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but it is principally owing there, as well as in England, to the regular use of calcareous manures. As we have seen, more than two-thirds of this country [the North] belongs to the class of soils not calcareous, to the argilo-silicious plateaux, and makes use of lime, marl, or ashes of all kinds.

merino mayor. Each flock consists of Great Britain and Spain, as a direction to 10,000 sheep with a mayor or head shepherd, those who may endeavor to import sheep who must be an active man, well versed in from thence; for though every variety of the nature of pasture, as well as in the dis- the merino is valuable, yet they differ wideeases of his flock. It might be interestingly from each other in beauty, in form and in to some to pursue this part of the subject fineness of fleece, as may be judged from further, but I fear encroaching on the limits the prices in Spain, where Leon and Escu47. After this great result of increased of your paper; if it should excite an inter-rial wool sells for 100 cents, while that of productiveness, that upon health, although est to consult standard authorities and inves- Arragon brings only 60 cents, with several applied to the least extents of surface, tigation, my present object will be attained. intermediate kinds." would be most precious. Upon one-sixth The word merino is now by general usage] The principal flocks of Spain are divided of our country the population is sickly, sub-applied to the fine wooled Spanish sheep. into the (Transhumanta), or which migrate ject to intermittent and often fatal fevers, From the earliest history of Spain, the from north to south twice every year, and and the deaths exceed in number the births. possession and cultivation of a peculiar include the greatest number, their route Well! upon this soil without marshes, cal-breed of fine wooled sheep has been a sub- having been regulated from time immemocareous manures would bring a growing ject of high national legislation, and al-rial by legislation. The privilege of a route population, more numerous than that of our though it was carried to an extent greatly ninety paces wide across the cultivated now healthy parts of the country-and as oppressive and injurious to some other in- fields, is claimed and maintained by the labor would offer itself from every side, terests, yet it resulted in preserving and im- government for the passage of the public these regions, made healthy, would soon be preving their sheep above those of the whole flocks. those where the people would be most hap-civilized world. py, the richest, and the most rapidly increasing in numbers.

48. If we are not under an illusion, the calcareous principle and its properties upon the soil, form the great compensation accorded by the Supreme Author to man, in

The origin of the fine Spanish sheep, as stated in the preceding number, is yet left for ingenious investigation.

Strabo, speaking of the beautiful woolen clothes that were worn by the Romans, says that the wool was brought from Tru


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Then the (Estantes), or stationary flocks. These are next subdivided into several varieties and denominations, originating either in ownership or locality of production, of which the most prominent are the following, viz:

Those of the Escurial convent are altogether the finest and most perfect of any of the Spanish flocks, combining excellence scarcely admitting of improvement.

Those of the duke Infantado and of the countess Negritti are but imperfectly known in this country.

condemning him to till the earth. Three-ditania, in Spain. After the conquest of
fourths of our soil seem not to produce, ex- Spain by the Romans, the elder Columella
cept by force of pain and labor, the vegeta. was one of the early emigrants to Spain.
bles absolutely necessary for man. On all
Spain was at that time highly civil-
sides, and often beneath this surface so little ized; and agriculture was the favorite pur-
favored, is found placed the substance ne.
suit of all who were not occupied in war.
cessary to the soil, to render it as fertile as
How desirable is it that our country should Those of the Monturio and Gaudaloupe,
the best ground, to enable the cultivator to
properly appreciate this great source of of those brought to this country, rank
happiness, wealth and true greatness. next to the Escurial in their most essential

use for his profit the vegetable mould which
it contains and has been accumulating for
ages-and to cause the entire soil to be the French Institute, and who was commis-
Mr. Tessier, a distinguished member of
covered by a population active, moral, and sioned to investigate this subject, says, "all
well employed. And this precious condi-
ment, this active principle of vegetation, is that we know of the merino is, that they
have a long time existed in Spain; the me-
only needed to be applied in small propor-rino is a distinct breed of sheep; as in the
tions, to obtain products of which the first class of dogs, the Danish dog, the grey
harvest often compensates for all the labor
and expense. And to complete the benefit, hound, the shag dog, the lap dog, &c. And
in the same manner as among dogs, the
insalubrity, which afflicts the infertile soil, cross breeds may afford individuals more or
disappears; the new population finds there
at the same time strength, riches, and less approximating to the species, but never
health. There, without doubt, is one of the the species itself." Another writer says,
"the merino differs more essentially from
most happy harmonies of the creation, one
of the greatest blessings with which the every other kidd of sheep, than the spaniel
Supreme Author has endowed the laborious does from the mastiff And yet no one has
man who is devoted to the cultivation of the seen any change in either of those species
of dogs in the course of generations, or in
any climate, except by intermixture of the
breeds. I say the merino differs essentially
We had marked No. 1 of this series of let- from all other sheep, and even from all oth-
ters on Sheep Husbandry, before the confla-er quadrupeds of which we have any know-
gration; but it was in ashes before we could ledge, as an annual does from a perennial
put it in type, and therefore, we are com- plant. All quadrupeds change their coats
every year, and indeed generally twice a
pelled to commence with No. 2, which we year; the merino sheep never changes his
regret, as we desire to give the series en-coat, on the contrary, it will continue to
tire. They evince much valuable informa-
tion upon the subject to which they relate,
and should be carefully read by every sheep



From the Cultivator.

No. II.

The common sheep of Spain have coarse light fleeces, being worth from 10 to 12 cents per pound, and reared principally for their flesh.

grow from year to year, and at the end of
the third year, the fleece will yield a three
years' crop, with little or no diminution.
This has been tried in France, Switzerland,
and England."

Sportsmen, for the purpose of the chase and the turf, well understand their business, in breeding the greyhounds and blood-horses. Will the deliberate scientific agriculturist be shamefully distanced in the comparison of his pursuit with that of play and recreation? Will he rear a cock that will not fight on his own dunghill? Excite an in"The word Merino is Spanish, it signi- terest, raise a competition, and any subject fies governor of a small province, and like-at this day will be investigated. Let us wise him who has the care of the pasture observe the course which nature treads. and cattle in general. The Merino Mayor is always a person of rank, and appointed by the king; the duke of Infantado is the present Merino Mayor.”

The mayors have a separate jurisdiction over the flocks in Estramadura, which is called the mesta; and there the king is the

"God never made his works for man to mend."

I would, with Franklin, conduct the light-
ning harmless down, but not in fully strive
to stay its force.

Mr. Livingston says, "It will be of use
to be acquainted with the several breeds of

Those of the Paulaur convent. Of all the

Spanish flocks this is the largest sheep, elegant in form, and producing the greatest fleece, out at the same time, coarse, and abounding in jarr and yolk. He has a large dew-lap extending from the chin to the breast. This wool, though not answering the full requirement of the market, nor meeting the nicety of modern machinery; still, however, standing in advance of all crossing with Dishly, Lincolnshire, or other mongrel productions, and of all others are the most rugged and hardy, almost answering the requirement of a sheepman, who thinks sheep require no care.

I have seen some fleeces of Paulaur bucks highly fed, weighing, unwashed, twelve and fourteen pounds.

Besides these, there are many other flocks which I shall omit to describe.

The emigrant merino will form the sub-

ject of the next paper.

From the Harrisburg Intelligencer.


In our last, we noticed the important discovery of Peter Ritner, Esq., of smelting iron ore with mineral coal. It will be a new era in the iron manufacture in this country. The moment we pass the Alleghany mountains, running from northeast to southwest, nearly through the middle of the State, we come into the bituminous coal region. The rocks in this region, reaching to the Rocky mountains, are horizontal, and frequently alternate with iron ore and bituminous coal. This is the case at Karthaus, on the west branch of the Susquehanna, a few miles above the termination of the canal extending to Philadelphia. The process of smelting iron ore with mineral coal, has for some time been known in Europe, and it has been on this account that one kind of iron could be made in Great Britain, and sold in this country under a duty of $30 per ton. Thousands of dollars have been

expended in this State, and hundreds of en-plately to the French Academy, which agrees
terprising men have been ruined, in their
experiments to discover this method of
making iron. A year or two ago, the Le-
gislature incorporated a company, with an
immense capital, to make the experiment,
as it was thought to be beyond individual

At length, however, Peter Ritner and Joseph Loy, with limited pecuniary means, have erected a furnace on the plan of the coke and iron furnaces of Wales, and succeeded in making the finest iron for foundry and many other purposes.

Mr. Ritner is a brother of the Governor of Pennsylvania.



The Troy Iron and Nail Factory keeps constantly for sale a very extensive a sortment of Wrought Spikes

and Nails, from 3 to 10 inches, manufactured by the sub scriber's Patent Machinery, which after five years suc United States, (as well as England, where the subscriber obtained a patent,) are found superior to any ever offered in market.

cessful operation, and now almost universal use in the

Railroad Companies may be supplied with Spikes hav

ing countersink heads suitable to the holes in iron rails, to any amount and on sort notice. Almost all the Rail

roads now in progress in the United States are fastened with Spikes made at the above named factory- for which purpose they are found invaluable, as their adhesion is more than double any common spikes made by the hamAll orders directed to the Agent, Troy, N. Y., will HENRY BURDEN, Agent.


Troy, N. Y., July, 1831.

in all material respects with that contri-
buted some time ago to this Journal by Mr.
Terry, C. E. (See vol. xxiii., p. 50;) makes
the following comparison between it and
the Menai Bridge:-"The only bridge
which, for its dimensions, can be compared
with that of M. Challey, is the Menai Bridge,
built by the late Mr. Telford, and which
joins the Isle of Anglesey to England. The
largest ships can pass under this bridge at
full sail. But the breadth of the Menai
Bridge is only 1674 metres, 516 feet-con-
sequently 301 feet less than that of Fribourg.
The surface of Mr. Telford's bridge is about be punctually attended to.
33 metres, or 100 feet above the level of the
sea at high water. That of M. Challey is
51 metres, or 156 feet above the bed of the
Sarmi. M. Candolle has taken the city of
Paris as a standard, by which to convey
an idea of the magnitude of M. Challey's
bridge. He supposes a bridge of only one
single span, the length of which shall be with the daily increasing demand for his Spikes.
equal to the railing of the Carousel, or to
the distance between the two corresponding
carriage entrances of the two galleries, the
level of this bridge being somewhat lower
than the height of the towers of Notre Dame,
or eight metres higher than the column of
the Place Vendome, and you may thus have
some notion of the height and length of the
bridge at Fribourg."

Spikes are kept for sale, at factory prices, by I. & J. Townsend, Albany, and the principal Iron Merchants in Albany and Troy; J. I. Brower, 222 Water street, Newmore Degrand & Smith, Boston.

York; A. M. Jones, Philadelphia; T, Janviers, Balti

P. S.-Railroad Companies would do well to forward their orders as early as practicable, as the subscriber is desirous of extending the manufacturing so as to keep pace



95 tons of 1 inch by 4 inch,
do. 1 d. 4 do.
do. I do. do.
do. 2 do. do.

40 800


do. 24 do.

soon expected.


FLAT BARS in lengths of 14 to 15 feet, counter sunk holes, ends cut at an angle of 45 degrees, with splicing plates and nails to suit.

250 do. of Edge Rails of 36 lbs. per yard, with the requisite chairs, keys and pins.

rought Iron Rims of 30, 33, and 36 inches diame ter for Wheels of Railway Cars, and of 60 inches diameter for Locomotive Wheels.

for Railway Cars and Locomotives, of patent iron.

Axles of 24, 24, 21, 3, 81, 34 and 3 inches in diameter,

The above will be sold free of duty, to State Govern. ments and Incorporated Governments, and the drawback taken in part payment. A. & G. RALSTON, 9 South Front street, Philadelphia. Models and samples of all the different kinds of Rails, Chairs, Pins, Wedges, Spikes, and Splicing Plates, in use

We have much cause to rejoice at the great advance which has been made in Prussia within these few years in the ma nufacture of machinery. It is not very long ago that, for almost every large machine, we required help from England, and had the greater part from that country.both in this country and Great Britain, will be exhibited to Now an entire change has taken place in those disposed to examine them. this respect, and the great establishment of this kind in Berlin furnishes the most complete and admirable machines at far lower prices than in England. These happy results we owe to the zeal of Privy Councillor Beuth, who, as President of the Mechanics Institution, and Director of the Department of the Interior, does every thing to favor and improve the construction of machines. [Frankfort paper.]

4-d7 1meowr AMES' CELEBRATED SHOVELS, SPADES, &c. 300 dozens Ames' superior back-strap Shovels 150 do do do plain do 150 do do do cast steel Shovels & Spades 50 do do Gold-mining Shovels do plated Spades

100 do

Height of WAVES.-Among other proofs of the incorrectness of the assertion, that no waves rise higher than ten feet above the ordinary level, the following vivid description is given:" During the hurricane experienced to the Northward of Barbadoes by the squadron under the command of the late Admiral De Courcy, (in July 29, 1805,) the Centaur, a seventy-four of the largest class, whilst lying-to, had the small boat (a gig,) which was hoisted up at the stern davits, washed away, as well as the pooplantern, by an enormous wave, which was elevated many feet above the highest part of the ship's hull, as it rushed past with impetuous velocity; the portion which struck the ship cleared the poop-deck of every thing!-On the evening of the second day, whilst the hull of our shattered and unwieldy vessel lay rolling in the trough of the sea, the cry of one of the look-out men, of a ship coming down upon us,' made those who were holding on, under the shelter of the weather bulwark, spring from their covert to get a peep of the scudding vessel. We jumped upon a carronade, and, with the greatest difficulty, held on, directing our eyes upwards to the position where the stars of the mid-heaven would have been sought for on a calm and clear night! and indistinctly saw a dark object upon the ridge of the towering wave, which was approaching on the weather-quarter. The next minute, a large ship (the St. George, 98,) dashed close past our stern with a rapidity perfectly astounding; and, before the eye could be well turned to leeward, she was almost out of sight. The danger was imminent, and, but for the providential circumstance of the St. George's helmsman catching a momen- Proposals for the Graduation, or formation of the Road tary glimpse of the Centaur, under the foot Bed of a Division of the Long Island Railroad, exTO CIVIL ENGINEERS. of the former's foresail, our doom, and theirs tending from Jamaica to Jericho, (a distance of about 15 miles,) will be received, at the Office of the Co., WANTED, by a young man 21 years of age, a situa too it is probable, had been sealed. One No. 10 Front street, Brooklyn, from the 20th to the tion where he may acquire a thorough knowledge of spoke of the wheel to port saved us, and 25th inst, during which period, those disposed to con- Civil Engineering. The advertiser has some practical barely so, for the giant ninety-eight's prox- tract, will obtain the requisite information, at the Of-knowledge of the construction of the steam engine and imity was alarmingly close, in her despe-fice in Brooklyn, or at Mr. Van Colt's Tavern, in Ja-other machinery, and is acquainted with drawing; he can be well recommended by his present employers, rate flight before the furious tempest! If ALSO, will be received, on or before the 15th inst., for industry and integrity. Address I. G. A., at the any dependence can be placed upon our eye- Proposals for the construction of Car and Engine Hou-office of this paper. 4-2tp sight in broad daylight-when much of theses, to be erected in Jamaica, and in Bedford, or its viheightened peril of the storm seemed to cinity; the plans of which, with specifications, will be have lessened with the departure of the exhibited and explained, by Mr. T. C. Gibbs, at the night-and from intent contemplation, for some hours, of the successive seas as these came rushing and doubling onwards, as it were, to wipe away with one brush of their eurling and foaming, the glorious and inglorious works of man, which lay like a helpless log at their mercy-we would say, that if a horizontal line had been drawn from the apex of the loftiest wave to the ship, it would have intersected the mainmast about half way up from the deck; which, making allowance for unavoidable error, would give about fifty feet for the elevation of the Builder of a superior style of Passenger Cars for Railwave."-[Nautical Mag.]


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No. 264 Elizabeth street, near Bleecker street,
New York.

RAILROAD COMPANIES would do well to ex-
amine these Cars; a specimen of which may be seen on

go, in a paper descriptive of this bridge, read that part of the New York and Harlem Railroad now in


50 do do socket Shovels and Spades. Together with Pick Axes, Churn Drills, and Crow fined Iron-for sale by the manufacturing agents, WITHERELL, AMES & CO.

Bars (steel pointed), manufactured from Salisbury re

No. 2 Liberty street, New-York. BACKUS, AMES & CO.

No. 8 State street, Albany. N. B.--Also furnished to order, Shapes of every description, made from Salisbury refined Iron. 4-ytf


(100 North Moor st. N. 1.) NEW YORK, February 12th, 1836. The undersigned begs leave to inform the proprie tors of Railroads that they are prepared to furnish all kinds of Machinery for Railroads, Locomotive Engines of any size, Car Wheels, such as are now in successful operation on the Camden and Amboy Railroad, none of which have failed--Castings of all kinds, Wheels, Axles, and Boxes, furnished at shortest no tice. H. R. DUNHAM & CO. 4-ytf RAILROAD CAR WHEELS AND BOXES, AND OTHER RAILROAD CASTINGS.

Also, AXLES furnished and fitted to wheels com plete at the Jefferson Cotton and Wool Machine Factory and Foundry Paterson, N. J. All orders addressed to the subscribers at Paterson, or 60 Wall street, New-York will be promptly a t nded to. Also, CAR SPRINGS.

Also, Flange Tires, turned complete.





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We acknowledge the receipt of the Report of the Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail.

road Co., and that of the Commissioners of the Wabash and Erie Canal; and among several communications, that of A. C. respecting the Portsmouth and Roanoke Road. We are much indebted to him for the information so kindly given, and think that he may safely venture another without fear as to our "taking it in good part."

and any sort of intelligence in reference to Some of those disposed to bring abou. Canals, Railroads, and Mechanics in gene-such an arrangement, express regret that ral-in return, they shall have our hearty the bill should have been rejected at once, thanks, and as much information as we can and without some attempt at amendment. give in return.

LEAD ORE.-We have now before us, through the politeness of Joseph E. Bloom. field, Esq., one of the finest specimens of lead ore that we have ever seen. It was taken from a bed recently discovered in the town of Rossie, St. Lawrence Co., in this State, which is believed to be inexhaustible and of the richest kind. The specimen before us, it is believed, will yield 75 per cent, of first rate lead.

This discovery adds another to the many powerful arguments which might before be used in favor of the BLACK RIVER Canal.

We would call attention to the following advertisement:


Are invited for excavating and removing earth at Throgs Point. The whole quantity proposed to be removed at this time, amounting to between sixty and eighty thousand cubic yards, will be divided into five sections, for each of which a separate contract will be entered into. A temporary rail track, 4 or 5 rail cars, 12 wheel barrows, 18 casks, a plough, together with machinery and apparatus for loading two cars each with two cubic yards every 3 or 4 minutes, will be provided for each section.

Proposals are also invited for laying stone of a large size in a sea wall.

These proposals will be received until the 20th instant.

For particular information, apply to the Engineer's ₤20-2t

New-York, March 1, 1836.

The Ogdensburg Times says that the
lead mine at Rossie proves to be very rich Office, at Governor's Island.
in quality, and to all appearances inexhaust.
ible; and that, with the labor of four or five
men about three weeks, an amount of three
hundred tons of ore, or thereabouts, has been
uncovered, which will yield from 65 to 75
per cent. of pure lead. The vein stretches
across the hills about two miles from the
village of Rossie, being from one and a half
to three and a half feet wide on the face,
and appearances indicate that it extends to
a great depth,

NOTICE TO RAILROAD CONTRACTORS. Proposals for the Graduation, or formation of the Road Bed of a Drvision of the Long Island Railroad, extending from Jamaica to Jericho, (a distance of about 15 miles,) will be received, at the Office of the Co., No. 10 Front street, Brooklyn, from the 20th to the 25th inst., during which period, those disposed to con tract, will obtain the requisite information, at the Office in Brooklyn, or at Mr. Van Cult's Tavern, in Ja maica.

ALSO, will be received, on or before the 15th inst Our New-Jersey friends, notwithstanding their dread of monopolies, and in par-ses, to be erected in Jamaica, and in Bedford, or its vi Proposals for the construction of Car and Engine Hou ticular of the Camden and Amboy Railroad cinity; the plans of which, with specifications, will be We would take this opportunity to say to and Delaware and Raritan Canal, have de-exhibited and explained, by Mr. T. C. Gibbs, at the our friend that we will be angry at no one, termined, by their representatives in State office in Brooklyn. having the hardihood, the audacity, to send Legislature assembled, not to "abate the us information; on the contrary, "the nuisance;" in other words, the "proposi. smallest favors" in that way are thankfully tion" of the united Companies to sell out to received: Reports, proceedings, charters, the State, has been rejected.

By order of the Board of Directors.
Engineer of the Company.
Resident Engineers


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Various plans have been adopted in the United States for the construction of Railtracks, each of which has its respective advantages and disadvantages, and so obvious is it that the advantage which one possesses over the other, is gained by the 'sacrifice of some principle which it is desirable to maintain, that it is difficult, if not impossible, to decide which is in the whole superlatively good.

Some Engineers contend for the superiority of tracks made entirely of stone and iron, and rest their opinions on the important fact of using no perishable materials. Others believe that tracks made wholly of wood and iron are generally the best, on account of their lesser first cost, and wear of the machinery which plies upon them.

The objections to the former plans are, their unyielding nature, and their liability to short settles. To the latter, their want of stiffness, and the perishable nature of their component parts.

possess some of these desiderata in great || inches deep. G, G, &c., iron plates 10
perfection; by one of the following descrip- inches square, by an inch deep, prevent-
tion, it is believed they all may be obtained
at a moderate expense.

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ing the screw bolts from approaching each other at their bases, and affording a smooth bearing for the locust rests. H, H, &c., iron caps 2 inches wide by an inch thick, confining the oak strips in their right position on the string, preventing them from splitting, and preventing the screw bolts from separating at their tops. I, I, &c., plates on which the plate rails rest at their joinings, provided with a shoulder equal in height to the thickness. of the iron rail, which confines them in their proper position at their joining, and hooks their joints.

It is proposed to consolidate the stone blocks with an engine fixed on a carriage, so arranged as to raise two weights at once, and provided with an anchor fixed in advance, to which a cord is to be attached, from a drum on the engine, by means of which the carriage can easily be moved forwards a further description of the engine is deferred for the present. It is believed that great advantage will result from this mode of consolidating the blocks, and that it is the only mode by which they can be got of uniform solidity. What slight dressing is necessary for the reception of the plates may be done after they are down, and it will be perceived that a variation in their height will only involve the necessity of varying the length of the screws, and the thickness of the locust rests. That uniformity in the size, and shape of the blocks which is common, is rendered unimtrack well laid in this manner, on dry solid portant by this mode of construction. A ground, can settle but little, if it settles at all, and in case of settles can be restored with facility to its proper position by loose

which the screw bolts have on the stone,
effectually prevents them from drawing out,
when necessary. In case heavy iron rails
yet they can be removed with great ease
are used, the white oak strips are unneces-
if the road be much curved, it may

timber under the locust rests. The bite

In the construction of Rail-tracks, it is desirable-First, That their bearings should be of uniform solidity; second, That the rails Diagram No. 1 represents a longitudinal, which rest upon them should have their and diagram No. 2, a transverse section of joints perfectly broken, so that the weight the rail-track. A, A, &c. are stone blocks of each car passing over them, may at all bedded in sand or gravel, three feet apar times be distributed on at least three sup- from centre to centre lengthwise of the ports; third, That the foundations should track, and every fifth one extending enbe of unperishable materials, and no part of tirely across the track. Their tops coincidening the screws, and inserting a piece of them above the surface of the ground, so with the surface of the ground. After they that they may be stable, and not interfere have been brought to a bearing with a with the formation of a horse-path, where common maul, they are to be consolidated one is necessary; fourth, That there should by raising a given weight a given height, be in them some spring, but not enough to and letting it fall a given number of times make a perceptible increase of motive power on each block; the degree of consolidation necessary; fifth, That any wood which is to depend on the texture of stone. B, B used in their construction should be ele- &c., locust rests, 1 foot 9 inches long, by 6 vated above the surface of the ground, its inches wide, by 3 or 4 inches deep, the durability being decreased one-half by depth to regulate the level of the upper coming in contact with it; sixth, That the surface of the rails. C, C, &c., 6 by 6 verticle pressure of the cars should be nearly inch southern yellow pine, strong pieces. Diagram No. 3 represents a double over the centres of the bearings and rails, D, D, &c., 2 by 3 inch seasoned white oak flanged car-wheel; a is the cylindrical part so as to prevent a disposition to tilt; strips. E, E, &c., iron plate rails, spiked of the wheel, b the cone, and c and d the seventh, That the rails should be occasion- with 5 inch spikes to the timber below flanges. ally tied, so as to counteract the disposi- them. F, F, &c., inch screw bolts, bent at is to decrease the liability of cars to run off The object of the double flange tion to spread; eighth, That they should their lower ends and inserted in oblique the track. Each of the flanges we will be so constructed as to offer the greatest holes drilled for their reception in the stone suppose of the usual depth. Now suppose possible facilities for adjustment. Many of blocks, the holes nearest the centre of the an obstruction on the rail which would the tracks which have ea constructed track to be 6, and those farthest from it 4 raise the wheel high enough to clear the

be economical to use a heavy iron rail for

the exterior, and a plate rail with oak strips, for the interior rail of the curve. Improved Car-wheel.


first flange, that flange would fall on the| top of the rail, and the wheel for a moment would roll on it, but with such an increased diameter as would restore it in half a revolution to its proper position. The effect of this is so obvious and simple, that a further description is deemed unnecessary. Respectfully,


In our last we referred to the New-Castle

Cotton, Tobacco, and Paper Rollers and ware and Raritan Canal. The subject is Screws, now before the Legislature.

Jack Screws, Screw and Lever Presses, Heavy Wrought Iron Work, of all kinds, connected with Factories, Railroads, Steamboats, &c.,

Railroad Work, such as Wheels from thirty inches to five feet diameter, with cast Naves and Feltoes, and wrought Spokes and Rims, with any required depth of Flange and width of Tread,

Cast Wheels, (chilled,) of any pattern and size, with Axles fitted, Switches, Frogs, &c., ready to insert,


THE PORT-DEPOSITE RAILROAD COMPANY.-This great and important work, in the consummation of which our city is so deeply interested, is now undergoing an investigation before a Committee of the House of Delegates, with the view of determining whether some other route than the one selected by Mr. Latrobe could not have been occupied with equal advantage.

Brass and Iron Castings, such as Cylinders, Pipes, Fly Wheels, and Shafts, Bed We regret that the House should have Plates, Kettles, Retorts, &c. &c. deemed the ceremony of such an examinaShipments made, and Insurances effect-tion necessary or expedient, because it

Manufacturing Company. We now give
the names of the gentlemen who have the
direction and management, and the Agent's||ed, (if desired,) without charge of commis-



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Charles I. DuPont, of Brandywyne.
William D. Lewis, of Philadelphia.

James Cowper, jr., Secretary and Treasurer.
E. A. G. Young, Superintendent.
John D. Bird, Assistant Superintendent.
Mr. Young, who has charge of the whole
establishment, is, we understand, an expe-
rienced and successful builder of Locomo-
tive Engines, and an able and skilful me-
chanic. From his talent and character there
can be no doubt, we should think, as to the
quality of the work which he shall send
forth from the Company's shop.




The subscriber has the pleasure to announce that he is now ready to receive and execute in the shortest and best manner, and at the most reasonable rates, all orders con nected with the business of the establishment. Particular attention will be paid to the manufacture of LoCOMOTIVE ENGINES, which will be warranted equal in every respect, to any others, whether imported or

made in this country.

The works consist of Machine shops, upon a large scale, and extensive Foundries for furnishing Castings of every description both in Iron and Brass. They are situated in the south-western section of the town of New-Castle, directly upon the New-Castle| and Frenchtown Rail Road, which forms a part of the great thoroughfare from North to South, and upon the bold waters of the

Delaware River. This last circumstance gives great advantages over most similar establishments. All manufactured articles may be shipped from this port to any section of the country, even during the severities of an ordinary winter season. Its position the Rail Road, also, renders it easy of access, from every quarter, to those who may wish to visit the Factories. It is the determination of the subscriber to furnish no article but of the very best materials and workmanship.

Besides the Locomotive Engines, the subscriber will manufacture:

High and Low Pressure Steam Boat and Stationary Engines,

Wrought Iron and Copper Boilers, of all descriptions,

Do. Do. Do. Water Tanks. Sugar Mills, Rollers, &e.


New-Castle, Del., March 1, 1836.

NEW-JERSEY RAILROAD.--Notwithstanding the violent snow storm on Wednes

would seem to us, that the selection of a route must rest, entirely and exclusively, with the Company, independent of any control, except the expressed restrictions of its charter, or the implied prohibitions of law. The credit due to the charters granted by the State, and which it is the interest of

day, the 17th inst., the locomotive "New-every man to maintain, cannot be strength-
ark," performed her regular trips through in ened and may be seriously impaired abroad,
gallant style. Buy out the Monopoly, or by such Legislative inquiries.
not, the admirable location, and great advan- As the Legislature, however, have com-
tages to be derived from this road through menced, we hope they will bring the matter
to Philadelphia, ought to be completed. to an early decision, and leave the corpora-
The "People" ask it! Four passenger tion to enjoy its franchises for its own be-
cars arrived in Rahway, on Saturday, with nefit and for the good, not only of our
over over one hundred passengers. The growing city, but of the Nation. Such is
whereabout of the termination of the Rail-our view of the true end and influence of
road presented quite a lively scene.-
.-[Rah-this Railroad, as a link in the great chain of
way Advocate.]
communication between the North and


CINCINNATI AND CHARLESTOWN RAILROAD.-Great rejoicings took place in Cincinnati and the adjoining town when intelligence of the final passage of the Railroad bill reached them.

We learn from a gentleman who arrived in Newark from Trenton yesterday afternoon, that the new locomotive of the N. J. Railroad Co., called the "New-Jersey," traversed the road finely, at the rate of a mile in three or four minutes, notwithstanding the deep snow. A simple machine, invented by L. A. Sykes, Esq., Engineer of this road, placed in advance of the front wheels of the locomotive, operates with complete success as a scraper in removing snow, six THE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT BILL, or eight inches in depth, with but little inter-which was introduced by Mr. Guthrie, and ruption. Passengers who left Trenton in has passed the Senate, provides for a reor the Camden and Amboy Railroad yesterday, ganization of the Board of Internal Improvean hour in advance of the U. S. Mail line, ment, by which the services of disinterested did not arrive here till this evening.-[New- and practical men will be secured, and ark Daily Adv., Saturday, Feb. 29th.] makes the following appropriations :For the improvement of the Ken

In addition to the above, we are authorized to state, that not a single trip has been lost on the above road during the severe part of the winter; and we would further add, that the whole of the work has been done with a single locomotive engine.

This circumstance speaks much for the ingenuity, enterprise, and perseverance of the agents upon the Road, and also does credit to the maker of the engine, Mr. Baldwin, of Philadelphia.



Much interest is excited throughout the
State by the proposed purchase of the
Camden and Amboy Railroad and Dela-


tucky river to the Three
Forks, by locks and dams,
For the improvement of the navi-
gation of Sandy river, and the
West Fork thereof,
For the improvement of the Cum-

berland river from Laurel
Creek to the Tennessee line,
For the construction of locks

and dams in Green and Barren
rivers, below Bowling Green,
For the improvement of the navi-
gation of the Three Forks of

For slack water navigation on
Licking river,
For the improvement of the navi-
gation of Bayou du Chien,
$1,500-for the improvement
of the navigation of Panther
Creek, $2,500-but one half
of said money may, under the
direction of the Board of In







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