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styled de Insula de Rubeo Monte-confirming the manor with its rents and services to William and his heirs. 1

Sir Robert de L'Isle is usually said to have died without issue leaving his sister Elizabeth his heir—the wife of William de Aldeburgh. Yet Elizabeth and William both died many years before Robert ; and there is no record, or even suggestion, that any part of the vast estates of Robert de L'Isle in other counties descended to William de Aldeburgh the younger or his heirs. Harewood was but one of some ninety manors held by Robert.2 We must surely conclude that Elizabeth-if a sister—was not his heir. On the other hand, Burke3 quotes the Somerset Visitation of 1623 as saying that Sir Robert “left a son, Sir William Lisle of Waterperry, co. Oxford,” adding the opinion" but this is very doubtful." Coming to facts, we find in the Coram Rege Roll for 9 Henry IV (1407–8) two charters of William de L'Isle de Rubeomonte Knight, reciting the grant by John de L'Isle to the Prior and Convent of Boltonin-Craven of the advowson of Harewood Church on condition that they find a suitable chaplain to celebrate masses for his soul etc., which advowson, by another charter, is now conferred

Richard Redman Knight and William Gascoigne Justice of England to hold to them and their heirs until such time as William de L'Isle or his heirs shall pass a Recovery of the manors of Harewood and Gauthorpe.

The identity of Rougemont is of some interest. If we follow Dugdale, Rougemont was in Bedfordshire. Yet, within a mile of Harewood, across the Wharf, is Ridgman Scar, which has been identified as Rougemont by Whitaker and others. Here, existing remains indicate the site of an early fortified

house and, possibly, here is the ancient house of the De L'Isles. But was it the place whence they derived their style of de Rubeomonte ? If so, how is it that we find the style in use before the De L'Isles succeeded to Harewood5 and long after they had alienated it to the Aldeburghs ? 6 After all, Dugdale is correct. Ridgemont in Bedfordshire is surrounded by manors which are enumerated in 1368 among the possessions of Robert de L'Isle,? held by his under-tenants; and there we must place the chief residence of his family.

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manor

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1 Yorks. Arch. Journal, iv, p. 110.

Originalia Roll, 42 Edw. III, m. 30. 3 Dormant and Extinct Peerages, p. 326.

5 Robert de L'Isle, of Rugemont, i Hen. III. (Bank's Baronage, i, p. 360.)

Coram Rege Roll, 9 Hen. IV, m. 33.

6 William de L'Isle de Rubeomonte, 1408, above named.

? Calendar of Originalia Rolls, ii, pp. 298-300.

Harewood, after all, was a remote manor-usually given away to a younger son, a brother, finally-it may be-to a sister. At Ridgman Scar we have the site of their local residence named, as so often happens now as then, after their Bedfordshire home; and here would be the manor house until William de Aldeburgh acquired the estate and built the castle at Harewood itself.

William de Aldeburgh, the new Lord of Harewood, was summoned to Parliament as Baron Aldeburgh from 1371 to 1386. He was a close friend and adherent of Edward Balliol, the three-months' puppet King of Scotland, and his devotion to his lord is evidenced in stone by the presence of the Balliol arms in the place of honour over the entrance to Harewood Castle. Mr. Greenwoodpictures the Scottish exile gazing at his own arms, fresh from the chisel, over the gateway of the castle, regardless of the fact that Balliol died two years before Aldeburgh acquired the site on which to build. The records show that most intimate relations existed between Edward Balliol and Aldeburgh whose father, Ivo de Aldeburgh, had also been a strong supporter of the Balliol claims. Not only outside the castle, but on the walls within also, the arms of Balliol and Aldeburgh stand side by side ; and together they were worked in tapestry. And this was after-immediately

3 after the death of Edward Balliol. Curious to note, we have no evidence that the arms of De L'Isle were ever set up here, in stone or otherwise. There is no evidence, except tradition, that Aldeburgh's wife, Elizabeth, was a De L'Isle ; it is an accepted probability-nothing more—and has gained strength by constant repetition. It may yet prove to be the case that she was of Balliol blood.

William de Aldeburgh the son, who succeeded his father as second Baron of the name, died in 1391 childless ; and Harewood passed to his two sisters, Elizabeth and Sybil, with whose descendants, Redman and Ryther, it remained for two centuries.

Elizabeth, the elder sister, was aged 28 when her brother died, and was then the wife of Sir Bryan Stapleton, of Carlton.

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1 If the name is not merely a coincidence. Rugemund in Harewood is named in the Inquisition of Baldwin, Earl of Devon, in 1263 (Yorks. Arch. Society's Record Series, vol. xii, p. 91); and the name is quite a common one elsewhere.

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2 The Redmans of Levens and Harewood, p. 145.

3 Tapestry, with the arms of Balliol and Aldeburgh, bequeathed to Peter de Mauley, her son, by Margery, relict of William de Aldeburgh, the younger, in 1391. (York Registry, vol. i, p. 39.)

By him, who died in 1392, she had issue one son, Sir Bryan, and two daughters, Joan and Isabel. A year or so later she married Sir Richard Redman of. Levens, the head of an ancient Westmorland family, himself a distinguished warrior and diplomatist. He was twice High Sheriff of Yorkshire, six times of Cumberland ; he represented Yorkshire in Parliament, and in 1415 was elected Speaker of the House of Commons—one of Whitaker's “ordinary knights.” We learn that Elizabeth was not on the best of terms with her Stapleton“ in-laws,” with the result that her share of Harewood was settled on Sir Richard Redman and her issue by him.'

Sybil, her younger sister, born 1367. married Sir William Ryther, of Ryther, and in their descendants the other moiety of the manor of Harewood vested.

So amicable were the relations between the houses of Redman and Ryther that they have been credited with the joint occupancy of this castle for two hundred years. So far as can be ascertained, the Redmans practically monopolised the castle, the Rythers preferring their own home at Ryther ; but of the close and intimate friendship of the two families

we have ample proof.

Elizabeth died in 1417.2 Sir Richard Redman survived her nine years, dying 22 May, 1426.3 It is not the case that he had a second wife, a daughter of Sir William Gascoigne ; that lady was wife to his grandson. Still less is there any foundation for the absurd suggestion that he has the honour of two monumental effigies in Harewood Church-one in company with each of these ladies. It is, surely, apparent that there is a difference of fifty years in the date and style of

1 Yorks. Arch. Journal, viii, p. 249 ; iv, p. 93.

2 Chancery Ing. p. m., 12 Hen. VI, No. 18. 3 Ibid., 23 Hen. VI, No. 28.

The altar-tombs in Harewood Church demand a much more critical examination than they have hitherto been accorded. It may be that the two nearest the chancel, on either side of it, commemorate the Aldeburgh sisters and their husbands —though buried elsewhere. The tomb to the north of the chancel is undoubtedly Redman, identified by the crest on the helm-a horse's head issuing from a ducal coronet ; and these must be the effigies either of Sir Richard, the Speaker, and his wife, or of Sir Matthew, his son, and his wife. We have seen that the advowson was granted in 1408 to Sir Richard Redman and Sir William

Gascoigne-no mention of Ryther ; and we should expect to find the chapels north and south of the chancel restricted to Redman and Gascoigne respectively, and their kin. Hence the presumption that the tomb south of the chancel is a Gascoigne and not a Ryther monument. In Glover's account of the arms in Harewood Church in 1585, there is shown,

under Gascoyn head," a helmet with a torse and bear's (?) head. If this tomb be examined it will be seen that the crest on the helm is an animal's head on a plain torse. Probably, then, this is the tomb identified in Foster's l’isitations of Yorkshire as that of John Gascoigne, of Lasingcroft, nephew of the Chief Justice, who died 1445. In Loidis and Elmete is a plan of these monuments in their original positions.

sons.

the armour and costume of the two figures who, in point of fact, are grandsire and grandson. By Elizabeth de Aldeburgh, Sir Richard Redman had two

The elder, Sir Matthew, died before his father, leaving an infant son Richard, who, at the age of nine, succeeded as heir to his grandfather. The younger son of the Speaker, Richard, was ancestor of the Redmans of Bossall.

He occurs frequently on the records, and lived much at Harewood during the minority of his nephew..

About the time that this nephew came of age the official mind awoke to the fact that, though he succeeded as heir to his grandfather, he must also have had a father as to whose death they were uninformed. An inquiry was therefore ordered as to whether Matthew son of Sir Richard Redman was dead ; and, if so, who was the heir and of what age. By inquisition held at Sherburne on the ith November, 1437,1 it was found that Sir Matthew Redman Knight died 20 September, 1419 and that young Richard his son and heir had attained the age of 21 on the 18th October last. This necessitated a further inquiry and proof of age. Twelve trusty and loyal men assembled at Wetherby on the 24th November, 1437 and, being diligently examined as to the age of Richard son and heir of Sir Matthew son of Richard Redman and Elizabeth his wife, declared that he was born at Harewood on the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist (October 18th) 1416 and was baptized the same day at Harewood Church.

Apart from this important event at the castle, this was quite a busy day in the village. One witness lost his son, who died after a long illness ; to another a son was born ; a third was married to Margaret his wife. Robert Butler had the event impressed on his mind by a great gale of wind which distinguished that day. Of the chief event, we learn that Thomas Johnson was hurried off to fetch the nurse, Margaret Urkylf (ad predictum Ricardum filium lactandum et nutricendum); John Harey carried a basin and a bath or font before the infant at the christening ; William Dutton held the book before the priest; John del Wode gave water to the Godparents for washing their hands immediately after the ceremony ; Thomas Warde bore to the church two silver dishes with silver and gold, which was thrown among those standing round; and Alexander West took two flagons of red wine to be drunk by

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Chancery Ing. P. m., No. 61.

16 Hen. VI,

2 Ibid., No. 69.

the Godfathers and Godmother, and other bystanders. This same red wine may have caused another witness to fall from his horse with such violence as to break his left shin. John Rede had cause to remember the day, because Richard Arthyngton, one of the Godfathers, made him a present of six pounds.

Having attained his majority and the possession of his estates, young Redman promptly got into mischief. Being fond of sport, he was not averse to a little poaching. In the following April he and two of his kin, John and Adam Redman, were charged by Henry, Earl of Northumberland, with breaking into his free warren at Spofforth and hunting there and taking his hares, pheasants and partridges, in defiance of the statute which prescribed three years' imprisonment or banishment for life for such enormities. The Redmans did not appear at Westminster to answer the charge and the Sheriff was ordered to arrest them. Here the record ends, but we hear of no ill consequences to the poachers. Soon after this episode Richard Redman was knighted in due course, and in 1442 was returned to Parliament as Knight of the Shire for Westmorland. He was married when young to Ellen daughter of his neighbour Sir William Gascoigne, the Redman estate at Lupton near Levens being settled on them and their issue. This marriage is clearly proved by Inquisitions, at one of whicho a juror having been challenged on account of kinship, a pedigree showing this Gascoigne marriage was duly set out and admitted to be correct. A pedigree in the Heralds' College3 makes this Sir Richard marry Margaret Middelton and allots to them thirteen children ; but this Richard was of quite another family, and the Middelton match must be deleted once and for all from the Harewood line of Redman. Sir Richard died in 1476 leaving by Ellen Gascoigne four sons and one daughter. In Harewood Church are the recumbent effigies of this knight and his Gascoigne wife, resting side by side on a magnificent altar-tomb.

Sir William Redman, the eldest son, was knighted at the marriage of Richard, the ill-fated Duke of York, in 1477.4 In 1482, just before the capture of Berwick, he was created a

a

1 De Banco Roll, 709, m. 28d.

2 Coram Rege Roll, 1011, m. 3 (Easter, 6 Hen. VIII). The juror, Thomas Legh, was son of Roger son of Margaret, daughter of Anne, daughter of William Gascoign, Knight, father of Elizabeth, mother of Edward, father of Richard Redman. Elizabeth is apparently an error for Ellen ; but, whatever her Christian name, the mother of Edward

and wife of Sir Richard Redman was a daughter of Sir William Gascoigne.

3 Vincent and Philpot (Duchetiana, p. 24). The Visitations of Yorkshire, 1564,' and Westmorland, 1615, show Margaret Middleton as wife of Richard Redman ; but do not state that he was of Levens and Harewood.

Medcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 5.

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