« PreviousContinue »
The ceilings of the bay window and of the recesses to the two other windows are of plaster, ribbed, the design of which is the same as in the ceiling of the bay on the upper floor, the ground of the panels being covered with ornament.
The fireplace is in the centre of the west side of the room. The lower part of the chimney-piece has fluted pilasters at the sides, which support a frieze ornamented with shields of arms surrounded by strap-work. Between these shields are corbels which support a Corinthian order with fluted columns, which divide the principal "story" of the chimney-piece into three panels, the central panel containing the principal (Fairfax) achievement, the side panels having niches with shell-heads. The frieze above is ornamented with strapwork similar to that in the frieze of the wall-panelling. The central part of the chimney-piece rises through the principal frieze of the room, and is finished with a pediment immediately beneath the ceiling. The large panel in this upper central part contains the Royal arms of Elizabeth, France modern and England quarterly, encircled with the Garter charged with the motto of the order, and surmounted by an arched crown with orb and cross. The supporters are-Dexter, a dragon sable; Sinister, a lion rampant gardant or.
The principal panel below contains the arms of Sir William Fairfax":
Quarterly of six :
1. Argent, over three bars-gemels gules a lion rampant sable. FAIRFAX.
2. Argent, a chevron between three hind's heads erased gules. MALBIS. 3. Barry of eight argent and gules, on a canton sable a cross patonce or.
1 It must be remembered that the arms in the chimney piece, as well as those in the frieze of the room, have been repainted. It is, therefore, more than probable that the original colouring has not been preserved in every case.
2 A paper on the Armorial Bearings of the Fairfaxes is printed in the Herald and Genealogist, vi. 627.
3 In the Fairfax arms in this room, the lion is always shown over the barsgemels, as blazoned in Tonge's Visitation of 1530 (Surtees Soc. ed., p. 57). In Glover's Visitation of 1584-5 (Foster's ed., p. 39), the lion is blazoned as
debruised by the bars-gemels, as in the quotations from Metcalfe's Book of Knights above (p. 124, notes I and 4), and the arms are so represented in the shield of Fairfax, quartering Thwaites in the bay window, Light II. 2; but this shield has been inserted here, and does not belong to the glazing of Sir William Fairfax's time.
* Doubtless this coat was originally painted Or, a bend azure. Or, a bend sable would be Mauley, as in the bay window, Light I. 6, and as in the Fairfax pedigree in Flower's Visitation of 1563-4 (Harl. Soc. ed.).
5. Argent, a chevron between three martlets sable. AYRUM or ERGHAM.1 6. Argent, a fess between two lions passant sable. FOLYFAYT.3 Crest (on a helm): A lion's head erased sable.
Supporters: Two goats argent.
On the frieze below, between the corbels, are four shields, bearing the arms of four of Sir William Fairfax's sisters and their husbandsMargaret, married Sir William Bellasis, of Newborough; Mary, married Sir Henry Curwen, of Workington; Eleanor, married John Vavasour, of Hazlewood; and Elizabeth, married Mr. Roos, of Ingmanthorpe. The arms, reading from left to right, are:
1. Argent, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis azure. Impaling FAIRFAX.
2. Quarterly. I and 4, Argent, fretty gules, a chief azure. 2 and 3, Sable, a lion rampant argent charged with three lozenges gules." CURwen. Impaling FAIRFAX.
3. Or, a fess dancetty sable. VAVASOUR.
4. Azure, three water bougets or. Roos. Impaling FAIRFAX. On the pedestals of the Corinthian columns are small cartouche panels, which bear the inscription-FEARE AND LOVE GOD.
The painted glass, which is the great attraction of this room, is unusually perfect, and is as beautiful in colour as it is excellent in design and drawing. It fills the whole of the three windows, except the lower lights of the two windows on the east side of the room, which are now glazed with clear glass. The bay window displays the heraldry and genealogy of the Fairfax family, and the south window that of the Stapletons, the family of Sir William Fairfax's second wife. The remaining window on the east side is devoted to the Constable family, and although it may have been executed in Sir William
1 Came in with Carthorpe. Eustachia, the wife of Richard Fairfax who died 1431-2, was the daughter and heiress of John Carthorpe by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Ergham.
2 In this coat the lions are sometimes passant, as here, and sometimes passant gardant.
3 In the Fairfax pedigree in Flower's Visitation of 1563-4 (Harl. Soc. ed.), under Sir Nicholas Fairfax's name, the herald has added this note:-"This Sr Nycolas sayeth that he should bere
Follovet who bereth-Arg. a fece between 3 lions rampant sable; and yt should come in next unto Etton." See also Yorks. Archaol. Journal, x. 501.
4 The chevron in the Bellasis coat is blazoned gules, not azure as here.
5 I take this to be the correct blazon of this shield, but the chiefs of the Ist and 4th quarters are continued across the 2nd and 3rd quarters, forming really two bars-probably a mistake on the part of
Fairfax's lifetime, it is, as we shall see, of later date than the two other windows.
One of the quarries in the last light (III. 5) of the south window is signed by the artist, Boernard Dininckhoff, with the date 1585 and what is probably a little portrait of himself over his signature. From the character of the work, it is clear that the whole of the glass in this window and in the bay window (except the inserted work in the latter) must be attributed to Bernard Dininckhoff and his assistants. His name seems to indicate that he was a German, and this supposition is confirmed by the character of the drawing of some of the heraldry and ornament. He probably came to England specially to execute these windows, for no mention of him has hitherto been found elsewhere.1
The general treatment of all the glazing in the two windows executed by Dininckhoff is the same. Each light has a single shield of arms which, with the surrounding ornament, is richly treated in colour, and is placed upon a ground of pattern glazing of white glass.
The south window, which is the most perfect, may be described first. The lead work which forms the ground of all the lights is of the same pattern, that shown in Fig. 7. In the upper tier of lights, the shields are surrounded by wreaths or garters. The colours are strong, warm yellows and reds predominating. The inscriptions are on tablets surrounded by strap-work, placed at the bottom of the lights. In the lights of the middle tier the treatment is similar, but, the lights being longer, there is more pattern space between the shields and the inscriptions. The shields are set within wreaths bound by crossed ribbons, which are surrounded by a narrow margin of strap-work. The inscription tablets, also surrounded by strap-work, are again placed at the bottom of the lights. The colours are rather colder than in the upper tier, the wreaths being chiefly green with blue or violet ribbons. All the strap-work is of a warm yellow. In the lower lights the shields are set in a very elaborate composition of strap-work and arabesques, all very delicate and refined. The colouring generally is warm, much yellow being used; the colours are in smaller quantities than in the lights above, and more white is left. The inscription tablets are placed towards the bottom of the lights, and are surrounded by strap-work and arabesques, similar to those around the shields. The general effect is extremely rich and harmonious. The dial in the quarry signed by the artist (Fig. 8) is a delightfully refined bit of work. The principal (upper) part of one
1 Mr. William Page, F.S. A., who has devoted considerable attention to the subject of foreign workmen in England in Elizabeth's time, has very kindly
searched for his name in likely papers at the Public Record Office, &c., but has not found any mention of him.