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ternal Improvement, be applied to the improvement of two important roads, if deemed expedient,
For stock in the Lexington and Ohio Railroad Co.-to assist in constructing the line between Louisville and Frankfort,
Jan. 20, 1836.
route possesses advantages not equalled, that date to the first of June. In the mean certainly not excelled, by any other between time the Board invite an early inspection of Lake Erie and the Ohio. The whole that part of the route to Chicago, and will 4,000 length of the road is only about 96 miles, afford any information that may be required passing through a remarkably level country, of them. abounding in materials necessary for the All communications will be addressed to construction of the work. The Southern" "The Board of Commissioners of the Illipart of the route, which is decidedly the nois and Michigan Canal, at Chicago." 200,000 most difficult, has recently been surveyed By order of the Board. by a competent engineer, and found not only JOEL MANNING, Secretary. $554,000 practicable, but of easy construction. The In addition to this, the bill places under following is an extract from the engineer's the direction of the Board of Internal Im-report, dated at East Liverpool, Columprovement, all monies arising from the old biana Co., January 16, 1836: Bank of Kentucky, and the Bank of the "I procured excellent levelling instruCommonwealth, &c. There can be no ments and all the necessary assistance, and doubt, we suppose, of the passage of the bill proceeded to level the only Railroad route through the House. from the river that is considered eligible We are unable to say what amount will be within the limits of this county, namely, appropriated to Turnpike Roads, but supfrom East Liverpool by the valley of Carpose it will not fall short of four or five hun-penter's Run, to the summit between the dred thousand dollars. river and Beaver creek, called Houston's summit; from thence down the valley of Hogle Run, to Frederickstown, near the mouth of the east branch of Beaver, which embraces the whole of the difficult part of the route to the Lake, i. e. that part that is by some considered impracticable.
DETROIT AND ST. JOSEPH RIVER RAILROAD.-At a meeting of the Directors of the Detroit and St. Joseph River Railroad, held at the Bank of Michigan last evening,
RAILROAD WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI.The people of St. Louis, Missouri, are about projecting a Railroad from that place to Fayette, upwards of a hundred miles west of the Mississippi. The cost, it is supposed, will not exceed $5000 per mile, and great advantages to the trade of St. Louis are expected to flow from the measure, if adopted. It is thus that our Western brethren are supplying the links of that great chain of Railroad communication, which before the end of this century, will probably be unbroken between the Atlantic seaboard and the furthest limits of habitation in the West. The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad will one day be the name of that splendid whole, of which the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is now one of the parts.
RAILROAD CONVENTION AT windsor, vt. Pursuant to public notice, a Convention was held at Windsor, Vt., on Wednesday, the 20th day of January, 1836, for the purpose of taking preliminary measures for the construction of a Railroad through the Valleys of the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers to the St. Lawrence; connecting with New-Haven and New-York.
At ten o'clock, A. M., above one hundred and sixty gentlemen, from the States of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, Vermont, and Canada, assembled and took seats as members of the Convention.
On motion of C. Coolidge, Esq., the Convention proceeded to the election of a President; and ELIPHALET AVERILL, Esq., anti-of Hartford, Ct., was chosen, and took the
The final result of said level was more flattering than its greatest friends had cipated.
I found the fall both ways from the summit to be very uniform, and after deducting 25 feet for a cut, and 45 feet for a bridge at Frederickstown, (both of which can be effected without difficulty,) that the summit can be overcome at 33 feet per mile from the flat at Liverpool, and 31 feet per mile
to the creek."
On motion, Mr. ERATUS FAIRBANKS, of St. Johnsbury, Vt., and Mr. JOHN C. HOLBROOK, of Brattleborough, Vt., were elected Vice Presidents, and took seats as such.
On motion, Messrs. I. W. HUBBARD and Jo. D. HATCH, of Windsor, Vt., were appointed Secretaries.
After the appointment of officers, Committees were appointed to report upon,
1st. The practicability of constructing the proposed Road.
2d. The resources of the territory fall
The distance from East Liverpool to Houston's summit is only three and threefourth miles; and from thence to Frederickstown only four and one-eighth miles. From thence to the Lake ridge the country presents nearly a level surface; and from the Lake to the ridge it has been ascertaining within the influence of its route. ed that a road may be constructed with an 3d. Its importance in a national point of ascent which renders the use of locomotive view-as a portion of a continuous line of power on this part of the route perfectly communication through the Union. practicable and easy. It will be seen by the advertisement of the Commissioners in tained, and the uniting with companies al4th. For procuring charters not yet obanother column that books will be opened for subscription for stock on the 31st of ready incorporated. March next.
ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL.-The following notice shows that this important work is to be commenced and prosecuted with vigor. Chicago-the CITY of CHICAGo, as it will soon be called-will soon feel its influences. We cannot at this distance see how any portion of the State can opPose such a work.
5th. To draft resolutions.
6th. For correspondence and publica tion.
ble water power of the Connecticut and its tributaries, from tide water, and also of the streams descending to the St. Lawrence, in the vicinity of the termination of this Road. From the reports of the Committees under the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 7th resolutions, we
7th. To ascertain the amount of availa
ASHTABULA, WARREN AND EAST LIVERPOOL RAILROAD,-We have before us TO CONTRACTORS.-Notice is hereby make such extracts as we deem of general the act to incorporate the Ashtabula, War- given to all persons who may feel disposed ren and East Liverpool Railroad Company. to take contracts on the Illinois and Michi- interest, omitting all such parts of the reThe friends of this important work, which gan Canal, that the Board of Commission-ports and proceedings as are common to all is to connect Lake Erie with the Ohio river, ers have determined to commence that work similar assemblages.
as early in the spring as circumstances will
by a short, direct and feasible route, will be gratified to learn, by a perusal of the char- permit. The Engineers will commence of the Committee under the 6th resolution, The report, or address, or rather APPEAL, ter, that its provisions are liberal, and such their surveys about the 10th of March, and as cannot fail to be satisfactory to capitalists who are desirous of investing their funds in the sto k of the Company. We believe this
will have several sections ready for contract to the inhabitants who will be so generally by the first of May. It is therefore expected benefitted by the construction of the Road, that definite proposals will be received from is so just, so appropriate, and indeed, so
eloquent, and so equally appropriate to many other parts of the country, that we shall endeavor to give it entire in a subsequent number, our columns being, for the present, in consequence of the interruption of the Journal, by the late fire, crowded with interesting subjects long delayed.
C. Coolidge, Esq. submitted the following resolution, which was read and adopted: Resolved, That Col. James Stevens, of Newport, R. I., Engineer, P. H. Knowlton, of Lower Canada, and Chs. H. Peaslee, Esq., of Concord, N. H., be invited to take seats in the Convention, and assist in the deliberations of the same.
Col. J. Stevens, from the Committee appointed by virtue of the first resolution, made the following report, which was read and accepted:
"The estimated expense of a Road, the whole distance, constructed upon the plan first mentioned, would amount to $3,705,000 Upon the last mentioned plan, 1,995,000 Making a saving in expense, of $1,710,000 "It is well known that the surveys of Messrs. Hutchinson and Clinton were made for a then contemplated Canal, and of necessity must have been confined to the streams; but in a survey for a Railroad it is highly probable to your Committee that the route will be varied in many essential particulars.
per mile less than the estimates of a Road and freight from the cities of New-York' similar to the Worcester and Providence New-Haven, and Hartford, and collaterally from Boston, with the cities of Montreal and Quebec; creating, through the valleys of the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers, a pleasant, convenient and expeditious thoroughfare between the cities of the Atlantic and the St. Lawrence. It contemplates making easily accessible an extensive section of country, abounding in resources for agricultural and manufacturing operations, but whose remote situation from the seaboard markets now render those resources in a degree unavailable. The face of the country receding from the rivers is hilly, but not mountainous-the soil is rich and durable, and as it respects the middle and "Your Committee further report, from northern parts, the heights are capable of the best information they have been able to cultivation quite to their summits. In maobtain, that the route from the line of Cana-ny points the Connecticut River affords da to St. Johns, a distance of about seventy water power in abundance, while its tribu"The Committee beg leave to report miles, intersecting the Champlain and St. taries, almost without exception, are availa"That, in their opinion, the same is high. Lawrence Railroad, is highly practicable, ble for hydraulic purposes, at short disly practicable; that they have had under and through a level and fertile country, and tances, through nearly the whole course, consideration the survey of Mr. Hutchinson hat from the well known enterprise of the furnishing sites for long and continuous through the valley of the Connecticut River inhabitants of the eastern townships in the lines of manufacturing establishments. And from Hartford, in Connecticut, to McIndoe's Province of Lower Canada, should the now perhaps it would not be hazardous to preFalls, in Barnet, Vermont, near the mouth contemplated Railroad be exten led to the dict, that should the proposed Railroad be of Passumpsic River, a distance of about Province line, a communication would completed, the middle and northern sections 220 miles, and the survey of De Witt Clin-oon be opened from that terminus to Mon- of the route would, at no remote period, beton, Jr. from thence to Canada line on Lake real, and that the expense of constructing come the great manufacturing mart of this Memphremagog, a distance of about 65 the same will not exceed the foregoing esti continent. miles, showing a plan and profile of the mate; and they further report, that there country, surveyed for a canal on said route, is another route in contemplation from the being the same which is now contemplated Province line through the valley of the St. for a Railroad. Knowing those gentlemen Francis to the St. Lawrence, in the directo be professional engineers of high respection of Quebec, which is represented to be tability, your Committee have not hesitated equally practicable, and affording equal fato come to the conclusion, unanimously, that, so far as rise and fill are to be regard ed, no unusual obstacle is presented; that, for so great an extent, the route is uncomtee monly level, and that there is no one point of obstruction in the whole extent that inay not be readily overco.ne, and that without serious expense.
"It may be here added, that the country to be traversed by the Road abounds in suitable materials for the construction of a Railroad, such as cedar, tamarac, pine, granite, &c., while in the northern part of Vermont, and near the contemplated route, inexhaustible veins of iron ore have been discovered, and companies of heavy capiCharles M. Emerson, from the Commit-talists have already commenced the manuraised under the second resolution, made facture of iron on an extensive scale. the following report, and the same was read and accepted.
for the Committee."
"It is evident that one great source of revenue to stockholders in the proposed Railroad, must be the transportation of freight. Of the amount of produce and merchandise, which would find their way und the great variety and extent of infor- from the valley itself and the avenues leadnation necessary to do it justice, they found ng thereto, over the Road, the Committee it impossible to furnish, in the short time could furnish no satisfactory or accurate esallowed them, a statemant which would at timate, as they had no data before them by once comprehend and elucidate the objects which they could be governed with much of the reference. To form an estimate of certainty; but from the known character he vast and inexhaustible resources of the and physical advantages of the valley, the valley of the Connecticut, its whole surface vast business already transacted therein, should be attentively surveyed; full ab- the numerous manafactories in operation, "Your Committee report, in reference to stracts should be returned from every town, and the great quantity of produce exported the expense of constructing said Railroad, containing the amount of articles purchased annually, they feel warranted in giving it on the most permanent and approved plan. for home consumption, and sold for consump- as their opinion, that the Road would similar to the Boston, Worcester, and Provi- tion elsewhere; its capacities for improve- be well supported by tolls receivable from dence Roads, that the costs of superstruc- ment and production should be ascertained; freight alone, exclusive of the tolls to be ture, exclusive of grading, will be eight its mineral wealth should at least be par-derived from passengers. From a report thousand dollars per mile, for a single track, tially explored; its streams should be accu- submitted to the subscribers for procuring including the turn-outs; and that the gra-rately guaged, and the power of its waters a survey of the Western Railroad, extend ding, on an average, will not exceed five examined; while its natural advantages, thousand dollars per mile for a double track, unrivalled in any other section of the counincluding masonry, bridging, engineering, try, should be presented and shown to be and all contingent expenses. But, con- available. Such an estimate must be the sidering the abundance of timber in the vi- result of patient and industrious inquiry, cinity of the route, suitable for constructing and, with its details, would fill a volume. a Railroad, and the facility of obtaining the Your Committee, therefore, could do no same, other plans equally practicable and more than approach the threshhold of the far less expensive, might be advantageous duties assigned them, and point out the ly adopted. The superstructure of the more obvious features of the route. Road with timber, without rubble-stone, might be constructed for six thousand dollars
"The Committee beg leave to report: That, from the nature and magnitude, "That, in reference to the soil, in add-of the subject, the materials to be combined, tion to the knowledge possessed by the Committee individvally, they have acquired such information as has been within their reach, and feel confident in affirming that throughout the whole route, the earth is feasible and of easy excavation-and that all the materials for constructing a Railroad are found abundant and cheap upon every part of the line.
"The enterprise contemplated, is, the opening a communication for passengers
ing from Worcester to the Hudson River, prepared by their engineer after a long and critical investigation, it appears that the number of inhabitants within the territory to be affected by said road, is not far from 220,000-the amount of freight which in all probability would be transported over the Road would exceed 148,000 tons→ while the tolls receivable from passengers, per annum, would exceed $170,000. The present population of the district falling within the influence of our contemplated
would be derived from passengers.
"C. M. EMERSON, for Committee."
George T. Davis, from the Committee on the 3d resolution, made the following report, which was read and accepted.
"All which is submitted per order.
F. E. Phelps, from the Special Comthe amount of available water-power withmittee appointed to ascertain and report
in the range of the proposed Road, submitted the following report, which was read and accepted:
That, in estimating the water-power, your Committee have based the estimates upon the quantity of water running in the rivers and streams at low water: and inasmuch as the quantity of water passing low water below Bellows Falls, is consideraover the falls upon Connecticut River at the falls located above Bellows Falls, the bly greater than the quantity passing over average of the whole is set somewhat higher than the quantity passing at that place. It will also be perceived that the surplus
Road, will not fall much short of 500,000 || fare the easiest and most direct to and from ||if successful, it is likely to afford to the inhabitants. In 1830, the three counties the St. Lawrence; no doubts could be enter- Union at large. in Massachusetts bordering on the river tained, that another large source of revenue contained 91,394 inhabitants-the four western counties of New-Hampshire 93,755 -and the six eastern counties of Vermont, 135,586. The amount of business transacted in the district alluded to, is unques tionably as great in proportion to the number of inhabitants, as that transacted in the The Committee beg leave to report :territory over which the route for the Western Railroad was surveyed, and taking the "The brief space allowed to your Comabove report as a basis, from which some mittee for the making of their report, will "Your Committee, to whom was referestimate may be made, and giving the same prevent them from giving more than a gene-red the subject of water-power within the proportion of tonnage to the number of in-ral view of the subject committed to them. Valley of Connecticut River and its tribuhabitants within the influence of the con- A great deal, indeed, of the evidence which ary streams, as also the water-power withtemplated route, there can scarcely be less has been or will be presented to the meet- in the valleys of the streams running north than 400,000 tons to be transported over ing by other Committees, will apply to this from the head waters of Passumpsic River, the Road. Full returns from a few towns, subject also. The territory which the with instructions to report generally as to and partial returns from some others, fully posed Road will travese, and whose inhabi-the probable amount of said water-power, sanction the above estimate, which your tants will be directly and largely benefitted having given to the subject such consideraCommittee believe to be far below the whole by it, is three hundred miles in extent; it tion as the limited time would allow, retruth. is, beyond comparison, the most fertile dis- spectfully report:"Much statistical information was com-trict in New-England; it possesses water municated by members of the Convention power, (fiurnished by the magnificent river to the Committee, which they had not time from which it is named, and by the tributato incorporate into a report, and indeed ries of that river,) enough, it is believed, to they found it impracticable to do so with drive all the looms now in operation in the reference to any general result; but they Union; it supports a population equal to selected the following as affording some in- one sixteenth of the entire population of the dication of what may be expected from the United States; and it is capable of support entire region. The annual exports and ing ten times that number, if the facilities imports from the town of Derby, Vt., con- which have been given by nature shall be taining 1400 inhabitants, and bordering on improved and rendered available by the art Canada line, exceed 200 tons-from Bar- and enterprise of man. The welfare of so net, with about 1800 inhabitants, over 370 large a population-the development of quantity of water running at periods of high water, as also the quantity of water tons from Coventry, Vt., with about 800 such great resources, cannot be an unworrunning in the streams for two or three inhabitants, 166 tons-from Brownington, thy object of protection to a government months in the spring of the year, are not Vt., with 500 inhabitants, about 60 tons-which seeks, by reasonable attention to the taken into the account, although in many from Barton, Vt., with 1000 inhabitants, claims of each section, to promote the cominstances a large amount of power derived 112 tons-from the manufacturing village mon prosperity of the whole. from the spring and other high water, is not of Bradford, Vt., 1500 tons-from Lyndon, "But there are special as well as general only available for many purposes, but actuVt., with 1800 inhabitants, 300 tons-from reasons which, in the opinion of your Com-ally used in the manufacture of lumber and Glover, Vt., with 1200 inhabitants, 120-mittee, make this enterprise a matter of pe- other branches of business requiring only tons-from two establishments in St. Johns- culiar interest to the General Government. an occasional power. bury, Vt., whose operations are connected, 500 tons-from one in Brattleborough, 250 tons, and from one in Stratford, Vt., the copperas works, 2200 tons. It is proper to remark, that no returns were received, from the large towns on the river, and that the amount of tons exported and imported from and to the same would doubtless exceed the foregoing average. The expenses of transportation to and from the eastern counties of Vermont, will average at least $20 per ton, and the expense per ton, from Hartford, Ct., to Springfield, Mass., a distance of only 26 miles, is two dollars per ton. Some idea, therefore, can be formed from the above facts, of one source of in
"From the level of the water in the pond above the dam at McIndoe's Falls to the level of tide-water at low tide opposite the city of Hartford, the whole fall in Connecti cut River is 449 feet 6 inches-of this 449 feet, 270 feet is estimated at the dams at McIndoe's Falls, Dodge's Falls, White River Falls, Quechee Falls, Bellows Falls, Miller's Falls, South Hadley Falls, and Enfield Falls, and the remaining 179 feet 6 inches is distributed in unequal proportions along the whole extent of the river between the several dams.
This Road will run straight from the sea- "For the purpose of bringing the esti board to the frontier of a neighboring gov-rnate into a convenient shape, and placing ernment. Should we continue at peace it in such a light as to be readily understood, with that government, a traffic and inter-and easily compared with other power of a course of the most profitable kind, with the similar kind, your Committee have estima subjects of that government, will receive a ted the quantity of water by the number of mighty impulse from this work, and will cotton mills it is capable of operating, esti have a tendency to secure, by a strong ad-mating each cotton mill at 4,000 spindles. ditional bond of mutual interest and intima cy, the present friendly relations between the two countries. This remark will apply with still greater force to the effect which this and other similar works, of which this is but a continuation, will have on the relations of the several States of our Union. Composed, as that Union is, of many sovereignties, spread over so wide an "In regard to the number of passengers extent of country, and embodying many who would probably take this route, your contending interests, there is much reason Committee had no facts on which an esti- why every well-wisher to his country should mate could be founded, but when we con- hail the progress of improvements which, sider, that the population of the district is by breaking down the barriers to sectional "Without taking into consideration any already great, and fast increasing, that its intercourse, diminish the operation of sec-proportion of the 179 feet 6 inches, a conconnection, in a business point of view, with tional animosity or prejudice. And your siderable part of which could be rendered other sections of country is intimate, that Committee cannot but hope that this enter-available by the construction of dams, the its various, grand, and picturesque scenery, prise,-though its direct object is merely to Committee have founded their estimates and the beauties of the route, would be in meet the wants of the inhabitants of this upon the 270 feet fall at the several dams. ducements to parties travelling for health or valley, to increase their intercourse, and to Supposing the fall required for each set of pleasure, that the water communication develope their resources,-will, neverthe-manufactories to be 15 feet, predicating the with Montreal and Quebec is sealed up five less, receive aid from the General Govern estimates upon the quantity of water used months in the year, rendering th is thorough-ment, proportionate to the benefits which, at Lowell, and averaging the quantity of
come from the Road.
water in the river, your Committee are of manufacturing purposes, your Committee sent day!-Must, did I say? Yes, must the opinion that each fall of 15 feet would would observe that a cotton mill of 4,000 and we know of no section of the country in furnish sufficient water to operate 20 manu-spindles will manufacture about 7500 lbs. which it may-nay, will, be accompanied factories or cotton mills of 4,000 spindles of cloth per week. One hundred pounds of each. If this estimate is correct, the avail-cloth requires, from New-Orleans cotton, more readily, or more certainly, than by the able water-power from and including McIn- 112 lbs. of raw cotton equal to 3 tons per people of the Connecticut Valley? dee's Falls to tide-water, would be sufficien: week-making the import and export from We were surprised and highly gratified by to operate 360 cotton mills-or one million the cotton mill 71⁄2 tons per week, or 390 the facts stated in the report of the Commitfour hundred and forty thousand spindles. tons per year. 1200 cotton mills, according
"In the amount of available power in the to this estimate, would yield 468,000 tons tee to ascertain the amount of available wavalleys of the tributary streams, your Com-of freight, which estimated at three dollars ter power of the Connecticut, its tributaries mittee found considerable difficulty in com- per ton, would amount to $1,404,000-or and the streams running into Lake Meming at any satisfactory result. This difficul-nore than 25 per cent. interest on five mill-phremagog.
"All which is respectfully submitted.
ty arose from the want of correct informa-ions of dollars. Cradled, as we were, in the upper valley tion as to the fall upon the several streams, and also from want of information as to the of the Connecticut, and having spent many quantity of water in each stream in times years along its banks, we supposed we knew of drought. After giving to the subject We were not, such attention and making such examinaAfter the different reports were made and something of its resources. however, aware of the extent of power, unused tion as the limited time and means would adopted, the following important resolution allow, your Committee come to the conclu- was offered by H. Averill, Esq., and and useless power-useless only for want of sion that the water in the Farmington, adopted: easy and cheap access to it—which it could Westfield, Chickopee, Manhan, Deerfield, boast. Our lack of information, however, Miller's, Ashuelot, West, Cold, Saxon, Resolved, That the Committee of Cor Williams, Black, Little Sugar, Sugar, Mas-respondence be instructed to take immedi was from a want of investigation, as we can, on reflection, well belicve-and not from com, Quechee, White, Ompompanoosuc, ate measures to secure the services of a Waits, Wells, Ammonoosuc, and Passump competent engineer to survey the route for the absence of data to arrive at the truth. sic Rivers, together with Connecticut Rivera Railroad from Hartford, Ct., to the north| And we are the more strongly impressed with above McIndoe's Falls, and including about line of the State of Vermont, through the the importance of this work, and the necesfifty brooks and mill streams, (taking into valleys of the Connecticut and Passumpsity of early, efficient, and untiring efforts to consideration the great amount of fall in sic." many of the principal of these streams,) would yield a power sufficient to operate 720 cotton mills or 2,880,000 spindles.
insure early construction.
We cannot, however, permit this opporIn relation to the amount of business tunity to pass without expressing our high which the country will furnish, we do not "The estimate of the water-power in the est satisfaction with the proceedings of the deem it necessary to say a word, save tha valleys of the streams running north from Convention in relation to this most impor there cannot be a doubt-not a single doubt, the head waters of the Passumpsic and tant Road, or as we are in the habit of de-but that it will, immediately on its compleemptying into Lake Memphrenagog, includes the Barton, Black, Willoughby, and signating every new Road already or about tion, pay an income of 10 per cent. at least, Clyde Rivers. From the information fur-to be undertaken-"link in the gran dehain!" and this will be greatly increased in five nished by gentlemen living in the vicinity, of those rivers, and well acquainted with is not its most important feature-this will years, at fair rates of toll. This, however, the falls in each, the Committee estimated not be its greatest value; as, on that day the power as sufficient to operate 120 cotmills or 480,000 spindles. on which a locomotive shall pass its entire length, from tide water to Canada line, and,
There are in reality but few routes along
"From the above estimates it appears that the available power in the valleys of the Connecticut River and its tributaries, and in the valleys of the streams running into Lake Memphremagog, when measured by the rule laid down above, viz. by the duce its parallel! Why, then, have they number of cotton mills or spindles it is ca- so long neglected to improve their own. pable of operating, is as follows: beautiful valley-and thereby retained their Cotton mills. Spindles.sons and daughters around them, to cheer their declining years, and to enjoy the pleater at Hartford, Conn., 360 1,440,000 sure of improving their native hills and beauTributary streams, including the increased fall of the stream,
Connecticut River from Mc-
Making a total of
of course, to Montreal,-on that day, we say,
In the following letter from the Evening Star will be found a very satisfactory account of the Boston and Lowell Railroad. It will be perceived that in the construction of this work no expense has been
BOSTON AND LOWELL RAILROAD.
tiful valleys? Simply, we answer, beacause they are an hardy, and prudent people, who 720 2,880,000 grow wealthy rather by industry than by The rivers running into Lake Memphremagog, 120 480,000 speculation—and they have therefore been content with the ordinary facilities for transacting business. Times, however, and "Your Committee are aware of the enor things have changed, wonderfully changed,pared to insure permanency and solidity. mous amount of power which this estimate within a few years. And the habits and nepresents, and are fully sensible that it will cessities-no, not necessities, but desires, of occasion surprise in the minds of those who have not examined the subject; but extra- the people must also change. Four and five "I will now proceed to answer your seyevagant as it may appear, your Committee miles an hour will not answer now a days-ral inquiries relative to the Lowell Rail are unanimously of the opinion that these nor one or two tons for a load of merchan-road, its location, its construction, and the estimates are much below rather than any dise, or produce--by no means-it must be prospect with regard to the value of the above the actual power. "To give some idea of the amount of forty to one hundred tons at the rate of ten At an early period, after it began to be freight which would be thrown upon the to fifteen miles per hour, to satisfy those who believed that a Railroad would afford imRailroad in case this power was used for believe in the “march of mind” of the pre-mense facilities for travelling and transpor
Extract from a letter dated Boston, Feb. 20, to a gen
tleman in this city.
The second track has been commenced, and the work will be prosecuted with all convenient despatch. On some other Railroads, as soon as a small piece was completed, the cars were set in motion, which course, though it served to amuse and astonish at the moment, yet interfered with the work, and ultimately became a source of great additional expense and trouble. But the agent of the Lowell road kept on the even tenor of his way, and when one entire track was completed the whole distance, and sufficient engines and cars to In a recent report, made to the directors accommodate the public were obtained, he of this road by the agent, he makes the fol-opened the road for passengers, and as soon lowing remarks, to wit: "It is asserted by as all things were ready, and the tracks some that wood is better than stone, even were laid at Lowell to the several factories, at the same cost. The reason assigned is, the transportation of merchandise was .comthat wood being elastic, will yield to the menced. pressure of the carriages passing over it, and cause the motion of them to be more easy. It will be admitted that the more level and straight the lines of the Railroad
The annual expense of the Lowell road will be less than has been anticipated. The wear and tear of the road, and of the engines and cars will be comparatively small. During the last summer, two engines passed over the road, each three times every day, and did not lose a single trip. There is hardly a limit to the number of cars, freighted with passengers or merchandise, which may be drawn with a single engine over this road. I am informed that one engine will carry from fifty to one hundred tons with ease.
tation, the idea of constructing such a road is ample space for the snow to be deposited, || the road throughout the whole distance : from Boston to Lowell at once occurred to when removed from the track, and there is so that the entire road is made perfectly every person, who was acquainted with sufficient room to move and work in case secure from all external cause of obstruction the localities, and had any knowledge of of accident. Large drains have been made or annoyance. the business which would be carried on by which the water is carried off, and as between the two places. In the year 1830 soon as the drain on the side of the second a favorable charter was obtained from the track is completed, the whole road will be Legislature. The stock was taken up, thoroughly drained and kept perfectly dry. and the corporation was organized: The The track of the Railway now in use is corporation was so fortunate as to secure laid, except for a short distance, en a the services of Patrick T. Jackson, Esq., trench-wall, sunk 2 to 4 feet below the who was chosen one of the Directors and surface, according to the character of the appointed sole agent for the construction soil, and 24 feet thick. On these walls rest of the road. Surveys were made of every stone blocks and binders, generally six possible route between Boston and Lowell, blocks and two binders to each length of and careful plans were drawn. Particular rail, (being five yards,) and the rails are surveys were made with reference to the||fastened to them. point where the road should enter the city of Boston. After much examination, and a full consideration of all matters which could bear on the question, a definitive location was made, and it is admitted by all, I believe, that the best route was adopted. The agent well knew the importance of having the assistance of an engineer, who possessed not only science, but practical wisdom and experience, and such an one he employed. The agent and engineer at all times acted together with perfect harare, the better it is. It must, therefore, be rue, that the supports should be as solid morly devoting their time, their whole time, and unyielding as possible, in order that and undivided attention to the great work. these lines may be preserved. The expeThe most accurate calculations were made, rience gained on the Lowell road has conthe most careful inquiries were instituted firined the agent in the opinion, that where in England and in this country as to the the rails are laid on a firm foundation, with best mode of construction. Every matter was fully examined and considered in order stone supports placed so near as to prevent to ascertain the exact truth. Every part hat there will be no yielding, no elasticity, any bending of the rail between them, so There is a tract of land belonging to the of the work was constantly watched, and there will be less jar and irregularity in the corporation, containing about twelve acres, personally inspected. The agent resolved notion of the engines and cars, fewer acci- situated on the Cambridge side of Charles That a Railroad should be built in the best place, on the most solid foundation, and ofdents, and of course less wear and tear in river, a small part of which is used for a the carriages and on the road, than there depot for merchandise and for buildings to the most durable materials, and I think he would be if ruils were laid on a foundation accommodate cars and engines, and the rehas accomplished his object. and suppo.ts which, being elastic, would sidue is to be sold. There is also a tract The length of the road from the sea-wall yield to the pressure of the weight passing on the Boston side, appropriated for all the in Boston to the depot on Merrimac street over thein." Much care has been taken to wants of the corporation. To both of these in Lowell, is a fraction short of twenty-six remove all y from the road, and there is tracts, vessels may come up and load and miles. The line is nearly straight. There very little, if any, danger of the rails being unload. A five range of brick warehouses is but one curve of a less radius than three in any degree moved or affected by the are now building by another corporation on thousand feet. There are but two points frost. The rails are placed at a proper each side of the Railroad track at the ter where the ascent is greater than at the rate height, and it will rarely happen that the minus in Boston, with suitable accommo of ten feet in a mile, and the summit level snow will fall in such quantities that it dations for lowering and hoisting goods, to Great or highest point above the tide water at cannot be easily brushed off by the broom and from the merchandise cars. Boston is one hundred and eighteen feet befere the engine, or removed by the snow facilities will be afforded for the transporta only, and that occurs at a place twenty-one plough, so as not to interfere with the rail.tion of merchandise to and from the Lowell iniles distant from the city. A fine wide The flanges are never in danger of striking factories. road-bed is graded on the whole line. In he frozen earth, and very rarely of touching Another advantage which this road has ho place is the width less than twenty-six any ice near the rail. Notwithstanding the at present over any other, certainly in this feet in the clear, and that too on a line ten unusual severity of this winter, the cars part of the country, I will now mention inches below the top of the rail. There have run with great regularity. They The sagacious founders of the town of urê comparatively few deep cuts, and in all have been interrupted by the snow but a Lowell, who acted under a certain corporate cases the inclination of slope of the bank is very few times. The whole distance is name, having secured all the water power at an angle of about 33 degrees only, and run with great uniformity in about an hour created by the falls on the Merrimac river, if it is found in any place that the earth and a qu urter. It has been run in an hour.at this place, and having purchased all the or gravel on the slopes slides or rolls down, Great pains have been taken to prevent land on which factories could be built, soon a further removal from the slopes is made any thing, which may obstruct or annoy, established an extensive machine shop, and instead of placing heavy and expensive from entering on, or crossing the Railroad took much pains to bring together a great walls at the base of the bank, as has been In all cases, where it was necnssary to number of skilful artificers. Whenever done with very bad calculation and econo- have any crossing from one part of a farm they concluded to sell sufficient water power my on some Railroads, especially when to another, the same has been carried over for one or more factories to a new corporathese walls are placed near the Railroad or under the Railroad; and this course has tion, they sold the land also on which to track. At some few points a low wall has also been taken on the public highways build the same, and contracted to erect the been built at the foot of the slope, but in all with the exception of a very few places, and buildings and to furnish all the requisite cases the same is placed at a distance of at those points gates have been erected and machinery. At this machine shop has been five feet at least from the track of the road. men are stationed to open and shut them, built all the machinery for the several facThere is, therefore, all the way, room when the cagines and cars arrive and passtories at Lowell, and for many other facto enough. There is no contraction. There Sufficient fences are built on each side of fries about the country. Here, too, all the