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The Dungeon Hill appears to have been used for the last time as a fortification in 1643, when ordnance was placed upon it, and it was ordered to be guarded by the householders. In 1790 it was converted into a pleasure-ground for the city; the wide and deep ditch which had surrounded it was filled up, and serpentine walks cut to lead up to the summit. Brayley says that "the ancient and venerable character of this eminence was wholly destroyed by incongruous. additions." Still, enough remains to show that it was once a very fine motte, such as we might expect the Conqueror to raise to hold in check one of the most important cities of his new realm.

The value of Canterbury had increased from 51. to 54% since the days of King Edward."

CARISBROOKE, Isle of Wight (Fig. 11).-There can be no doubt that this is the castle spoken of in Domesday Book under the manor of Alwinestone. Carisbrooke is in the immediate neighbourhood of Alvington. The language in which the Survey speaks of this manor is worthy of note. "The king holds Alwinestone: Donnus held it. It then paid geld as two and a half hides: now as two hides, because the castle sits in one virgate." Certain entries similar to this in other places seem to indicate that there was some remission of geld granted on the building of a castle; but as here the king was himself the owner, the remission must have been granted to his tenants.


gate. The part enclosing the Dungeon Hill is angular, and appeared to Mr Clark, as well as to Somner and Hasted, to have been brought out at this angle in order to enclose the hill.

1 Arch. Journ., 1856.

3 "Isdem rex tenet Alwinestone. hidis et dimidia. Modo pro duabus virgata." D. B., i., 2a, 1.

2 D. B., i., 2a, I. Donnus tenuit. Tunc pro duabus hidis, quia castellum sedet in una 4 See below, under Windsor.

The original castle of Carisbrooke consists of a high motte, ditched round, placed at the corner of a parallelogram with rounded corners. This bailey, covering 2 acres, is surrounded by high banks, which testify to the former presence of a wooden stockade. There is another bailey on the eastern side, called the Tilt-yard. The excellent little local guide - book compiled by Mr Stone calls this a British camp, but there is no reason to believe that it was anything else than what it appears to be a second bailey added as the castle grew in importance. On the motte is a shell of polygonal form, of rubble masonry, but having quoins of well-dressed ashlar. It is believed to be of the time of Henry I., since the author of the Gesta Stephani states that Baldwin de Redvers, son of Richard de Redvers, to whom Henry granted the lordship of the Isle of Wight, had a castle there splendidly built of stone, defended by a strong fortification.' This would indicate that, besides the stone keep, stone walls were added to the earthworks of the Domesday castle. The keep is of peculiar interest, as it still retains the remains of the old arrangements in keeps of this style, though of much later date. The motte was opened in 1893, and was found to be composed of alternate layers of large and small chalk rubble. Little attention has hitherto been paid to the construction of these Norman mottes, but other instances have been noted which show that they were often built with great care. The whole castle, including the Tilt-yard, was surrounded with an elaborate polygonal fortification in Elizabeth's reign, when the Spanish invasion was expected.

1 "In hac [insula] castellum habebat ornatissimum lapidum ædificio constructum, validissimo munimine firmatum." Gesta Stephani, R. S., p. 28. 2 Stone's Official Guide to the Castle of Carisbrooke, p. 39.

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The value of the manor of Alvington had increased at the time of the Survey, though the number of ploughs employed had actually decreased. This increase must have been owing to the erection of the castle, which provided security for trade and agriculture. Alvington was not the centre of a large soke in the Confessor's time, so it is unlikely that there was any fortification there in Saxon days.1

CARLISLE, Cumberland (Fig. 12).—This castle was built by William Rufus in 1092, when for the first time Cumberland was brought under Norman sway. The AngloSaxon Chronicle says, "he repaired the burh, and reared the castle," a passage which is sufficient of itself to show that burh and castle were two quite different things. Carlisle of course was a Roman fortress, and needed only the repairing of its walls. The castle was a new thing, and was placed outside the city. Its plan, which is roughly a triangle, with the apex formed into a small court by a ditch which (formerly) separated it from the bailey, looks very suggestive of a previous motte and bailey, such as we might expect the Norman king to have thrown up. The keep is known to have been built by David, king of Scotland, in Stephen's reign,2 and it is possible that he may have removed the motte. The castle appears to have had a wooden pelum or palicium on its outer banks as late as 1319. The whole area covers 4 acres.

1 Mr W. H. Stevenson, in his edition of Asser, pp. 173, 174, shows that the name Carisbrooke cannot possibly be derived from Wihtgares-burh, as has been sometimes supposed, as the older forms prove it to have come from brook, not burh. The lines of the present castle banks, if produced, would not correspond with those of the Tilt-yard, which is proof that the Norman castle was not formed by cutting an older fortification in two.

2 Bower's Scotochronicon, v., xlii. Cited by Mr Neilson, Notes and Queries, viii., 321. See also Palgrave, Documents and Records, i., 103. 3 Cal. of Close Rolls, Edward II., iii., 161.

are vast.

CASTLE ACRE, Norfolk (Fig. 12).-There can be no doubt that this castle existed in the 11th century, as William de Warenne mentions it in the charter of foundation of Lewes Priory, one of the most interesting and human of monastic charters.1 The earthworks still remaining of this castle are perhaps the finest castle earthworks in England; the banks enclosing the bailey The large and high motte carries a wall of flint rubble, built outside and thus revetting the earthen bank which formed its first defence. In the small court thus enclosed (about 100 feet in diameter) the foundations of an oblong keep can be discerned. A very wide ditch. surrounds the motte, and below it is a horse-shoe bailey, about 2 acres in extent, stretching down to the former swamps of the river Nar. On the east side of the motte is a small half-moon annexe, with its own ditch; this curious addition is to be found in several other motte castles, and is believed to have been a work intended to defend the approach, of the nature of a barbican. On the west side of the motte is the village of Castle Acre, enclosed in an oblong earthwork with an area of 10 acres. This work now goes by the name of the Barbican, but probably this name has been extended to it from a barbican covering the castle entrance (of which entrance the ruins still remain). It is most likely that this enclosure was a burgus attached to the castle. Mr Harrod, who excavated the banks, found quantities of Roman pottery, which led him to think that the work was Roman; but as the pottery was all broken, it is more likely that the banks were thrown up on the site of some Roman villa. This earthwork has a northern 1 Mon. Ang., v., 12. "Castelli nostri de Acra."

2 As at Burton, Mexborough, Lilbourne, and Castle Colwyn.

3 Harrod's Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. See also Arch. Journ., xlvi., 441.

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