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having shafts with very fine foliated capitals, and the turrets adorned with niches.
The interior of the choir is very fine and impressive, it being quite entire, save only the roof. It is seven arches in length, and the triforium and clerestory are of magnificent character and in a perfect state. The main arches are somewhat acute and very lofty. The piers resemble those of the transept. The triforium has an obtuse arch enriched with toothed ornament, divided into two sharp-pointed arches with deep architrave mouldings springing from clustered shafts; these again subdivided, each into two other arches, and between the heads of all a circle containing quatrefoil. The clerestory has in each compartment a range of five arches springing from shafts; the centre arch being higher than the others, with very deep architrave mouldings, and springing from clustered shafts. On either side of the head of the central arch is a pierced trefoil; the dripstones and mouldings are richly ornamented with the tooth ornament. The east end has two ranges of triple lancet windows, with architrave mouldings enriched with tooth ornament, and shafts with bell capitals. This end is flanked by octagonal turrets crowned with pyramids and having shafts at the angles. There is a vestige of a cupboard for the communion plate. The pediment of the gable above the groining is enriched with a range of seven lancets with shafts, the centre being the highest, the others gradually decreasing. The choir windows have, externally, toothed dripstones, continued over the buttresses, which have mostly polygonal fronts.
The parish church of Whitby stands scarcely a hundred yards west of the ruins of the abbey, and is approached from the town by a flight of steps up the cliff. This edifice presents a singular appearance externally, not to say unsightly and deformed, from its irregularity of form and barbarous modern alterations. It is very low, and seems to have consisted originally of a nave and chancel of considerable length, resembling other churches in this country of Norman origin. It has, however, received the addition of a north and south transept, and the original north wall seems to have been removed and the nave much widened on that
side. Many of the windows are modern, and extremely bad, but the south side retains some original features, viz. a few plain Norman windows and a very good doorway of the same period, having shafts with very good capitals. The tower at the west end is low, and of Early English work, having flat buttresses and a triple E. E. arch in the belfry story springing from shafts, and having the centre light pierced for a window. The tower opens to the interior of the nave by an E. E. pointed arch springing from clustered shafts having capitals of Norman character with the abacus. The interior of the nave contains little remarkable, being almost wholly modernized and surrounded by large galleries on all sides. The transepts are also of modern character. The chancel still preserves its ancient character, and opens to the nave by a Norman arch with shafts having scroll work and other ornament in the capitals. It is raised a good deal above the nave, up several steps. On the south side of the chancel is a nebuly cornice and some Norman windows, also a small E. E. doorway. On the north side are three lancet windows.
Leaving Whitby, we passed along the shore to Lythe, three miles distant, where are extensive alum works. The cliffs in this neighbourhood are extremely bold and high, and the sea view unbounded and very grand. Mulgrave Castle is distant about one mile from Lythe, but the grounds are scarcely seen from the road. From Lythe we went over rather a dreary country till we came to Runswick Bay, the view of which is very picturesque and romantic. On the shore of this bay is another alum work. From thence towards Gisborough the road lies over barren and bleak moors for many miles, but the scene changes and becomes very pleasing and picturesque on entering the beautiful valley in which Gisborough is situated. There the scene is varied by rock, wood, and river, and the high hills bounding the valley on the south side form fine features. The conical hill called Rosebury Topping is particularly conspicuous above the town, when seen from the Redcar side.
The town is very neat, having one good long street. The parish church has a modern nave, divided into aisles by
octagon pillars supporting modern arches. The chancel is rectilinear, and has three windows with three lights on each side, and one at the east end which contains some stained glass. The interior is neatly fitted up, and contains an organ. The tower at the west end is of plain rectilinear architecture with an embattled parapet. The ruins of the priory are situated within an enclosed piece of ground, embosomed with high trees, not far south-east of the parish church. The only remaining portion is the east gable of the choir, which is as fine a specimen of the kind as can be met with. It is of very great height, and built of the finest stone, and its character is curvilinear. The window is of vast dimensions, and must have been magnificent when the tracery was complete. The soffit of the great window is richly ornamented with foliated ornament, and over the great window in the gable is a circular window. The side windows at the east end of the aisles are also curvilinear in tracery, and with soffits enriched as the large window The point of the gable is crowned by an octagon pinnacle surmounted by a crocketed pinnacle. The buttresses are large and bold, and somewhat singularly grouped, the set-offs being enriched with fine triangular crocketed canopies, and some portions ornamented with curvilinear panelling and niches. This front, though not overloaded with panelling or other ornament, is a very fine composition.
From Gisborough to Redcar, the first portion of the road is very beautiful, through a fine wooded country, which however is changed, before reaching Kirkleatham, for an uninteresting flat extending to the sea. Kirkleatham House stands very near the public road, and is a curious mixture of pointed and modern architecture. Near it is the church, with a mausoleum, both of Italian design; there is also a hospital or almshouse, a large brick building in form of half H and a very rich foundation.
Redcar is in many respects pleasant as a bathing-place, the sands being very good for walking, and reaching for two or three miles on each side of the village. The bathing is very good, and the view of Hartlepool and the Durham coast is agreeable. The shore is quite flat, and hence a great objection to the place is the great quantity of sand that is stranded all over the place, the sand being heaped up in the street of the village to some height, and on the shore are
high hills of sand. Two miles east of Redcar is Marsk, in which parish it is situated. This village is on the coast, and contains a church with tower and stone spire, but mostly modernized; it contains also a very handsome house of James I. period, kept up and inhabited, and belonging to Lord Dundas. Behind Marsk is Skelton Castle, situated in very pleasing country, from which we went by a very pretty road to Upleatham, the residence of Dowager Lady Dundas, by woody and very beautiful scenery. In going from thence towards Stockton, there is a fine view of the range of hills behind Gisborough with the Rosebury Topping, and Wilton Castle seated on a hill-side embosomed in wood. Stockton is approached by a handsome bridge over the Tees; it is a very handsome town, having one street of very considerable width, and consisting of very well built houses. The street is indeed wider, perhaps, than any other in a provincial town. The church is a modern brick building of large dimensions, and handsomely fitted up with organ, galleries, &c., but containing nothing particularly worthy of notice.
A small town in a valley, with good wide streets. The church is a modern edifice, excepting the tower and a portion of the wall on the north side. The body is Italian, neatly fitted up, with an organ. This tower is rectilinear, embattled, and crowned by four small crocketed pinnacles. The surrounding country is very beautiful, and on the south side is a high and steep range of hills which we had to pass on our road to Helmsley.
The road to Helmsley is for the most part wild and romantic; the distance is about twenty miles, and the road lies for some way, after passing the first ridge of hill, through a wild and beautiful valley; the road is full of steep hills, there are many extensive prospects, and several very picturesque scenes. On approaching Helmsley the view over Duncombe Park and its splendid woods is most enchanting.
Two miles short of Helmsley we left the carriage and walked three-quarters of a mile to the right to Rivaulx
Abbey, which lies in a deep and beautiful valley, surrounded with luxuriant wood, and itself presenting a beautful scene, being full of trees, interspersed with cottages, and a rapid small river running at the bottom. The ruins are most picturesque, and a considerable portion of the choir and transept remains, also much of the refectory. In the choir there is a good deal of resemblance to Whitby, but the work is perhaps of rather an earlier period. The character of the choir is very fine E. E., much resembling Salisbury Cathedral. The choir is quite perfect save only the roof. There are seven very fine pointed arches on each side, with lozenge piers formed of clustered shafts with plain banded capitals. The triforium is good, and consists in each compartment of two arches (with a pierced quatrefoil between their heads) springing from clustered shafts. These arches are each subdivided by a central shaft into two lights with quatrefoils between the heads. It varies from the triforium at Whitby in not being contained under a larger arch embracing the whole. This arrangement is probably earlier. The mouldings are richly covered with the toothed ornameut. The clerestory is plainer than in Whitby, having three lancet arches, the central one much the highest and largest, and pierced by two lights for windows. The east end has a window formed of three high lancet lights, the centre being the highest, having deep mouldings and shafts with bell capitals. On each side of the head of the central lancet is a circle with a pierced quatrofoil. The mouldings are deep, and enriched with toothed ornament. Beneath the east window (which rests on a string forming a continuation of that of the triforium) are five lancet arches of equal height, but the alternate ones wider, and pierced for windows, which is rather singular. The ribs supporting the groining rest upon three clustered shafts, which in the two western compartments rest upon brackets placed in the space between the main arch heads. In the other part, they are upon the string of the triforium. Only the eastern arch of the tower remains, with clustered shafts not brought down to the ground, but resting on brackets against the pier wall. Part of the tower walls remains over the eastern arch, having two lancet windows. The rest of the tower and north and south arches are destroyed. The walls of the choir's aisle are destroyed. The clerestory on the the north side presents