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arch and label, apparently Perpendicular, but it is partly closed. There is in the chancel a cinquefoil niche with a piscina. The font is octagonal, with the sides panelled and containing shields.


This magnificent church ranks amongst the finest in England, and is perhaps unequalled as a specimen of large cruciform Decorated church, not only of the richest character, but quite unmixed, except the inserted Perpendicular east window.

The plan consists of a nave with side aisles, large transepts also with aisles on both sides, a spacious chancel and a glorious tower and spire rising from the centre of the cross, also north and south porches. The period of its erection is probably that of Edward III., and the whole is built of the finest stone, which must have been brought from beyond the seas, as none exists in the neighbourhood.

The west front is in three portions, and has an imposing appearance, the aisles being almost equal to the nave in height.28 The buttresses are crowned by fine crocketed pinnacles, the centre window is a large one of five lights, with tracery late in the style, approaching to the French Flamboyant character, and having a transom, below which the window is blocked up by a hideous singing gallery. The windows terminating the aisles are of two lights, and the dripstones of all the windows terminate in corbel heads. The side aisles have buttresses at regular intervals, similar to those at the west end, terminated by crocketed pinnacles. The side windows are of three lights with excellent Decorated tracery, and the second space on each side, reckoning from the west, is occupied by a porch. The north porch is smaller than the south, but has buttresses crowned with crocketed pinnacles, and is wholly of stone, including a strong-ribbed roof with foliated bosses. The south porch has also a stone vault, and a parvise over it approached from the interior. The transepts are very nearly uniform, except that the northern has a door beneath its central window, and the southern the elegant apsidal projection of the Lady Chapel on the east side. There being two side aisles to each, the

29 There is no west door.

north and south ends resemble the ternary arrangement of the west front, being divided by similar buttresses and having in the centre of each a large four-light window with transom, and tracery of decided Decorated character. The end windows of the aisles are of two lights. The buttresses are charged with rich canopied niches, and there are also throughout the church several grotesque gurgoyles on the buttresses. There is an elegant doorway under the great window of the north transept of rather singular character, with elegant mouldings continued, and at the point of the arch a niche containing a figure of Our Blessed Lord. The door is surmounted by an angular hood or canopy of stone having crockets and supported by very bold corbels. The south transept end differs from that of the north transept in there being a kind of graduated moulding over the large windows, above which a small circular window in the apex of the gable. The projection on the east side for the Lady Chapel forms three sides of a hexagon, and has plain pinnacles crowning the buttresses. The north-east and south-east sides are pierced with two-light windows. The chancel has four buttresses on each side and two at the east end, crowned above the parapet by crocketed pinnacles. There are four lateral windows on each side of three lights of fine flowing Decorated tracery, the first and third, second and fourth correspond. The east window, of seven lights and very noble dimensions, is the only feature in the whole edifice that is of Perpendicular character. Nor is there any trace of any style earlier than Decorated. The gables of each of the four members of the cross are terminated by stone crosses. The roof of every part is of high pitch and of lead remaining unaltered, a circumstance very favourable to the general external effect. The aisles of the nave are of nearly equal height, and there is no clerestory.29

The tower rises from the intersection of the arms of the cross, supported by massive piers, and has two stages above the apex of the roof. Of these the lowest has on each side one plain single light, the other, which is the bell chamber, an arcade of four arches, two of which are pierced. The buttresses are not carried all the way up. The parapet is plain, and similar to that which runs round the whole church,

29 There is a string course below the windows, and a fine moulding along the basement.

no part of which has battlements. On the tower rises an octagon connected by flying buttresses with the four crocketed pinnacles at the angles, pierced and surmounted by an open parapet, and having a crocketed pinnacle at each angle. From within this, which forms a kind of beautiful and uncommon fence round its base, rises the lofty and grandly proportioned spire to the height of 180 feet. In external beauty and symmetry this church is almost unequalled.

The interior, though in some respects it may not equal the exterior in its general effect, is still most beautiful in its details, and except for the insertion of the usual hideous boxes or pews (here for the most part painted green), and of a western gallery, and the whitewashing of several portions, is in fine preservation, and none of the ornamental parts, without or within, can be said to be mutilated. The absence of a clerestory in the nave may perhaps take off from the lightness of the internal appearance. There are four finely shaped pointed arches on each side of the nave, the piers handsome, and each composed of eight shafts clustered in lozenge-shape. The capitals have for the most part oak foliage, but those near the west end are plainer than the others. The roofs are open and plain, there are tie beams in the nave on stone corbels. In the aisles are the springing of ribs on head corbels, for intended groining. The four great arches under the steeple rise from huge clustered piers resembling those of the nave, above which are seen in the wall of the tower on each side three pointed arches rising from large heads. There is a curious staircase leading to the tower, carried over the great southern arch facing the transept without parapet or protection of any sort, and entered by doors set at a great height upon worked stone brackets. The circumstance of both transepts having two side aisles is remarkable and unusual, even in a church of the scale and grandeur of this, and many cathedrals are without it. Each division in the transepts is formed by three arches and columns uniform with those of the nave. The eastern aisle of the north transept has a raised floor, and in the piers in its east wall are three piscina set on head corbels, and some brackets for statues. There were probably chantry altars in this part. Over the central arch is a square aperture containing pierced tracery. The eastern aisle of the south transept is entirely groined in stone in an

elegant style. The centre space on the east side has, as has been already mentioned, a semi-hexagonal apse-a beautiful feature, somewhat continental, as are other features in this church. It was the chapel of the Virgin Mary. Two sides are pierced with two-light windows, the centre occupied by an elegant reredos, the lower part of which has a rectangular compartment enclosed with mouldings, within which there appears to have been once some sculpture or perhaps painting. The upper part is formed by a triple ogee niche with crockets, finials, and trefoil feathering, the centre niche surmounted by a triangular canopy with rich finial and crockets and a pierced trefoil within it, and between the niches rise lofty crocketed pinnacles. These niches are set on a horizontal string course, with moulding enriched with foliage. Under the south-east window is a piscina, the basin moulded and contracting, under a small trefoil niche surmounted by a dripstone on bold head corbels. The groining is very elegant, and springs from clustered shafts with foliated capitals. At the point of the arch opening to this apse is a piece of sculpture representing the Virgin Mary. In the southern part of this same aisle is another niche with piscina. Some of the south transept windows have shafts with foliated capitals. There is a fine pointed arch at the entrance of the chancel beyond the tower arch, which does not include the space formed by the breadth of the transeptal aisle. The chancel is very long, and without aisles. On the south side of the altar are three sedilia with fine crocketed canopies, the firials rising above the string course, also a piscina eastward of the sedilia. On the north side corresponding is the Easter Sepulchre, a great curiosity, of which but few specimens exist, and coëval with the church. It resembles those at Hawton and Heckington. The lower part exhibits bas-relief sculpture, apparently representing the soldiers who watched the Sepulchre, under ogee canopies, over which is an opening perhaps in order to form a credence or prothesis, and the upper part has a bas relief of the Saviour rising from the tomb attended by angels, and crowned by a depressed ogee arch. It is flanked by buttresses with crocketed pinnacles and very large finials, and on each side are brackets. There is a priests' door on the north of the chancel and a vestry. The font is near

30 Font engraved. "Baptismal Fonts," Pt. I.

the north-east pier of the tower and an excellent specimen, coeval with the church. It is a decagon in form. The bowl large and set on a low moulded base, raised upon a circular plinth. It is charged with a series of straight-sided arches with crockets and finials, and containing elegant and varied Decorated tracery, the ground enriched with foliage in basrelief. The arches are divided by buttresses with crocketed pinnacles. The whole is unluckily painted.

ALL SAINTS, Roos (E. R.).

The church is a neat though not remarkable structure, but having had lately the advantage of a complete and judicious restoration presents (especially the interior) a pleasing and truly ecclesiastical appearance. The plan is a western tower, nave with aisles, and chancel, on the north of which is a vestry, with an apartment over it. A west porch is attached to the tower which is engaged with the west end of the aisles. The tower itself is plain Perpendicular, the walls of the church are of brick and rubble mixed. The nave is divided from each aisle, beyond the tower, by three acute arches springing from light circular columns, which must be Early English. The clerestory windows are very obtuse and of Perpendicular character, as are most of the features of the church. There is however one Decorated window on the north of the chancel. The east window is filled with stained glass by Willement, and has a depressed arch. The chancel is large and some new sedilia have been made in it. The room over the vestry is entered by a staircase in an octagonal turret with circular termination. In this room is a window looking into the chancel just over the altar. It was probably the residence of a priest.

The nave has been entirely cleared of pews. The tower opens to the nave and aisles by three pointed arches upon head corbels. The font a plain octagonal bowl.


July 27, 1846.-A large plain church of considerable length, and nearly all of Third Pointed character. The material is an excellent hard gray stone. The plan com

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