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his conviction that all the entrenchments were the work of the British inhabitants of the Wolds.

Whatever separate tribes inhabited the Wold district (and there may have been several), it is not likely that two tribes, in opposition, would occupy so short a distance as that between Aldro and Garrowby; and, indeed, there is a distinct connection by way of double entrenchments, about half a mile on an average, in rear of the supposed Roman road from Malton to Brough, be

access to springs, and some may have been thrown up as late even as the occupation of York by the Roman legions; but it seems clear from the map that the Roman troops, in subjugating the stout Brigantes, cut their way through these defences, and constructed their road to the coast through the heart of them, and, in places, utilized the mound of a British entrenchment for the substratum of a road. Instances of this latter use may be recorded in the case of Settrington High Street, and in the road between Sledmere

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from Malton, and also cuts both sets of entrenchments.

Perhaps the strongest entrenchments on the Wolds are those known as Huggate These consist of five mounds and six ditches. At present only about 200 yards in length remain, in a grass field known as Huggate Pasture, but originally they ran across the neck of high land, half a mile long, and 650 feet above sea-level, which separates the end of Millington Dale, running west, from the head of Horse Dale, running east. Both these dales are cut very deeply into the chalk, the bottom being quite 200 feet below the top, and would each afford a serious obstruction to any enemy advancing, as it were, across country; but with the level plateau, on the height between, it would be different. This would require to be strongly and artificially fortified, the more so as it is the only level piece of ground by which a body of men might pass from north to south, or vice-versâ, without being forced to cross a deep dale. Accordingly here we find no less than five strong mounds, 12 or 13 feet high, originally, without doubt. Towards the western end an opening has been left intentionally, and there may have been others in the portion destroyed. Similar openings occur in Danes' Dike, and were probably intended for sally-ports, as alluded to in a previous paper. We may also notice that towards the centre of the original works the outer mound, on the south side, appears to have protruded in the form of an arc of a small circle, as if to form a sheltered post of observation commanding a view of the outer ditch on either side of it.

The Huggate Dikes lie about a mile to the eastward of the entrenchments shown on Garrowby Hill (Plate II.), and are connected with them. At the same time, they are connected with a line of entrenchments running on the top of the dale-side to the hill above Pocklington, and with entrenchments making for Warter; whilst, eastwards, the entrenchments are continued, for miles and miles, past Painslack, Wetwang, The Monument, and Kilham, to near Bridlington. These latter are connected again in several places, too numerous to mention, and which can only be studied on a map, with another long line of entrenchments running from Fridaythorpe to

Fimber, Fimber to Sledmere, and Sledmere to beyond Octon. To the north of these, and somewhat parallel, is another set of double dikes running from Octon Grange, by Helperthorpe, Kirby Grindalyth, and Burdale Tunnel Top, to Aldro. A portion of these may be seen in Major-General Pitt-Rivers' map, as also more completely the entrenchments at Settrington Wold, which are connected by the Several Dikes with the set of entrenchments running along the northern brow of the wolds from Knapton to Hunmanby.

Such a vast network of entrenchments over so wide an area implies a large population, and, as water would be equally an essential then as now, it follows that the bulk of the homesteads must have been within reach of water supply, and therefore more or less distant from the great body of the entrenchments, which cover the high grounds. This question deserves closer attention.

There were three sources of water supply in those days. 1. Springs on the outer margin of the wolds; 2. Springs on the inner eastern slope, where the chalk had been cut completely through to the underlying Kimmeridge clay; and, 3. Natural ponds.

1. The first kind abound all along the northern escarpment from Hunnanby to Leavening, and again, along the western edge, from Leavening to Welton, and here, to the present day, a considerable number of villages are met with, whose origin may date back to pre-historic times.

2. There are but two springs, or, rather, sets of springs, which issue on the eastern slope, all the rest of the rainfall being carried away by subterranean channels in consequence of the beds of chalk, which are very porous, dipping towards the south-east. One of these springs rises at Wharram-le-Street, and, being soon joined by others about Duggleby, forms the source of the stream which flows past the Dale towns to Bridlington Harbour. Throughout this valley there are signs of ancient buildings and habitations, and here, in all probability, a large proportion of the tribes occupying the northern Wolds had their settlement. appears, for a brief interval, at the head of Water Dale, and helped to supply the ancient settlement at Aldro, but it forms no surface

The other spring

stream at present. Three miles lower down, however, at Thixendale, a fairly copious spring breaks forth, which runs as a tiny beck as far as Raisthorpe, one mile, where it sinks. It reappears at Burdale, a mile and a half lower down the dale, where, joined by one or two springs from the high ground on the north, it feeds a pond which never dries up and never freezes. Thence the water, except in dry times, runs on the surface towards Fimber for about half a mile, and then finally disappears. We may, therefore, include Thixendale, Raisthorpe, and Burdale, as suitable and likely places for ancient settlements.

3. There are very few natural ponds on the wolds. The one at Burdale has already been mentioned, as also the one at the head of Water Dale. Both these are distinctly connected with springs. Apart from springs, however, there are a few which appear to maintain their water supply, not from the rainfall on their surface, but from a sort of natural drainage from the surrounding rock to a hollow formed in a deposit of clay. Such are the ponds at Huggate and Fimber. The name of the latter place is a misnomer. In all ancient documents it is spelt Finmere or Finimere, and took its name from the mere, or "mar," locally so called, which occupies the centre of the village. Sledmere is an instance of a similar derivation, though the mere has been filled up in recent times. In the list of Knights' Fees in Yorkshire, A.D. 1303, under the head of "Sledemer,' Martinus atte Mar* is mentioned as holding two bovates.

We may, therefore, reasonably conclude that all the above-mentioned places, from their natural supply of water, formed suitable sites of settlement for the primitive inhabitants of the Wolds. The profusion of entrenchments in their immediate neighbourhood is thus, to some extent, accounted for.

The mere at Wetwang is also very ancient, having given rise, in the same list, to the name "Laurentius atte Mar."

A Forgotten Tudor Poet.


HE reign of Queen Mary was short, and unmarked by brilliant literary names. But short as it was, there

is no sign that its character would have been changed by its being lengthened. Solemn and sombre thoughts of religious matters on the one side, quakings and fears on the other; general unrest, hesitation and uncertainty among the people; inglorious foreign policy, failure in all hopes, seemed the portion of the people and their queen. There was naught to stimulate the poetic vein, and there were no poets. It seemed as if there were a great back-draw just then, in preparation for the swelling wave that rolled on to make the high tide of Elizabethan literary glory. It is true that Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, was born in 1536, and might be said to have developed during the reign. George Peele and Sir Walter Raleigh were born just the year before her accession, and Spenser, Lyly, Sydney, Fulke Greville, Thomas Lodge, George Chapman, and William Warner were born subjects to this queen. Yet not to her their glory, but to her more fortunate sister.

But the absence of great poets make minor ones more noteworthy. Hence, to the other antiquities brought forward in connection with the Tudor Exhibition, might have been added the life and verses of a young priest, Leonard Stopes. Having for other purposes been working up his life, I was told some time ago by Mr. Hazlitt that he had seen a broadside of his in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries. This, by the kindness of the librarian, I was permitted to copy, and to study the volume in which it is bound, in which I found a few other broadsides of the reign. It is on account of the verses one must give a short sketch of his life.

Sir Thomas Whyte, Alderman of London, founded the College of St. John at Oxford, May 29, 1555. It was arranged at first to hold "one President, and thirty Graduate or non-Graduate Scholars, or more or less." Sir Thomas Whyte dying soon after, increased his foundation by will. The first president.

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was Alexander Belsire; the first four "scholars" were Leonard Stopes, Will. Elye, Ralph Windon, and John Bavant.* "Leonard Stopes, Priest and Fellow of St. John's, sup. for B.A. 12 Oct., 1557, adm. 23 Oct., det. 1558, sup. for M.A. 25 Nov., lic. 5 Dec., inc. and disp. 21 Mar., 155, of St. John's."†

The rapidity of his advancement is explained in Gutch's edition of Wood's History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford, 1796, vol. ii., p. 133; "There being now a great scarcity of Masters in the University, it was decreed and appointed on the 25th June, 1556, that for the space of one year to come, all the Bachelors of Art, then in the University, might take the degree of Master at two years' standing complete. . . . There was also a great scarcity of divines, as it appears in our records for 1557 and 1558."

Either before, or early in his time of residence, he must have written and printed, as a broadside, the first poem, which might almost entitle him, especially when connected with the after-events of his life, to be considered Mary's "Laureate;" self-elected, it is true, and without stipend, or honour, or encouragement. That, nevertheless, proves all the more his good faith in praising a woman rarely praised.

An Ave Maria, in commendation of our most virtuous Queene. Imprinted at London, in Pater-noster Reaw, by Richard Lant.


Haile Queene of England, of most worthy fame For virtue, for wisdom, for mercy and grace; Most firm in the faith: Defence of the same : Christ save her and keepe her, in every place.


Marie the mirrour of mercifulnesse

God of His goodnesse, hath lent to this lande: Our jewell, our joye, our Judeth doutlesse, The great Holofernes of hell to withstande.


Full well I may liken, and boldly compare

Her highnesse, to Hester, that vertuous Queene; The envious Hamon, to kyll, is her care,

And all wicked workers, to wede them out clene.

See Wood's History and Antiquities of the Colleges of Oxford, p. 538.

+ Boase, Registrum Universitatis Oxon, vol. i., p. 234.


Of sectes and of schysmes, a riddaunce to make, Of horrible errours, and heresies all

She carckes and cares, and great trauell dooth take That vertue may flourish, and vice haue a fall.


Grace and all goodnesse, doth garnish her Grace
With mercifull meeknesse, on every syde,
And pitifull prudence, in renuyng her race,
Her Highness in honor, most godly dooth guyde.


Our life is a warfare, the worlde is the fielde,
Her Highnes, her army, hath alwayes at hande;
For Hope is her Helmet, Faith is her shielde
And Loue is her breastplate, her foes to withstand.


Lorde for thy mercy, vouchsafe to defende
Her Grace from all griefes, and dredfull distresse
Whom Thou hast vouchsafed so frendly to sende
Our maners to mende, our deedes to redresse.


Is not this Ilande, of duty most bounde,

To pray for her Highnesse, most prosperous state By whom, all our enmies be cast to the grounde Exilyng all errour, all strife and debate.


With wisdome, her wisdome, most witty and wise
Most wisely dooth welde us, in wele and in wo,
In rest to rule us, this dooth she devise

In grace and in goodnesse, with vertue also.

Thee humbly we honour, most mercifull Lorde,
Beseechyng thy goodnesse, to graunt us thy grace
That we, in faith, as one may accorde,

All vices exiled, may vertue embrace.


Blessed be Jesu, and praise we his name

Who of his mere mercy, hath lent to this lande, So Catholike Capitaynes, to gouern the same And freely, the foes of Faith to withstande.


Art thou not ashamed, thou caitif unkynde

To whisper, to whymper, with traitourous tene, To mutter, to mourmure, with mischievous mynd Against thy so lovyng, and gracious a Quene?


Thou wishest and woldest: But all is in vayne
(God dooth abhorre) to thinke in thy harte;
Or speake in secrete, of them that doo raigne :
The birdes wyll bewrai thee: to prat is thy parte.


Among al the scriptures, wher hast thou but sene The murmurers punishte and neuer had their wyll Agaynst their heade: our sovereigne Queene Whose grace, I pray God, preserue from all yll.

WOMEN Women and widowes, with maidens and wiues, Of this blessed woman example may take In womanly wisdome, to leade wel their liues : All England is blessed for this woman's sake.


And for that there is, suche godly behaviour
Specially tendyng, Gods worthy fame :
He through His power, and princely favour,
Hath blancked her foes, to their great shame.


Blessed be therefore, our Lorde God aboue :
And Marie our maistresse, our mercifulle Queene,
For unto this land, our Lorde for her loue

Hath of her mercy, most merciful bene.


Is not her Highnesse, most worthy of prayse
And England much holden, her grace to comend
By whom, it hath pleased, our Lord many wayse
His bountefull blessyng, on us for to sende.


The plentefull pittie, the faith and the grace
The mervaillous mekenes, and mercy also,
And other the vertues, that shine in her face
Doo saue us her subjected, in weale and in wo.

Fruyte of her body, God graunt us to see

This Royalme to rule, in peace and in reste That loueyng as she is, to us may be ;

Who woulde us all, as our hertes can thinke best. OF

Of this may the good, be bolde as to say

She woulde God's glory, to flourish and spryng And her true subiectes, to walke in one way In unitie of faith, all us for to bryng.

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Coventry, I could hardly have understood how anyone could honestly have written thus. But the womanhood in that face seemed to reveal a true soul buried under the hardness, engendered by years of oppression and conflict and disaster, and by her intense belief in the religion of her mother and her youth. Therefore to a young man, of the same religion, preparing for Holy Orders, ardent in faith like her, and willing to brave all for it, there is possible honesty and faith in this address to the Queen of his Country, thus associated with the Queen of Heaven.

"On December 5, 1558, Leonard Stopes took his degree of Master of Arts in Oxford; but in the year following, refusing to conform, he either resigned or was ejected, and going beyond the seas, to Douay in the first instance, he was ordained priest, much about the same time that Ralph Windon, another ejected fellow of that house, was also ordained. He returned to England on a religious mission with Ralph Windon, his fellow-student. They were taken and committed to custody in Wisbeach Castle, Cambridgeshire, where they, with others of the like character, endured a tedious imprisonment of many years, and were, therefore, accounted by those of their own persuasion as confessors. One of his fellow-students was Edmund Campion, afterwards the famous Jesuit; and one of his fellow-exiles was William Allen, of Oriel, the founder of the English College at Douay, and the noted English Cardinal. There is little known of his later life. From St. John's College, John Bavant, Ralph Wendon, Leonard Stopes and Henry Shaw, Masters of Arts and Fellows, were turned out or voluntarily left their places, all which, being made Catholic priests, were seized and imprisoned at Wisbeach in Cambridgeshire. What was the end of them, beyond exile, I know not."*

Dodd seems in error, when, repeating this fact, he says of him, "refusing to conform, the 1st of Elizabeth he was deprived. Afterwards going over to the English College of Douay, he was ordained priest, and returned upon the mission." (Dodd's Lives of Elizabethan Clergymen, Book II., art. iv., p. 87, with note referring to Douay Diary.) But from Knox's transcript of the Douay Diary,

* Wood's Annals of Oxford University, ed. Gutch, 1796, Book I., p. 145.

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