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times. It was usual to saturate the body with tar before it was hung in chains, in order that it might last the longer. This was done with bodies of three highwaymen about the middle of last century, gibbeted on the top of the Chevin, near Belper, in Derbyshire. They had robbed the North Coach when it was changing horses at the inn at Hazelwood, just below the summit of the Chevin. After the bodies had been hanging there a few weeks, one of the friends of the criminals set fire, at night-time, to the big gibbet that bore all three. The father of our aged informant, and two or three others of the cottagers near by, seeing a glare of light, went up the hill, and there they saw the sickening spectacle of the three bodies blazing away in the darkness! So thoroughly did the tar aid this cremation, that the next morning only the links of the iron chain remained on the site of the gibbet.
The last person gibbeted at Derby was Matthew Cokayne, who was hung in 1776 for the murder of Mary Vicars, an old woman, resident in Tenant Street. The body was afterwards suspended in chains from a gibbet, which had to be erected on the open space nearest to the scene of the crime. The gibbet-post was consequently erected where the outbuildings of the infirmary now stand, between the London and
The last instance of gibbeting in the county of Derby took place at a much later date-namely, after the March Assizes, 1815. Anthony Lingard, aged 21, was convicted of the murder of Hannah Oliver, a widow woman, who kept the turnpike-gate at Wardlow Miers, in the parish of Tideswell. The Derby Mercury for Marcn 13, 1815, after giving an account of the crime, the trial, and the sentence, concludes with these words: "Before the Judge left the town, he directed that the body of Lingard should be hung in chains in the most convenient place near the spot where the murder was committed, instead of being dissected and anatomized."
In Rodes' Peak Scenery, first published in 1818, mention is made of the gibbet of Anthony Lingard: "As we passed along the road to Tideswell, the little villages of Ward
low and Litton lay on our left . . . Here, at a little distance on the left of the road, we observed a man suspended on a gibbet, which was but newly erected." The vanity of the absurd idea our forefathers, in thinking that a repulsive object of this kind would act as a deterrent of crime, was strikingly shown in the case of this Wardlow gibbet. It is related of Hannah Pecking, of Litton, who was hung on March 22, 1819, at the early age of sixteen, for poisoning Jane Grant, a young woman of the same village, that she "gave the poison in a sweet cake to her companion as they were going to fetch some cattle out of a field near to which stood the gibbet-post of Anthony Lingard."
The treasurer's accouts for Derbyshire, for 1815-16, show that the punishment of gibbeting involved a serious inroad on the county finances. The expenses for apprehending Anthony Lingard amounted to £31 5s. 5d.; but the expenses incurred in the gibbeting reached a total of £85 4s. id., and this in addition to ten guineas charged by the gaoler for conveying the body from Derby to Wardlow.*
J. CHARLES Cox, LL.D., F.S.A.
a List of the Inventories of
By WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A.
COUNTY OF DURHAM.
Guylde or Chauntry of our Lady in Seint Nicolas Church in Durham.
(Ex. Q. R., Anct. Misc. Ch. Gds., s.) Chantry of Our Lady in the Chappell of Seynt Margaret in the Parish of Seynt Oswald in Durham. (Ibid., f.) Chantry of Saint James and Saint Andrew uppon the Bridge in the Parish of Saint Nycholas in Durham. (Ibid.,.)
* These Derbyshire notes are taken from a work not yet issued, entitled Three Centuries of Derbyshire Annals, which Messrs. Bemrose have in the press.
COUNTY OF DURHAM (continued).
COUNTY OF DURHAM (continued).
The Cathedral Church of Durham.
St. Giles' Guild in Durham.
Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene in
St. Nicholas in Durham.
St. Oswalds in Durham.
St. Margaret in Durham.
The church in the South Baily of
The church in the North Baily of
Norton and Stocketon.
1. Chantry of Our Lady in the Parish of St. Oswald
COUNTY OF DURHAM (continued).
Saint John Baptyste and Saint John Evaungeliste in
Guilde of Corpus Christi in said churche.
Saint Jeames within the church of St. Nycholas in
Our Ladie in the said churche.
St. John Baptyste and St. John Evaungelyste within the said churche.
The Trinitie within the said churche.
The Guilde of St. Cutberte within the Cathedrall churche of Duresme.
Saint Katheryn within the churche of Northebaylie in Duresme.
The Guilde of Saint Gyles.
The Ankerhouse within the paryshe of Chester in the Streate.
The Guilde of Sainte Hughe within the paryshe of Aukelande in the Chappell of Evenwood.
The Holie Trinitie in Gatysshed.
Our Ladie within the said Churche.
Saint John Baptyste and Saint John Evaungeliste within said churche.
Saint Edmonde in Gatysshed.
Our Ladie within the chapell of Barnardcastell.
Peerst brygge in Gaynesforth.
Stocton in the paryshe of Norton.
Saint Ellen in Hartyllpoole.
Our Ladie in Westherington in the parishe of
Chaunterie or Guilde of Houghton.
Our Ladie in the parishe of Houghton.
Chaunterie callid Farneackers in Wyckeham.
(Ld. R. R., Bdle. 457.)
(L. R. R., Bdle. 1392, Nos. 37 and 41.)
Broken Plate delivered into the Jewel House 7 Edw. vj.-1 Mary.
City and Bishopric of Durham.
COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER (continued).
St. Mary Porte.
St. Phillip. (Ibid., .) Downe Hatherley. (Ibid., .)
City of Gloucester : St. Awens.
Sums total for various churches, chantries, and guilds. (Ld. R. R., Bdle. 1392, Nos. 47 and 48.) Broken Plate delivered into the Jewel House 7 Edw. vj.-1 Mary. County and City of Gloucester. (Ibid., Bdle. 447, No. 1.)
By REV. C. N. BARHAM.
OR many years the fishermen and dredgermen of Whitstable, while plying their calling in the neighbourhood of "Pudding-Pan Rock," have occasionally found in their dredges quantities of Roman earthenware, some of it entire, but the greater portion in a fragmentary state.
The question how it came there is a vexed one among antiquaries.
The traditional story is that a vessel, freighted with the ware, was, ages ago, wrecked on the "rock," and its contents dispersed by the waves.
Probably, where the sea now rolls, in Roman times, potteries-not less important than those which have been discovered at Upchurch Marshes-existed.
Antiquarian visitors to Whitstable twentyfive years ago, and earlier, reaped harvests of spoil, enriching their collections with valuable and choice specimens for a nominal outlay.
When the dredgermen first met with these "pudding-pans" is not known. For many years, although frequently found, they were regarded as being valueless, and were thrown overboar as rubbish, or, in Whitstable vernacular, "culch." Later, some of the men began to take the more perfect specimens home. But, even then, they were thought little of, and many a stunted geranium has drained into a Roman patera.
The time came, however, when dry-as-dust curiosity-hunters discovered the whereabouts of this "Tom Tiddler's" ground of Ceramic treasure. Then prices rose. Every fragment was hoarded, as misers hoard their gold.
Let it not be supposed that because the "pudding-pans" are scattered in the locality of the Rock, which has been named after them, that they were found daily and hourly. Often weeks and months passed without either vase, patera, or other vessel, or even a fragment of one, being met with. Then suddenly, by some freak of capricious fortune, vessel after vessel-lustrous, beautiful, and perfect-would be found in the dredges. Of course the whole was at once thrown on the market. For a few years boatmen did a thriving business, fleecing those who had formerly taken advantage of their rustic simplicity.
Deluded by strange stories of the abundance of the pottery, and the ease with which it was obtainable, bonâ-fide antiquarians, as well as the large class of collectors who pretend to have any intelligent craze, walked into the traps set by guileless long-shore
ashore, waiting to purchase specimens of the dredgermen at the moment of their landing. Making a merit of necessity, they became pot-buyers instead of pot-hunters.
Prices having once risen, continued to maintain an upward tendency; notwithstanding fluctuations in other markets, they have never appreciably declined. "Pudding-pans are everywhere prized. Ceramic connoisseurs honour them with prominent positions in well-stocked cabinets. Curators of museums adorn their laden shelves therewith; even the Geological Museum invites savants to inspect Samian pateræ dredged out of oysterhaunted seas at Whitstable.
I do not wonder at this. Many of the specimens are singularly chaste and delicate. They bear the potter's stamp; the incised patterns are sharp and clear, and the figures in relief are as perfect as when the ware left the grimy hands of the Roman workman fifteen centuries ago.
Whitstable was invaded by an army hungering for Samian ware. Yawls were engaged by the day, even by the week, for trips to Pudding-Pan Rock. Here, when winds were favourable, dark-visaged, hook-nosed gentlemen, of the Hebrew persuasion, would sit, watching the bronzed dredgermen, careful that no cup or bowl should be thrown overboard. Sometimes, when nothing rewarded the anxious search, these men would themselves cast the dredge, in the vain hope that success would attend their efforts. They were learners in the school of experience; disappointment taught them wisdom. Giving up sea-going, they contented themselves
Although the recovery of entire, or only slightly damaged, specimens is not uncommon, storms and billows have played havoc with these relics of the past. It would be difficult to describe the ruin which has been wrought. Shattered fragments of graceful vases, lips and stems of incomparable cups, and marvellous pateræ, handles of amphore which never held the generous juice of the grape, portions of cinerary urns which were never sealed upon the ashes of any of the mighty dead, are brought to light, for no other purpose, apparently, but to make our science masters sigh. Nor is this all. Many specimens have been robbed of their lustrous glaze by abrasion. Some have holes worn in side or bottom by the friction from rolling sands, or by a pebble which has served as ocean's plaything.
Now let me write of that which I know, and testify of that which I have seen. Every man who has a "crockery fad" considers that his own pots and pans are better than those of his neighbours. I fear I am no exception to the rule.
My "pudding-pans" are ranged before me as I write these lines. On the centre shelf of my cabinet is a vase as perfect in form as the best productions of Etruscan workmanship. Its roseate glaze is dashed with flecks of white, bright and shining as enamel. If
it were but perfect! Alas! it is not. This vase is 11 inches in height; it had originally four handles attached, but they are there no longer. The sea does not possess them. They are mine also, and lie in fragments grouped around the base of their lovely but dilapidated principal. This vase was dredged up twelve years ago. Its finder, who set but little store by it, stowed it away out of sight. When next brought to light it was covered with a saline efflorescence, and the handles had fallen off. In this condition it came into my possession. For ages before it was recovered, it had been partially buried in the mud, for the rim and part of the neck
are worn away.
selves to the ware. Among the most plentiful are found the grotesque casts of serpulæ and various sea-worms. These are called-why, I cannot tell-" German writings." I trust our Teutonic kinsmen feel flattered by the compliment paid to their caligraphy. Algæ, sponges, and zoophytes also find settlements in and on the "pudding-pans." Not infrequently the oyster, for which the locality is justly famous, casts anchor, and lives, thrives, and fattens in the interior of a richly-chased vessel, which had been intended to grace the altar of a pagan divinity.
But I must say farewell to the pottery, which reminds one that the conquerors of the world once plied a peaceful craft, where now roll waves
So fit to form poetic theme,
Ercavations at Silchester.
By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A.
HE fine weather that has prevailed
since I wrote my former communication on the excavations at Silchester has enabled the work to be carried forward in a satisfactory manner, both as regards the amount of excavation accomplished and the results obtained.
The ingathering of the crops having cleared the entire site within the walls, the thorough excavation of the large insula north of the forum has been proceeded with almost uninterruptedly. The large house occupying the north-east part of the insula, which was begun with somewhat disappointing results, has now been completely laid open, and proves to be a very interesting building. It follows in the main what must now be considered the typical plan of a large Romano-British house, a series of rooms opening out of corridors arranged round the three sides of an open court, with an outer series of small rooms occupying the lines of an external corridor. This house is bounded