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north to south. These defences completely isolated the palace (with the exception of the basement cellar already described) from the western or outer part of the inner ward. It might therefore, with reason, be argued that this alteration converted the castle from Enceintric to modified Concentric in type. It would, from a defensive point of view, have been advisable to have built up the doorway into the basement cellar.

The palace occupied the large north tower, the north-east tower, and the space between them, and was extended, in the form of a very narrow block of buildings, along the eastern curtain. With the exception of the two main towers and of the small apsidal tower immediately to the east of the north tower, which would rise a storey higher than the rest of the block, the palace would be two storeys in height, with a timber roof of low pitch. But the block of buildings between the two main towers would probably be only a few feet lower than the towers themselves, as this block contained the Great Hall and Chapel, both loftier apartments than the corresponding rooms on the same floor in the towers.

Except for the very narrow block of buildings on the eastern curtain, the whole of the palace was ranged along the northern curtain, and the reason for this is at once apparent. The northern façade was the most open to attack (the southern and eastern curtains were quite unapproachable by an enemy owing to the steep precipices guarding them), consequently, a massive and lofty wall of enceinte, with boldly projecting mural towers, was necessary on the northern side, and, as the space available was limited owing to the narrowness of the site, these walls and towers were, naturally, utilised.1 But this arrangement possessed another advantage. A high wall being unnecessary on the southern façade, the apartments between the two main towers, viz. the Great Hall and Chapel--both

. on the first floor-being lighted by windows looking south over the top of the low curtain, would not only obtain plenty of sunshine, but command magnificent views of the ravine and of the moorlands beyond, an advantage not to be lightly overlooked in a type of castle, where, as at Manorbier, all the principal windows looked inwards.

THE NORTH TOWER.—The block which we term the north tower, but which was really not a separate tower but part of 1 Exactly the

arrangement Castles of England, p. 133) describes occurs at Carreg Cennen, in Caermarthen- as“ the most romantic castle in Britain.” shire, which Mr. Alfred Harvey (The


the palace buildings, would almost certainly contain the kitchen, buttery, and offices, together with accommodation for the principal retainers and domestics. The underground room, already described in the northern part of the tower, is practically all that now remains, with the exception of the foundations of the rest of the tower. The room above it (measuring 24 feet 6 inches from east to west by 20 feet from north to south), and that on the ground floor level in the southern part of the tower (measuring 25 feet 6 inches from east to west by 16 feet 6 inches from north to south), would probably be approached by means of one of the rooms beneath the Great Hall, and may have been used as buttery and store rooms. Their size would admit of their being subdivided by wooden partitions.

The kitchen, almost certainly, would be on the first floor level; this was the usual arrangement, occupying probably the southern part of the floor (26 feet 6 inches by 17 feet 6 inches), whilst the northern portion (25 feet 6 inches by 21 feet) was probably subdivided by screens into auxiliary kitchen and offices. The kitchen arrangements were much more elaborate in a castle of the Enceintric type than in Norman castles.

The two corresponding rooms on the second floor would probably be subdivided into four or more apartments by partitions, screens, or curtains, and provide sleeping accommodation for the principal retainers, men-at-arms, etc., and even in the case of a large family, such as that of Marmaduke de Thweng and Lucia de Brus, of the younger male members of the family. The turret projecting from the north face of the north tower was probably hollowed out, so far as the two upper floors were concerned, into small mural sleeping chambers.

A circular well-stair constructed in the west wall of the tower ---indications of which still remain-immediately above the doorway into the cellar, commencing on the ground floor (as distinguished from the cellar) level, gave access to the various apartments and to the roof of the tower, from which a magnificent view, both seawards and landwards, would be obtained

It is extremely unlikely that such a tower would be devoid of garde-robes, although no trace of any garde-robe turret now remains. These were probably corbelled out from the walls, as in the north-west tower at Mulgrave, discharging on to the ground below.

In castles of this type, the kitchen Harlech and Caerphilly. At the latter was alınost invariably placed conveniently place it occupied the upper floor of a near the lower end of the Great Hall, large mural tower, abutting upon the with which it communicated, as main curtain.



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