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3 And the same year came three hundred and fifty ships to Thames-mouth, and the crews landed and broke into Canterbury and London, and put to flight Beorhtwulf king of the Mercians with his
NIA, i. e. DOVER, in the earlier part of the Saxon History.
The same year also a great
§ Canterbury was called DORUBER- belongs in truth to Essex; and they put to flight Beorhtulf, king of Mercia, with all the army, which he had led out to oppose them.
4 And then went south over the Thames into Surrey; and there king Æthelwulf and his son Æthelbald, with the army of the West-Saxons, fought against them at Aclea [OCKLEY], and there made the greatest slaughter among the heathen army that we have heard tell of unto the present day, and there got
After these things, the same
Surrey, which is
been written before the terrible battles which Alfred afterwards fought against the Danes at Ashdown, and Eddington.
much bravery on both sides,
4 After the battle they returned beyond the river Thames towards the south, through the province of Surrey, and there king Athulf with the Western Angles met them: an immense number was slain on both sides, nor have we ever heard of a more severe battle before that day: these things happened near Aclea Wood.
multitude was destroyed and ANNALS. 851. The Normans enter
After these things, the same army of pagans went into
Surrey, which is
a district situated on the south bank of the river Thames, and to the west of Kent. And Etheluulf, king of the West-Saxons, and his son Æthelbald, with all their army, fought a long time against them at a place called Ac-lea, i. e. the Oak-plain, and there, after a fierce battle, which was fought with much bravery on both sides, the greater part of the pagan multitude was destroyed and cut to pieces, so that we never heard of their being so slaughtered, either before or since, in any country, in one day; and the Christians gained an honourable victory, and
were triumphant over the place of death.
In the same year king Æthelstan and earl Ealhere slew a large army of the pagans in Kent, at a place called Sandwich, and took nine ships of
In the same year a great army of pagans came with 350 ships into the mouth of the river Thames. Who laid waste Doroberbia,i.e. the city of the Kentish men, and put to flight Berhtulf king of the Mercians with all his army, who had come to do battle against them.
After this the Danes became more bold, and all their army was drawn together in Surrey. Which the warlike Ethelwlf king of the Saxons hearing, both he and his son Ethelbald with him collected a large army in a place which is called Aclea, that is, in the field of the oak. And when the pride of the English nation shone with glancing arms, the English fought a very long time with the Danes; bravely striving against them, because they saw that their king fought fiercely, therefore they became braver than their enemies in war. And when they had manfully striven for a very long time, and both sides fought with much sharpness and spirit, the greatest part of the Pagan throng was thoroughly cut off and slain, so that never in any land, in one day, before or after, did so many fall. The Christians however on that same day honourably gained the victory and were masters of the field of death, giving thanks to the Lord in hymns and confessions.
* King Ethelstan and earl Alchere found
a great army of the pagans in Kent in a place which is called At Sandwich; † whom
AT SANDWICH: a customary
A. 852. Here at this time
Ceolred abbat of Medesham
* This local notice of MEDESHAMSTEAD, i. e. PETERBOROUGH, occurs in only one MS. of the Saxon Chroa monk of that abbey.
stede and the monks let to Wulfred the land of Sempingaham, on this condition, that after his decease the land should return to the minster, and that Wulfred should give nicle, which was probably written by the land of Sliowaford [SLEAFORD] to Medeshamstede, and each year should deliver into the minster sixty fother of wood, and twelve fother of coal, and six fother of faggots, and two tuns full of pure ale, and two beasts fit for slaughter, and six hundred loaves, and ten measures of Welsh ale, and each year a horse, and thirty shillings, and one day's entertainment. At this agreement were present king Burhred, and archbishop Ceolred, and bishop Tunberht, and bishop Cenred and bishop Alhhun, and bishop Berhtred, and abbat Wihtred, and abbat Werhtherd, and alderman Æthelheard and alderman Hunberht, and many others.
A. 853. Here Burhred king of the Mercians and his 'witan begged of king Ethelwulf that he would assist him so that he might make the North-Welsh obedient to him.
He then did so; and went with an army across Mercia among the North-Welsh, and made them all obedient to him.
3 And upon this after Easter
* Her name was Ethelswith.
In the year of our Lord's
4 In the same year also, after
vill of Chippenham.
CHARTERS IN 852. 1. CEOLRED abbat of Peterborough, subscribed by BURGRED king of Mercia &c. II, 46. This Charter is partly the same as the extract from the Saxon Chronicle under this year. 2. BERTWOLF king of Mercia, II, 47.
took nine of their ships; but they almost cut off in the same
the others fled.
6 This year, therefore, was fortunate for the English people.
2 To whom [BERT WOLF] SUCceeded Burrhed on the throne of Mercia.
place, God granting them help, and seized nine of their ships the rest struck with terror escaped by flight.
In the year of our Lord's incarnation 853, of the birth of Alfred 5, Burhred king of the Mercians sent messengers, and begged Ethelwlf king of the West Saxons to bring him help in order that he might be able to subdue under his dominion the midland Britons who dwell between Mercia and the Western Sea, who often
strove against him. But King Ethelwlf, having received his embassy, moved an army, distributed pay, and bravely went forth with
king Burhred to war. Presently when he had begun to lay waste that nation, he took, slew, and subdued it to king Burhred, who giving thanks sent him away with joy to return to his own land.
3 In the same year also, after And gave him his daughter
Easter, Etheluulf, king of the West-Saxons, gave his daughter to Burhred, king of the Mercians, and the marriage was celebrated royally at the royal vill of Chippen
3 The same year after the feast of Christ's holy resurrection, king Ethelwlf, of glorious power, gave his daughter, with great glory, as it is customary for kings, to Burhred king of the Mercians, at the vill which is called At Chippenham ;
1 And the same year king 1 In the same year, king 1 In the same year king
Æthelwulf sent his son Elfred to Rome. Leo was then pope of Rome, and he consecrated him king, and took him for his son at confirmation. *
* See note in page 18.
2 Then, in the same year, Ealhere, with the men of Kent, and Huda, with the men of Surrey, fought in Thanet against the heathen army; and at first they were victorious; and many there were slain, and drowned on either hand, and both the alderman were killed.
CHARTERS IN 854. 1. ETHELWOLF, king of Wessex, subscribed also by Alstan, "Ethred fili. reg." and Ælfred fili. reg." II, 50. This is the celebrated grant of tithes : it
A. 855. Here the heathen men first sat over winter in Sheppey.
And the same year king Ethelwulf gave by charter the tenth part of his land throughout his realm for the glory of God and his own
Æthelwulf sent his son Ælfred, above-named, to Rome, with an honourable escort both of nobles and commoners. Pope Leo [THE FOURTH] at that time presided over the apostolic see, who ordained and anointed for king the aforesaid child Ælfred, and confirmed him, receiving him as his son of
2 The same year also, earl Ealhere, with the men of Kent, and Huda with the men of Surrey, fought bravely and resolutely against an army of the pagans, in the island, which is called in the Saxon tongue, Tenet, [THA
NET], but Ruim in British. 3 And at first the Christians had the victory, but when the battle was protracted to a great length, many fell on both sides, and also were drowned in the water; and both the earls were there slain.
is dated April 22. 2. Another copy of the same charter follows, p. 52, in which the names of Ethelred and Alfred do not appear. Both copies bear the subscription of the celebrated Swithun bishop of Winchester, and Alstan bishop of
In the year of our Lord's incarnation 855, which was the seventh after the birth of the aforesaid king, the great army of the pagans passed the whole winter in the afore
said isle of Sheppey. In the same year the aforesaid venerable king Ethelwulf released the tenth part of all his kingdom from all royal service and tribute, and with a pen never to be forgotten, offered it up to God the One and the Three in One, in the cross of Christ, for the redemption of his own soul and of his prede
Atheluulf sent his son Ælfred to Rome in the days of our lord pope Leo, who consecrated him king and named him his son in baptism, as we are accustomed to nam little children, when we receive them from the bishop's hand.
2 In the same year were fought battles in the isle of Thanet against the pagans ; and there was a great slaughter made on both sides, and many were drowned in the sea.
Sherborne. 3 ETHELWOLF, April 23. 4. ETHELWOLF, subscribed also by "ETHELRED filius regis," and "ELFRED filius regis," II, 55. 5. BERTWOLF of Mercia, no date, II, 55.
After a year the pagans wintered in Sheppey.
In the same year king Athulf gave the tenth of all his possessions to be the Lord's portion, and so appointed it to be in all the government of his kingdom.
INGULF places the grant of tithes in 855, after the return of Ethelwolf
from Rome: but, if he started for Rome in 855, and stayed there 12 months, it is certain that he returned
in 856, and consequently, if the grant was made in 855, it must have been made before he started. Ethelwolf married Judith on the 1st of October 856. [BOUQUET, vii, 72.]