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probably she only restored walls or banks which had existed before round this ancient capital of Mercia.

The value of the manor of Tamworth is not given in Domesday Book.

TICKHILL, Yorks (Fig. 32).—The name Tickhill does not occur in Domesday, but it is covered by that of Dadesley, the manor in which this castle was built a name which appears to have gone out of use when the hill was thrown up. There can be no doubt that it was the castle of Roger de Busli, one of the most richly endowed of William's tenants-in-chief, as it is mentioned as such by Ordericus.' He calls it the castle of Blythe, a name which it probably received because Blythe was the most important place near, and Dadesley was so insignificant. Florence of Worcester, when describing the same events, calls the castle Tykehill. The remains furnish an excellent specimen of the earthworks of this class. The motte is 75 feet high, and its area on top about 80 feet in diameter; about a third of it is natural, the rest artificial. Only a slight trace remains of the ditch separating it from the oval bailey, which covers 2 acres. The foundations of a decagonal tower, built in the reign of Henry II., are still to be seen on the top.2 The bailey retains its banks on the scarp, surmounted now by a stone curtain, which, along with the older part of the gatehouse, is possibly of the time of Henry I.3 The outer ditch is about 30 feet broad, and is still full of water in parts. On the counterscarp a portion of the

1 Ordericus, xi., ch. iii.

2 There are three entries for the works of the turris at Tickhill in the Pipe Rolls of 1178 and 1179, amounting to £123, 12s. 5d.

3 Pipe Roll, 31 Henry I., 33, 36. Expenses for work at the wall of the castle are mentioned. Ordericus says that Robert Belesme fortified the castle of Blythe at the time of his rebellion in 1101, but he also says that it had belonged to Roger de Busli. Hist. Ecc., iv., 33; xi., 3.

bank remains.

This bank carried a wooden palisade when the castle was besieged by Cromwell.' The site is not naturally defensible; it is about three and a half miles from the northern Roman road.

The value of the manor of Dadesley had risen at the time of the Survey. The stone buildings which once stood in the bailey have been transformed into a modern house.

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TONBRIDGE, Kent (Fig. 33).-This notable castle, the first English seat of the powerful family who afterwards took their name from Clare in Suffolk, is first mentioned in 1088, when it was stormed by William Rufus and his English subjects, who had adopted his cause against the supporters of his brother Robert. The castle was one of great importance at several crises in English history; but it began as a wooden keep on a motte, and the stone shell which now crowns this motte cannot be earlier than the 12th century, and judging by its buttresses, is much later. The castle stands outside the town of Tonbridge, separated from it by moats which were fed from the river. The smaller bailey of 1 acres, probably the original one, is square, with rounded corners. The palatial gatehouse, of the 13th or 14th century, is a marked feature of this castle. There appears to have been only one wing wall down the motte to the bailey, but a second one was not needed, owing to the position of the motte with regard to the river.

The value of the manor of Hadlow, in which Tonbridge lay, was stationary at Domesday.* It belonged to the see of Canterbury, and was held by

1 Vicar's Parliamentary Chronicle, quoted by Hunter, South Yorks, ii., 235. 2 D. B., i., 319a. 3 A.-S. C. in anno.

4 D. B., i., 76.

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Richard de Bienfaite, ancestor of the House of Clare, as a tenant of the see.

TOTNES, Devonshire (Fig. 33).-The castle of Totnes belonged to Judhael, one of King William's men, who has been already mentioned under Barnstaple. This castle is not noticed in Domesday Book, but its existence in the 11th century is made certain by a charter of Judhael's giving land below his castle to the Benedictine priory which he had founded at Totnes: a charter certainly of the Conqueror's reign, as it contains a prayer for the health of King William.1 The site was an important one; Totnes had been one of the boroughs of the Burghal Hidage; it was at the head of a navigable river, and was the point where the ancient Roman (?) road from Devonshire to Bath and the North began its course. The motte of the castle is very high and precipitous, and has a shell on top, which is perfect up to the battlements, and appears to be rather late Norman. This keep is entered in a very unusual way, by a flight of steps leading up from the bailey, deeply sunk in the upper part into the face of the motte, so as to form a highly defensible passage. Two wing walls run down to the walls of the bailey. There is at present no ditch between the motte and the bailey. The whole area of the work is acre. It stands in a very defensible situation on a spur of hill overlooking the town, and lies just outside the ancient walls.


The value of the town of Totnes had risen at Domesday.R

THE TOWER of London.-Here, as at Colchester, there is no motte, because the original design was that there should be a stone keep. Ordericus tells us that

1 M. A., iv., 630. 3 D. B., i., 108b.

2 Leland is responsible for this last statement.

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