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drawings of the windows of Selby Abbey; Mr. George C. Yates, twelve engravings of Lancashire and Cheshire churches.
The following objects of antiquarian interest were exhibited: Mr. C. W. Sutton, a "particular and rental" of General Booth's estate, Ardwick, 1789; Rev. H. A. Hudson, photographs and plan of Clynnog Church and St. Beuno's Chapel, Carnarvonshire; Mr. George C. Yates, flint spearhead from Toome Bridge, four and a quarter inches by two and a half inches, spoon-shaped scraper from the Yorkshire Wolds, and flint flaking tools from Mildenhall, Weaverthorpe, Kenny Hill, and Rudston.
Friday, April 10th, 1896.
The monthly meeting was held in Chetham Library, Mr. C. W. Sutton presiding.
Messrs. Henry Sutcliffe, Barton Gandy, and Councillor Ogden were elected members.
Mr. G. C. Yates exhibited a photograph of Clayton Old Hall by Mr. J. R. Jackson.
Mr. W. E. A. Axon exhibited eight Roman coins, part of a find of about three hundred copper coins found at Scarcliffe, near Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire. Mr. W. S. Churchill identified them as eight small 3d brass of Gallienus (1), Victorinus (3), Tetricus the father (3), and Tetricus the son (1). They date, therefore, from A.D. 253 to A.D. 273. The coins belong to what was probably a "poor man's hoard." The find has not, it is believed, been hitherto recorded. The coins are now the property of Mr. R. W. Spencer, of Moss Side.
Mrs. Linnæus Banks exhibited a collection of tiles and other relics found during the Walbran excavations at
Fountains Abbey in 1849, and an interesting description of them written by her was read by the Honorary Secretary.
Mr. William Harrison exhibited a specimen of scoria, taken on the 21st March last by Mr. Slinger, of Lancaster, from a bloomery one hundred and fifty yards above Furnace Ford Bridge and on the north side of the Hindburn on Birks Farm in Tatham. The farmer, who was ploughing, when asked about a furnace, pointed out a very black piece of ground. On inspection it was found to be about thirty yards by twenty, and made black by scoria and charcoal, of which there were large quantities. The names of the rivers, Hindburn and Roeburn, show that there was a deer forest here. In old times the iron ore would be brought from Furness in small vessels to Hest Bank, and thence into Tatham in panniers by way of Halton Ford, Aughton Ford, or Gressingham Ford, Halton being the most easy to the coppice woods in the higher district.
The Rev. Henry A. Hudson, M.A., read a paper on "An Ancient Sculptured Fragment, with Inscription, from the Manchester Cathedral." (See page 62.)
Mr. Charles Roeder contributed a biographical sketch, which was read by Mr. William Harrison, of “William Green, the Lake Artist (1760-1823)." (See page 100.)
Friday, April 24th, 1896.
The monthly meeting was held in Chetham's Hospital, Mr. William Harrison presiding.
The following new members were elected: Messrs. R. H. Joynson, Bowdon; Ben H. Mullen, Peel Park; James Musgrave, junior, Bolton; John Butterworth, Shaw, near Oldham; Frederick J. Harte, Cannon Street,
Manchester; Rev. E. C. Collier, Dinting; Jonathan Simpson, Bolton; William Mosley, Cheadle; Robert H. Clayton, B.Sc., Higher Ardwick.
Mr. John Dean read a paper on the Norman and Tudor work in Middleton Church. (See page 1.) It was illustrated by numerous drawings and photographs.
Mr. George C. Yates, F.S.A., exhibited one glass and two stone beads from Ribchester; also an egg-shaped stalagmite implement from Savage Island.
Friday, May 8th, 1896.
The members of the Society visited the Royal Museum, Peel Park, Salford, under the leadership of Mr. Yates. They were met at the museum by Alderman Mandley (the chairman) and other members of the Parks Committee. The curator, Mr. Ben H. Mullen, M.A. (Dub.), exhibited the splendid collection of shells preserved in the private rooms of the building. He then conducted the members over the museum, explaining the systems adopted in the arrangement of the various collections beginning with the industrial.
Several of the interesting portraits in Gallery A had been cleaned and restored. The result was very gratifying, as many of them had been in poor condition for some years past. In Room B, where the fine art collections are exhibited, a great change was observable. In the next gallery (Room C) the ethnographical collections are arranged on a scientific basis. They commence with the prehistoric specimens, of which there is a fine collection, and which illustrate the mode of life of man who lived before written history began. They are arranged in an accepted chronological order, passing through the Palæolithic, Neolithic, and the Bronze Ages, into the
early Historic Period, and thence to the present time. Here the specimens which illustrate the manners and customs of modern savage and barbaric races begin. These are arranged according to the geographical distribution of the peoples they represent, and form a highly interesting section of the museum, all of them being clearly labelled. The committee intend publishing a
special handbook for this department.
Alderman Mandley exhibited many rare books and MSS. belonging to the library. He also exhibited and described the original MS. of the "Salford Ancient Court Records."
The members before leaving expressed their admiration of the excellent arrangement of the ethnographical collection, and considered that the whole of the museum had been vastly improved during the last few years.
Wednesday, May 20th, 1896.
VISIT TO THE OLDHAM DISTRICT.
Twenty members visited the ground between Rocher Vale and Hartshead Pike. Mr. S. Andrew had charge of the party and supplied each member with an improvised map of the district.
The first object visited was the old steam engine at Fairbottom, a brief notice being given by Mr. G. C. Yates of those scientific men whose genius had been. required to bring this engine to perfection.
Mr. Andrew spoke on Rocher Vale, its "pots and pans," its ancient cell, its pre-Reformation chapel, and its place-names. Its "pots and pans" had very likely been formed by the action of the stream on a bed of
rock, from which possibly Rocher takes its name—rocher meaning rock. The texture of the rock was composed of large nodules embedded in a kind of free sandstone. The nodules had very likely been forced out of their places by the action of the stream, thus causing what seemed to be round excavations, which were worn quite smooth, as was the case at the Stryd in Bolton Woods. Popular superstition in ancient times ascribed the formation of these pots and pans to the handicraft of the immortal gods, hence no doubt they were looked on by the ancient barbarians as shrines. An ancient cell was spoken of by James Butterworth as being in existence within his lifetime. This cell had evidently been used as a human dwelling, and was formed in a rocky declivity in the eastern bank of the stream. Whether this cell had been used as a rock shelter by early man or had formed at one time the lonely dwelling of a recluse it was impossible to say, as the place had been disturbed and the cell done away with. The ancient chapel at the Top-o'th'-Bank was known only to tradition, described by James Butterworth
That grey-headed dame,
Who by the cottage dying flame,
The same authority states that a long detail of superstitious wonders were performed here, but what these wonders were deponent sayeth not. All trace of the ancient chapel has been swept away. The place-names near Rocher were peculiar, many of them no doubt being old labels expressive of original thought. The Medlock meant the full brook. Dean Clough and Dean Shut conveyed the idea of an enclosed or sacred grove, and was probably a relic of tree worship. Then we had