, was 36,476; the valuation of real not only exceedingly useful to the business and personal estate, in 1831, was 9,397,840 of those counties, and to the city of New-dollars. York, but also highly profitable to those who The county of Fairfield, in Connecticut, lies near the contemplated route of the Railmay invest their funds in its stock. road, and the interior portions of it can have We are fully of the opinion, and have of no other favorable outlet for the products of ten expressed it through the Journal, that their industry, which now contribute much those who own property along the line of to the general business of the city and an important contemplated Railroad, had bet-country. A branch Railway of nine miles will reach Danbury, one of the shire towns ter contiribute one fourth part of it, to a com- of this county, overcoming an elevation of Butter, mon fund for its construction, without an- but 48 feet. Some estimate may be formed of ticipating any returns in the way of divi. the industry and amount of business of this flourishing town, from the fact that two dends, rather than that the road should not hundred thousand feet of boards are annualbe made. This, however, is not necessa-ly used in the construction of packing boxes ry, as every man who shall invest one hun-for the single article of hats sent to the dred dollars in this Road, may rely upon New-York Market. The number of pasThe number of passengers to and from receiving, after it shall be completed and in sengers booked by the stages at the same New-York, furnished by this county, is use, at least ten per cent. per annum from place, is said to be six thousand annually. very great, and constantly increasing. The county of Putnam, though of limited it; and if he owns property on or near its extent, will afford much for the support of long distinguished for its agricultural indus The county of Dutchess, which has been line, he may rely upon an increase in its a Railway. Extending from the Hudson try and wealth, will contribute largely to the value of five to fifty per cent., and in some at the Highlands to the east line of the permanent business of the Railroad. Much places, one hundred to five hundred per cent. tions will be found contiguous to the Rail-tiful valley through which the Railway is deState, its most valuable and productive por-of its finest soil lies contiguous to that beauthe moment it shall be completed. road. A partial estimate of its transporta-signed to pass. Careful estimates of the preThus far we have viewed it mainly as ation has been made by citizens residing sent amount of transportation have been made benefit to those on its line-it will be found near the eastern border of the county, which in some of the towns in the eastern portion of equal advantage to this city-as it will amounts to 7000 tons, and 6000 passengers of the county, and the result is highly favoraannually. Population in 1850, 12,701. Val- ble. An average of eight towns in this counopen an easy, cheap, and expeditious com-uation of real and personal estate in 1831, ty, may be supposed to give their support munication, during the whole winter, with $2,198,889. to the Railway through the year, not to inthe period at which, as we are now situated, The county of Litchfield, in Connecticut, clude the business which would be derived we are cut off from supplies from the next claims our notice. The interior posi- from the other towns, and from the flourmost productive portion of the surround-to our borders, and to the route of the Rail- ter season. tion of this large county, and its proximity ishing village of Poughkeepsie, in the winThe present transportation of ing country; and connected, as it will way will secure to the latter almost the three of the above towns is estimated at be, with the numerous Railroads leading whole amount of its export and import trade. 10,167 tons, at the annual cost of 36,168 from Albany, Troy and to the intermidiate Possessing, in the Housatonic and its tribu- dollars. Applying this ratio to the eight flourishing towns in New-York, Connecti-in its soil and its extensive deposits of iron amount, will afford the estimate which we taries, a vast amount of water power; rich towns, and then deducting one half of the cut, and Massachusetts, there will be a con- ore, lime-stone and marble; its productions shall venture to give of the present transĮ trade with our merchants during the must be greatly multiplied by the increas-portation of this county which will pertain
Machinery, part wood and part
Pig and bar iron,
to the Railroad, and is equal to 13,556 tons annually at an expense of 48,224 dollars. The number of passengers which can be obatined from this county is not known. Population of the county, 50,926. Valuation of real and personal estate in 1831, 16,188,739 dollars.
We are next called to notice the amount of business which can be obtained for the Railway, from the county of Berkshire, in Massachusetts, the inhabitants of which, owing to its peculiar position, are more deeply interested in the success of this entertrise than almost any other section of country. An examination has been made of the amount of transportation in thirteen towns
in the county, which amounts, independent of certain articles not enumerated, to 20,981 tons annually, which, at the existing rates, costs 106,157 dollars. The remaining seventeea towns of this large county, are represented as affording at least an equal amount, making an aggregate of 212,314 dollars, exclusive of a large number of passengers from the county and from other parts of the country more remote from the Railway. A respectable inhabitant of that county, in a letter to the Corresponding Committee, says: Although the result of this examination exceeds even our hopes, still, in my view, it is not the most interesting feature of the subject. The business which a Railway would create, and the increased activity which it would give to branches now pursued, is the great point. We have mar ble in this town suitable for every part of the most splendid dwelling, from the foundation stone, to the mantel and pier-table in the parlor. Every variety of color from white to black is here, with the exception of that which is denominated Egyptian. Yet it avails us nothing: we have no means of transporting it to market. What is here said, will, in many particulars, apply with equal force to many other towns." The article of hay, of which in the winter season vast quantities would be sent to the New-York market, has not been included
in the estimate.
estimation of the business of the country amount of travel in our country, particular.
We accordingly present the following
Reduced estimate of nine towns in Colunabia coun-
Reduced estimate of Dutch-
Litchfield county, estimated
31,472 7,000 7,000
In twelve towns in Berkshire, the passengers to and from the Hudson, are estimated is now paying an amount of 10,720 dollars annually. But the estimate is made on the present residents in these towns, not inclu48,224 ding transient visiters; and with the in159,236 crease which will accrue in five years, together with the vast multiplication of travel 28,000 which the Railway will occasion, and the increase of mileage in the transit of a great portion of these passengers to the extreme 56,000 points of the route, it will be fair to estimate the amount from this source from these twelve towns, on the opening of the Railway, at 30,000 dollars annually, and the travel of the whole county at 60,000 dollars. Nor will this estimate appear exaggerated, when we consider that the most productive business of a Railway is found to consist in the conveyance of passengers. We will, however, estimate the travel of Berkshire county as producing annually to the Railway the sum of $40,000 Litchfield county, 30,000 Columbia, (including winter travel,) 20,000 Dutchess, Putnam, Fairfield, Westchester,
We have thus a total of 130,240 tons now transported annually at the expense of 586,026 dollars. It may be proper to suggest, that much of this business now pays an additional freight on the Hudson, a portion of which will be saved to the Railway, by passing direct to New York; and although the Railway prices must be lower for the same distance than is now paid for transportation on common roads, still the increased mileage in passing to that city, will go far to compensate for the decrease in price. The effect of the Railway will also be, to greatly multiply the amount of products transported, so as to preserve, if not increase, the gross amount now paid for transportation. Besides this, the general increase of business which may be expect. We now devote our attention to that part led to occur before the period can arrive at of the travel to and from the intermediate which the Railway will be opened, especial points on the Railway, which is furnished ly with the stimulus of the Railway in pros- from the cities and counties which are situpect, may be supposed, of itself, more than ated at its northern and southern termina. sufficient to make good the above amount tions. This important part of the estimate to the Railway. Some facts relating to the must begin with the city of New-York, increase of business in Berkshire will show which will possess, in this Railway, if we this in a strong light. About the year 1826 an examination was made into the amount except the Hudson River, its most interesting and frequented channel of intercourse of transportation then afforded by that coun- with the country. Thousands of its citi. ty, in reference to an extension of the ShaHousatonic. It was found that its trans- business, in the rural scenery and free air of ron Canal through the rich valley of the zens will be induced to seek, through this accommodation, a respite from the cares of portation was then performed at the annual that delightful region of country, which expense of about 100,000 dollars; and the borders on the route. Thousands also of Committee who instituted the inquiries the strangers who visit the metropolis will ventured to predict, that with the aid of the be attracted by these inducements, and the facilities which a Canal would afford, this amount would be doubled in six years. cal skill which this enterprising country af exhibitions of manufacturing and mechaniSince those inquiries were made, six years fords, to visit places and objects in the vihave elapsed, and without the aid of the contemplated Canal, the transportation now cinity of the Railway. To form a just view exceeds 200,000 dollars; and intelligent per- of the amount of this intercourse, and of sons in that county, who are conversant the business transactions incident upon it, with its industry and statistics, avow their we need but remember that the resident Passing over the towns which will be in-belief that with the facilities which a Rail- population of the city in 1830 exceeded tersected by the Railway in Rensselaer 207,000 persons; that it is now equal to at county, and the city of Troy, we will conleast 225,000; and that its real and personal sider this county, as well as that of Albany, estate is valued at 139,280,214 dollars. as forming the northern terminus of the We shall therefore be fully justified in as. Brooklyn, which is but an extension, of the route, the estimate for which will claim our suming an amount of transportation in the city, had, in 1830, a population exceeding first years of the Railway operations, equal 15,000, which is rapidly increasing, and its The data on which we proceed in esti- to the summary above recited. Lest, how-valuation is near seven millions of dollars. mating the amount of business which will ever, we should appear too sanguine, and At the northern termination of the route we be afforded to the Railroad, though founded to remove all possible objections, we will have the flourishing cities of Albany and on careful estimates in some towns, is ne- deduct 40 per cent. from the foregoing esti-Troy, a large portion of whose citizens are cessarily imperfect with regard to others. mate of transportation, which reduces the natives of New-England, who maintain a Some of our estimates may possibly be amount to $51,616 dollars. constant intercourse, both mercantile and overrated, others certainly fall short of the We come next to the estimate of the pas-social, with the land of their fathers; and truth, and in those towns where a care-sengers which would be afforded to the if we look beyond these limits to the north ful re-examination has been made, the Railway from the same district of country; and to the west, we find the same relations amount is found to be greatly increased, and in making this inquiry we are obliged existing, and a corresponding frequency of and there is good reason for believing that to proceed on data less precise than that intercourse, which must needs contribute the rerurns on which our results are chiefly which has governed our estimate of heavy largely to the resources of the Railway. The predicated, are more precise and authentic transportation. We are, notwithstanding, valuation of Albany county is 12,739,639 than are often obtained in similar cases. in less danger of overrating the subject, for dollars. Its population, in 1830, was 53,570. We shall now complete our approximate all past experience has shown that the Valuation of real and personal estate, in
In the county of Columbia we may estimediately connected with the Railway. One mate an average of nine towns as being inof these towns affords a greater amount of transportation than any other town from which returns have been received, and the whole are averaged as equal to the three towns in Dutchess, whose returns have been mentioned. Deducting one half the amount of this estimate, for proximity to navigation and other considerations, there will remain 15,250 tons, at the annual cost of 54,252 dollars. The population of this county is 39,954. Valuation of real and personal estate 9,776,941 dollars.
way on that route might afford, the present
corrosion, which had extended to about one eighth of an inch. These experiments seem worthyofbeing repeated and extended
Rensselaer county, including Trov, 9,615,-|ance always increases travel; and that ma- of the tin plate were quite soft from the 392 dollars. Population, 49,472. ny travellers will be drawn to the railroad It is highly probable that this class of from motives of interest or curiosity, and travel to and from the intermediate portions still greater numbers from considerations of the route will equal that which is fur- of convenience, or a desire of change; so nished by the intermediate country itself, that a considerable portion of what is called amounting, as we have seen, to 152,000 pleasure travel, as well as of the men of dollars annually, and making a total of business, will be induced to pass in one 304,000 dollars; a sum, it will be perceived, direction by the steam-boats, and in the which is still below the estimated trans- other by the railway. pertation of the same country. In compli ance, however, with our former rule of caution we will reduce this amount to 200,000
We come now to consider the probable income of the railway, from the business passing from the extreme points through the entire length of the railway, and will first attempt an estimate of that which will pass in the winter months, say an average of three months in each year.
We present the following recapitulation:
country connected with the
The present demand for tin plate is very great; should these statements be confirmed, a vast increase in its consump tion might be anticipated. The opinion may be entertained that it is practicable to substitute double tin plate for sheet cop per in covering the bottoms of ships, &c. using zinc in small proportions as a pro
Such applications would proba bly occasion a saving of nearly three fourths of the present expense of copper sheathing.
If the number of passengers which now pass daily in the steam-boats, between the extreme points of the route, be reckoned at dollars. 800 on an average of six days to the week, We have thus an aggregate of 200,000 they may, at the expiration of six years dollars for the entire intermediate travel of from the present period, be safely estimated the railway, including not only that which at 1200 per day. Perhaps one-third of th is afforded by the counties which are inter-number would be induced to take the railsected, but also that which emanates from road; but we will allow 150 per day, in It also seems deserving of inquiry, the county of Rensselaer, and the cities of each direction, as the average of the long whether tin plate vessels, protected by Albany and Troy on the north, and the city travel by the railway at the period of it zinc, may not be advantageously substitu of New-York on the south. Nor can we completion; which, in a season of 3ted for copper vessels in many of our arts think this item to be overrated, for, on com- weeks, reckoned at 6 days in a week, gives and manufactures, and even in domestic paring it with the known amount of travel 68,400 passengers; which, at $2,50 each, on stage routes through less important dis- will be 171,000 dollars. These amounts reAlthough it might be pretricts, it would evidently justify a larger es- quire no reduction. sumed, from Sir H. Davy's experiments and observations,* that zinc would protect tin plate from corrosion in sea-water, the author is not aware that any direct experiments on the subject have been 58,500 published. Sir H. Davy briefly refers to 12,500 some obvious practical applications of his researches, to the preservation of finely divided astronomical instruments of steel 200,000 by iron or zinc; and that Mr. Pepys had taken advantage of this last circumstance, 58,500 in inclosing fine cutting instruments in handles or cases lined with zinc. The author has not heard whether such applications have succeeded, but he has made a number of experiments with a view to protect brass, iron, copper, &c., from tarnish and corrosion in the atmosphere From the London Repertory of Patent Inventions. by means of zinc; the results obtained, ON SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS MADE however, lead to the conclusion, that conWITH A VIEW TO PROTECT TIN PLATE tact with zinc will not protect those me. OR TINNED IRON FROM CORROSION IN SEA-tals in the atmosphere, the electricity thus WATER, WITH SOME PROBABLE APPLI- produced, without the intervention of a CATIONS; AND ON THE POWER OF ZINC fluid, being apparently too feeble to counTO PROTECT OTHER METALS FROM COR- teract the chemical action of air and ROSION IN THE ATMOSPHERE. BY ED- moisture on the surfaces of the metals. † MUND DAVY, F. R. S., M. R. I. A., ETC., PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY TO THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY.
Other light freights,
Winter passengers through the
To which may be added the esti-
Total estimate of annual incore,
Although the amount of travel between New-York and Albany by the post-road, at this season of the year, is comparatively small, yet all must be convinced, that under the operation of the railway, the business and travel would not only be greatly increased, but more equally diffused through. the different seasons. During the season of navigation, not fewer than eight steamboats pass daily on the Hudson through the entire route. One boat is said to have car. ried 25,000 passengers annually, on an average of past years, and some boats have much exceeded this number. If we allow a season of 35 weeks, and six passages per week, it will give 112 passengers per day for each boat, or an average of near 900 per day; and we may safely allow 75 per day, in each direction, as the average of the long travel in the winter months, when intercourse shall be established by a Railway. This number, at five dollars each, which would be a moderate winter price, will amount to 58,500 dollars. This average If a piece of tin plate is exposed in may seem too small, and doubtless is so, sea-water for a few days, it will exhibit but it must be remembered that we have an incipient oxidation, which will gradupreviously estimated all the travel to inter-ally increase; the tin will be preserved mediate points on the route. The amount at the expense of the iron, which will be of property to be carried through by the corroded. But if a small surface of zinc Railway cannot be so satisfactorily ascertained; but as the Railway will form the is attached to a piece of tin plate and imsole channel of communication between mersed in sea-water, both the tin and iron New-York and the interior at that season, will be preserved, whilst the zinc will be and will greatly facilitate commercial ex- oxidated, on the principle first made changes, we will assume the amount of the known by the late Sir H. Davy. winter transportation to be equal to the The author has exposed for nearly foregoing item, or 58,500 dollars. To this eight months in sea-water a surface of tin may be added, for light articles transported at other seasons of the year, 12,500 dollars. plate nailed to a piece of wood by means There remains but one other source of of tinned iron tacks, inserting between income to be estimated, which is that ari- the wood and the tin plate a small button sing from the long travel in summer, or that of zinc. Under these circumstances the which passes through the entire length of tinned plate has remained clean and free the Railway during the season of naviga- from corrosion; the zinc has of course tion, and which, as has been premised, is been corroded. In a comparative exnot relied upon in calculating its profit or perimet, in which a similar piece of tin tity It would be a mistake, however, plate was nailed to the same piece of to infer that no income will be derived from this source. The nature of the case, as wood, and exposed, during the same pewell as past experience, shows that an' in riod, to the same quantity of sea-water, crease of the means and facilities of convey.without the zinc, the edges on two sides
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.-At Little Green Logwood mill, Middleton, near Manchester, occupied by Mr. George Wolstencroft, there is a grindstone used for grinding the rasping feet in circumference, and 11 inches and knives for cutting logwood, upwards of 15 upwards thick. On the 24th ult., as Mr. John Wolstencroft, the son of the occupier, and another young man, were grinding the knives at the stone, the young man had screwed the machine in which the knife is held for grinding, rather too tight; this being observed by Mr. John, who also saw that the stone was revolving at a tremendous speed, he desired the young man to be cautious. No sooner had the words dropped from his lips, than the stone broke in several pieces, one of which, weighing not less than 6 or 7 cwt., forced its way through a wall a brick and a half thick, and drove a large quantity of the bricks upwards of 20 yards from the wall.-[A similar accident occurred some years ago. See vol. xviii. p. 32.]-[London Mechanics' Magazine.]
*Phil. Trans., vol. cxiv., for 1824; [or, Phil. Mag. EDIT.]
first series, vol. Ixiv., p. 30, 233; vol. lxv. p. 203.–—
+ [The negative results thus obtained by Mr. E. Davy, agree exactly with those of some trials which I have witnessed for protecting steel by this means.→ E. W. B.]