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end no wall had been needed, owing to the steep precipice there existing
Traces existed of three gateways through the walls in the track followed to this day in ascending the peak. A part of the outer walling on the west side had already been removed by the quarrying, and in some places the workmen were advancing on the inner of the two walls. This was the only destruction of the reinains up to the present, but no doubt in time the whole of the peak would be removed. Even as Mr. Hughes was making these remarks, the rhythmical chink-chink of the quarryman's hammer upon the boring tool was heard, reminding one of the inexorable march of commercialism, and of the impending doom of the mountain.
Mr. Hughes pointed to the three pinnacles of Yr Eifl, or the Rivals, visible in the distance, and said that he had had the pleasure years ago of working with the President, Dr. Boyd Dawkins, at the famous camp on one of those heights known as Treceiri. No doubt that camp was of the same period as Braich y Ddinas. As to its age they had little data to work upon, and would have to depend npon the finds, as there had practically been no excavating at all. None of the huts had been really cleared, but there had been one or two interesting finds, including part of a quern.
Professor Boyd Dawkins, intervening, said that Treceiri belonged to the Pre-historic Iron Age, and was one of a very large group which was occupied from the beginning of that age down to the Roman Conquest, and the effect of the Roman Conquest was in this country to render those camps unnecessary. He would not be a bit surprised to find Roman remains in them. In fact he had done so. The country, after the arrival of the Romans, got settled, and the population went to live down in the valleys. Mr. Hughes said his point was that whatever period was assigned to Treceiri, that also was the period of the Penmaenmawr remains. Professor Boyd Dawkins added that the style of hut alluded to was used very much later than the Pre-historic Iron Age. Nearly all the older types of monastic buildings were formed exactly in the same way, with circular stone walls roofed with stones in circles of gradually reduced diameter, thus lapping over the stones till the roof was complete.
Mr. Harold Hughes thought the huts of Penmaenmawr never had stone roofs, but Mr. G. A. Humphreys submitted that they had been covered in that way. Archdeacon Thomas remarked that such a roof had been constructed on the ancient chapel at Rhos-on-sea, and Mr. Humphreys rejoined that the system was adopted in a much cruder form at Braich y Ddinas.
The President followed with a comparison of the large clusters of huts at Penzance, one of the huts having actually been discovered there intact. These might belong even to early Christian times. There was a most perfect camp of the Pre-historic Iron Age in Ireland, which was very carefully dug and explored, of the same type as that 6TH SER., VOL. XII.
on Penmaenmawr. There was also a camp at Grasmere, which was found to be inhabited by the same kind of people as were believed to have inhabited Wales.
Canon Rupert Morris announced that the Association on Thursday made a further grant for the completion of the survey for the Journal of Braich y Ddinas, in view of its approaching destruction, and he asked Mr. Harold Hughes low he was progressing with the work. Mr. Hughes replied that the work was a very difficult one. That day the weather was exceptionally favourable, but he had never had a calm day there. The wind blew down his poles, and a tape measure was quite impossible, the wind would snap it off ! A chain was the only practicable measuring instrument.
Mr. W. Bezant Lowe pointed out the upland country, lying like a map before the visitors, between the valley of the Anafon and the valley of the Conway, on the archeological remains of which he was to lecture at Abergele later in the day. The party descending to the plateau visited the so-called Druids' Circle. E. Lhwyd writes of this as “Meini Hirion, within a mile of the peak of Penmaenmawr, on the plain hill above Gwddw Glas [Green Gorge), parish of Dwygyfylchi, the most noted monument in Snowdon.” On the way to this “Circle
are several tumuli of various types, and from the summit of Moelfre, 1422 ft., a good view was obtained of the uplands between it and Tal y fan, with a great number of tumuli and several good examples of cyttiau. Mr. Lowe mentioned that, owing to the tradition that a gold image had been found in the district about 1790, several tumuli had been ransacked by curiohunters. As to the “Druids' Circle," it was generally accepted that it was connected with burial rather than religious rites, and on Penmaenmawr human remains had been found. The stones were the last stage of the evolution of the tumulus. Mr. Cunnington thought that the circle had the appearance of a “long barrow," and the question of burials there could only be determined by excavating. Rev. Eyre Evans said the tumulus was similar to one in New Forest, North Radnor. Three cists, according to Mr. G. A. Humphreys, had been discovered on Penmaenmawr. Mr. Glascodine did not agree with the suggestion that the stones were the supports of a mound of earth. The name,“ Druids' Circle,” was stated by Professor Lloyd to have been given to the place in order to satisfy Penmaenmawr visitors. Rev. H. Longueville Jones, in a letter to Arch. Camb. (1846), describing an expedition made by himself and two friends over the mountain, says “ Upon reaching the fortified post of Braich y Ddinas, we found the circuits of stone walls still perfect in some places, but greatly dilapidated in others. They are about 12 ft. to 15 ft. high, and about 12 ft. thick ; of loose stones, not fitting into each other with any attempt at masonry, but merely the shattered débris of that rough mountain piled together by human art. There is no appearance of mortar, nor of vitrification. Between the walls, and inside the central inclosure, but especially on the north-eastern side of the summit, are a vast number of small
circular cells or cyttiau. Some of them were singularly perfect, and one, near the present north-western entranee to the fortress, is still covered with its roof, but we could not penetrate within, and we did not feel ourselves justified in attempting to remove the stones.
... On Moelfre is a carnedd, covered with turf, about 17 ft. in diameter. It had been opened in former days by a passage made from the east. ... We kept a look-out for Pennant's Druidic Circles and some Meinau Hirion, but we missed one of the circles and the great Maen y Campian or stone of the games (Pennant, iii, 119]. The term Meinau Hirion, of the Ordnance Map, is incorrect : there are no isolated upright stones or stone pillars at the spots indicated in the map, but there are carneddau and circles. Of the latter kind of British monuments there are three at this spot ; two rather perfect, but the third only to be traced by small stones and an embankment. This latter circle is 20 ft. in diameter. The second of the circles is a double one : the inner consisting of eleven large stones, some 8 ft. high and 3 ft. square, much weathered, with smaller stones placed between them. The outer circle is much broken in, but the inner one is nearly complete, and within this, again, there is a trace of a still smaller circle, not concentric, but touching the inner circumference, as if it had been the foundation of a circular dwelling house. Close to this large circle is to be traced an old roadway, like a trench, coming from the direction of Conwy towards Llanvair Vechan, at the south-western foot of Penmaenmawr. It passes by the northern side of the circle, and may have been a British roadway.”
Mr. Lowe illustrated the relation of the surface vegetation to the underlying rocks, showing how no grass grew on the volcanic rocks, while elsewhere the green turf was visible.
Tea was provided at Red Farm, and a charming stroll through the Fairy Glen, which had suffered much from the drought, brought us in due course to Dwygyfylchi for the drive through the Sychnant Pass to Conway and thence by train to Abergele, which was reached a few minutes before 8.
EVENING MEETING. The Meeting which was held in the Church House, owing to the day's exceptionally heavy work, commenced at the late hour of 9.30 instead of 8.30 as arranged.
Archdeacon Thomas, who again presided, remarked that they had had a full and heavy day's work. Indeed, he hardly remembered a Meeting of the Association with so heavy a programme as the one on the present occasion. They could congratulate themselves on the fact that they had been favoured with splendid weather throughout, and the Local Secretaries, who mapped out the excursion programme, must have had “a tip on this point.
On the motion of Sir Edward Anwyl, seconded by Mr. Glascodine, the following were cordially thanked for permission to view various
objects of interest :-Mrs. Rowley Conwy (Rhuddlan Castle), The Cambrian Academy (Plas Mawr, Conway), the Mayor and Corporation of Conway (Conway Castle), the proprietors of the Fairy Glen, the Countess of Dundonald (Castell Cawr), the Vicar of Abergele for the use of the Church House, the Rectors and Vicars of the Churches visited; also to the following for their hospitality :-Mrs. Wynne Finch, of Voelas; Colonel Hon. H. Lloyd Mostyn, of Bodysgallen; and Mrs. Watts Jones.
On the proposition of Professor Lloyd, seconded by Mr. Aneurin Williams, the following were also thanked for helpful addresses and services rendered :-Messrs. Willoughby Gardner, G. A. Humphreys, W. Bezant Lowe, and Harold Hughes.
The Chairman mentioned that a considerable number of local archæologists had taken a very keen interest in the gathering, and had rendered splendid services on the Local Committee. The Association were deeply indebted to them, and equally valuable were the energetic efforts of the Local Secretaries, Canon C. F. Roberts, Mr. W. J. Evans, and Mr. John R. Ellis, and the Treasurer (Mr. G. T. Evans), with whose arrangements they had not one fault to find.
Canon Rupert Morris asked permission, as a Local Secretary of the Association thirty-seven years ago, to move to the Local Officials a very hearty vote of thanks.
This was seconded by the Rev. G. Eyro Evans, and enthusiastically passed
Canon C. F. Roberts, in acknowledging the vote of thanks, said that though he had been connected with the Association for twenty years, this was the first opportunity he had had of serving it, and he was very pleased that the week's gatherings had been so successful.
Canon Jones, on behalf of the Local Officials, thanked the Members for their kind appreciation, and said that they had been amply rewarded in the knowledge that the arrangements for the visit had been considered satisfactory. Archdeacon Thomas referred to the “ marvellous fort
on Penmaenmawr, the perilous condition of which they all very much regretted, and said he was of opinion that the Association should make a grant towards excavating a few of the circles on the spot before they were demolished.
Mr. C. E. Breese, who said he was a great believer in the efficacy of the spade, moved that they devote £15 to that object as an emergency grant ; this was seconded by Mr. Cunnington, and the grant, which it was explained was emergency grant,” was unanimously voted. Mr. Harold Hughes had undertaken superintend the work, assisted by Mr. Cumington,
Mr. Bezant Lowe then gave an illustrated lecture on “ Pre-historic Remains on the Penmaenmawr Uplands." He said that with the exception of the hill fortresses no detailed examination had been made of the district about which he proposed to say a few words, and the little that had been done showed the potential possibilities
of the area.
The district under review, which was mainly above the 800 ft. contour line, was bounded roughly as follows :- By the sea from Conway to Gorddinog, half way between Llanfairfechan and Aber; on the east by the Conway Valley; on the west by a line drawn from Gorddinog up to the entrance to the Anafon Valley ; and on the south by the hills extending from Foel Dduarth to Bwlch y Ddeufaen (the Pass of the Two Stones), and thence by the line of the Roman road to Ro-wen. The remains might be roughly classed under the following heads :-(1) The Cromlechan; (2) the 'I'umuli and Cistvaens; (3) the Stone Circles ; (4) Meini Hirion; (5) Hut Circles and Hut Circle Villages ; (6) the Fortresses and Minor Forts.
The lecture, which was fully illustrated with a new series of views, the lantern being worked by Rev. D. R. Griffiths, will be printed at length in Arch. Camb., the first portion being given in the present number. After a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Lowe, , the Chairman brought the meeting to a close, expressing his wish that they would all live to meet again next year at Cardiff. It had been a week full of pleasure, enjoyment and instruction.
EXCURSION V.-SATURDAY. On Saturday the Cambrians, reduced to twenty-five, visited Abergele Church, where the chief points of interest were explained by the Vicar. He pointed out that it was known as
a double church,” having two equal bodies, a feature peculiar to the Vale of Clwyd churches. The great length of the Church was also noted, and it was suggested that this was owing to the very extensive parish it had to serve. Another feature was the five doors which formerly existed--two now in use and three which had been closed. The most ancient portion was the west end, with its massive masonry. One door on the scuth side in the nave had been known
the priest's door,” the incumbent entering that way from the old vestry, which formerly stood in the churchyard, and over which the priest lived, that being the first vicarage.
Questions were asked as to why there should have been two doors on the north side, and it was explained that it was supposed there was at one time a very large population to the north of the Church, as evidenced by the stone in the churchyard, which stated that a man was there buried who resided three miles north of the Church, and which is now under the sea. Archdeacon Thomas said no doubt one door was used as an entrance to the chantry.
The tower was of the Tudor period. The west door was Early English. In the windows of the vestry are some fine pieces of ancient glass, dating from the fifteenth century, consisting of heads of saints and bishops.
Attention was called to several portions of consecration crosses, Perpendicular font with 1663 top, a violoncello formerly used in the