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culture was formed in the Convention, and under their protection the amelioration of the Merino flocks happily progressed. From The Emigrant Merino.-There does not this originated the celebrated Rambouilet appear to be among those who write and flock. From this, the writer says a numconverse on the Saxony and Merino sheep, ber of rams and ewes are annually sold, afa distinct and definite understanding of the ter the finest are picked out to keep up the subject. By most people they are regard- original stock. And notwithstanding the ed as distinct races of sheep; and desig-annual sales from the national flocks, the nated by many imaginary distinctions. price of rams is daily increasing."

Col. Humphrey, Gen. Derby, Consul Jarvis and others, the country was supplied with Merino sheep.

Manufactories were now established, and the production of fine wool promised to be a lucrative business. But these prospects

were soon dissipated, and upset, by the ver satility of our own government. And the choice Merino buck fell from the exalted sale of $1,400 to the degraded estimate of 2 or 3 dollars. In the year 1813 I paid $150 for a Paulaur buck, and $100 each for six ewes. In the year 1827 I bought the remnants of some choice Escurial flocks, which had formerly been purchased at $200 each, for $2.50 each. And such was the depressed price of wool, that I purchased in the year 1826, cash payment at auction, a pack. age of full blood Merino wool, at 25 cents per lb., and after keeping it two months, 1 sold it on a credit of 90 days, for 24 cents per lb.

To whatever region the Spanish Merino So particular have the governments of has emigrated, he is to be identified with Saxony and France been, to preserve these the original, like the greyhound. Thence flocks from degenerating, and to effect evearises the inquiry, where has he been pre-ry possible improvement, that they have at served in the greatest purity? held in the different times sent experienced shepherds highest estimation and cultivated with the into Spain, to select from their choice flocks most care? in Saxony, France or America! superior individual rams, for which, in some And when we talk about old fashioned Meri-instances, they have paid enormous prices, no sheep, it must at the same time be un- to preserve the necessary change without derstood, that one variety of the parent breeding in and in. stock is four times as valuable as others, In such high consideration was this suband that this necessarily influences the ject held by the successive administrations emigrant, and determines his value. Then of the French government, that a commis- This extreme vascillation of public senticomes the consideration of individual pe-sion was issued to the institute, to appoint a ment, prostrated the whole interest. Many culiarity and excellence, which forms the committee to prepare a treatise on sheep; individuals were involved in total ruin; and basis of improvement, and the preservation which was executed, and distributed gra-small proprietors abandoned the concern. of his purity. tu.tously, with that characteristic liberality A few, relying on the sufficiency of their of the great nation, which has done so much in science, and in arousing the dormant energies of the buman mind, to a positive exaltation of character.

The first emigration of the Spanish merino with which we have any acquaintance, was to Saxony; whose history has been partially narrated in the first number.

The second was to France, in both instances under circumstances of sovereign or state patronage. This second I shall furnish principally from a transcript of the writings of others.

Mr. Gilbert, a member of the French national institute, in describing the Ramboulet flock, says, "but which certainly does not yield in any circumstance to the most beautiful in point of size, form and strength; "When France became a manufacturing, or in fineness, length, softness, strength, as well as an agricultural nation, it was and abundance of fleece. The manufacperceived how great an injury she sustain-turers and dealers in wool, who came in ed by being dependent on foreigners for all numbers, to Rambouilet this year (1796) to the fine wool which she employed, and it purchase, unanimously agreed to this fact, was well understood how great would be at the very time that they were combining the advantages which she would derive to keep down the price." He further states, from the production of it within herself. that the average weight of the fleeces of the This subject occupied the serious at- bucks, when washed and scoured, extention of Colbert, whom nothing escaped clusive of tags and belly wool, was six lbs. which might tend to the advantage and In this country, for the market, we do not greatness of his country-he projected a scour; only wash, and roll up the whole change in the system which prevailed. fleece. The amount of fleece is very much Succeeding ministers attempted without ef-dependent on feed. He says, "the comfeet to put his designs in execution. parison I have made with the most scrupu"It was not until the year 1766, that lous attention between this wool, and the Daniel Charles de Trudaine, an able minis-highest priced, of that drawn from Spain, ter, employed the surest means of succeed-authorizes me to declare that of Rambouilet ing, and thus freeing the kingdom from the superior." tribute which it paid to procure fine wool. After his death, his place was supplied by his son, who followed the plan laid down by him. Daniel Charles de Trudaine had


own pecuniary resources, on the intrinsic worth of the animal, the estimate of the whole civilized world, for centuries, of its value, only awaited a more protracted exit. From all this, it is plain that there was almost an entire abandonment of the Merino in this country.

The result of scientific investigation is, that a conclusion cannot be come at with out the whole sheet of facts, embracing the subject in all its connexions.

The establishment of facts by experiments involves almost infinite nicety; requiring the whole amount of human discrimination

unshackled by subsisting theories, preconceived notions, and pride of popularity. An opinion is a mere nullity, separated from the considerations necessary for its formation. And the experience of every day exhibits the imperfection and fallacy of experiments and opinions. Not only the preceding narrative, but the most scrupulous investigation, will concur in the establishment of the subsequent statement.

nished the best material for the fabrication The Spanish Merino has hitherto furof fine woollen clothing; and as a natural consequence and matter of fact, has rendered all Europe tributary to her produc-.


The Electoral flock of Saxony, and the Rambouilet flock of France, are of the same rank and degree-selected improved MeriThis sheep being transported to Saxony How is it then, when Saxony wool addressed himself, not to cultivators of takes the precedence of Spanish wool in and France, and there received as an acquiland, whom narrow views and prejudices the market, that Rambouilet does not come sition, its peculiar character duly appre are too apt to deter from adopting whatever in competition with Saxony? Spain and ciated, nursed with care, preserved in its puthey have not seen practised by their fore- Saxony are pre-eminently fine wool grow- rity, proved in its excellence-must stand fathers, but to Daubenton, an able na ural-ing regions; but neither of them extensive- pre-eminent.

jects of disease; therefore in a domesticated state, requiring the protecting and fostering care of man. And in following the destinies of their itinerant master, are neccssa

ist, who instantly perceived the possibility ly manufacturing; they grow for exporta-mal, the prey of wolves and dogs, and subSheep are a defenceless and delicate ani. of what was proposed, and proved it by sat- tion. France, on the other hand, grows isfactory experiments." prime wool, which is consumed by her own It having been ascertained by a variety unrivalled machinery. of experiments patronized by the adminis In the third instance, he crossed the Attration, and conducted by enlightened agri-lantic for the new world, and landed on our culturists, that the Merino sheep might be shore. Here he was greeted with an enthu- rily subjects of acclimation. acclimated in France without any change in siasm bordering on distraction, and which The Spanish Merinos, with their gradatheir wool; application was made by Lewis can now hardly be realized. In the year tions, have passed this ordeal in our coun sixteenth to the King of Spain for per- 1802, the Hon. Robert R. Livingston of this try. The Saxony Merino have not in point mission to export from thence a number of State, with a discriminating patriotism me- of time been allowed the same courtesy and Merinos. This was not only granted, but orders were given by the Spanish monarch that they should be selected from the finest flocks in Spain. In the year 1786 four bundred rams and ewes arrived in France under the care of Spanish shepherds. *We beg leave here to state, that the FIRST Spanish tunately for France, the improvement in sheep were sent to this country in 1801, by M. Deles-phrase, "old fashioned Merino?" I am as sheep, begun under Lewis the sixteenth, sert, of Paris, one only of which, Don Pedro, figured fond of antiquity as any one else, but I am was continued through the revolution, in in the first volume of the Cultivator, page 183, lived to reach land. Don Pedro was kept some time in Ulster unwilling to indulge this taste, at the which almost every other useful institution was involved in ruin. A committee of agri-laty, and afterwards by Mr. Dupont, in the State of sacrifice of a distinctive perception of things.


riting national reminiscence and gratitude,
sent from Spain two couple of select Span.
sh Merino sheep, the first ever brought to
his country. Subsequently by himself,




Who then, permit me to ask, who, in de fiance of the light of science, and the expe rience of the world for a century, will be disposed to retrograde? Now what shall we do with this chimney corner and barn yard


Wool, the coat of the sheep, will be the subject of the next No.


to the time of their calving, that it is thought pafter it is planted again in the soil. And
improper to milk them any longer.
hence the absurdity of the practice, which
Take an ounce of powdered alum; boil|| has been recommended by some writers, of
cutting off most of the small fibrous roots,
because they cannot be easily replaced in
their natural position in the soil.

P. S.-Permit me to commend the letter of Leonard Jarvis, Esq., in the last Culti-it in two quarts of milk till it turns into vator, from the New-York Farmer, written whey; then take a large handful of sage, with much ability and great fairness. It is and boil it in the whey till you reduce it to from such sources that we are to take in-one quart; rub her udder with a liitle of it, formation. For scientific examination and and give her the rest by way of drink; investigation cannot be profitably prose-milk her clean before you give it to her; cuted in an obstinate and controversial and as you see need requires it, repeat it. Draw a little milk from her every second or third day, lest her udder be overcharged." The same writer asserts, that "those cows which give the greatest quantity of milk are most profitable for suckling calves, for rich milk is not so proper food for calves as milk which is less valuable for dairy purposes. Milk which contains a large proportion of cream is apt to clog the stomachs of calves; obstructions put a stop to their thriving, and sometimes prove fatal. the milk which first comes from the cow, For this reason, calves should be fed with which is not so rich as that which is last

"But man we find the only creature
Who, led by folly, combats nature;
Who, when she loudly cries, forbear-
With obstinacy fixes there."

From the New-England Farmer.



Care and skill are as indispensable as industry to success in the pursuits of the hus. bandman; and diligence will be of little use, if not directed by knowledge and good sense. An apparently trivial mistake, or want of attention to little but indispensable things, may rob labor of a great part of its efficacy, and seem to show that there is some mistake in the wise saying that "the hand of the diligent maketh rich." In fact, it is vain to work hard unless we work it right. This is the reason that the stock of some hard working farmers always appear in poor condition, notwithstanding they may be liberally supplied with fodder of the best quality.




We have had the testimony of a very judicious practical cultivator to confirm the assertions in the paragraph last above quoted, who informs us that he has ascertained by actual and repeated experiment, that those cows which give the poorest milk for the dairy are the best for suckling calves.

"No, calf, lamb, or other animal," says Mr. Leslie," should ever be caught by the tail, as it strains and inflames the loins and kidneys.'

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From the Genesee Farmer.

roots should never be suffered to become 2. In order to prevent evaporation, the dry, but as soon as removed from the ground, they should be enveloped in some damp substance; wetted straw serves well for a to be conveyed to a distance, and there is a temporary protection. But when intended probability of their being several days out of the ground, damp moss should be em. ployed in packing about the roots, as straw is liable to ferment, if kept in a wet state. Previously to packing them in the moss, it is an excellent practice to immerse the roots in soft mud or a mixture of the soil and which dust or dry sand is sprinkled copi water, so as to coat their surfaces, after ously over them to complete the coating.

The holes for receiving the trees should be dug large-not less than five or six feet in diameter, at the very least, and eighteen inches deep. The hard and sterile subsoil should be thrown out, and its place suppliod with rich mould or muck. Where the holes are dug in ground in grass, the turf which is removed from the surface may be inverted in the bottoms. If manure is placed in then, it should be well rotted, and should never be allowed to come in contact with the roots, but should be placed in the bottom, at the surface, and in the more be set a little deeper than it originally stood, remote parts. The tree should in general but not more than two inches; the roots should be spread out horizontally in all directions, so as firmly to brace the trees when they become large; moderately moist and finely pulverized earth should then be urb the position of the fibres,until the whole gently shaken in about them,so as not to disis filled.

Cattle must not only be well fed, but must have their food in due season; and likewise good water at command, and dry lodg- best for rearing; and the reason assigned The first calf of a heifer is said to be the Nothing," says an old English writer, "in winter, beats out cows and oxen, is, that the dam is not reduced by milking or makes them pitch [fall away] more, than her while she is with calf. their being WET ON THEIR BACK AND LOINS; for cattle carrying their hides wet, day af ter day, is as bad to them as it would be to us to wear wet clothes. The same injury commonly considered as one of the most TRANSPLANTING FRUIT TREES.-This is arises to poor straw fed cattle, working in difficult operations in the culture of fruit wet weather; one day's work in such case Care should be taken that all the injuring them more than three of equal rarely attended with any difficulty or risk. ed, so as not to leave the smallest cavities; trees; but it properly performed is very interstices among the roots are perfectly filllabor in dry weather." "Cattle well summered," says Mr. Lisle, It is a very common opinion that a trans- and throwing in the earth in large quanti"are half wintered; that is to say, cattle planted tree must of necessity continue near-ties should for this reason be especially going to their winter's quarters in high con-after the operation, or at best make but com-gently packed on every side of all the roots, ly stationary in its growth for a year or two avoided. In order that the soil may be dition, will preserve a good plight throughout the winter; whereas such as have been paratively little progress. A tree, however, it is very useful, when the soil is inclining fed upon short commons during the sumproperly transplanted, will experience very to dryness, to pour in a quantity of water mer, and go to hay in a weak condition, little check in its growth, and often appa- as soon as the roots are covered, and then are liable to become worse or even to drop rently none. Hence, the very great impor- the remainder of the earth shovelled in, off in the winter, particularly if it be unfa tance of the operation being well under- which latter prevents the surface from bevorable. Very young cattle and old cows stood. Much has been written in explana- coming hard by baking. After the operaare the most dangerous stock under thesetion of the theory of successful transplant- tion is finished, a stake should be set in the circumstances." Mr. Lawrence, in coming; but we merely intended here to give ground leaning towards the tree, to which menting on this paragraph, says, "to the a brief description of the practice which ex-it should be tied by a band of matting or of above well grounded position may be ad-perience has proved to be uniformly attended straw, to brace it firmly in an upright posided: Cattle well wintered are half sum-with success, and the most obvious princi-tion. mered; they are able to encounter either ples on which it is founded. extreme of rank and surfeiting, or low sum. mer keeping with greater safety than weak half-starved cattle."

Placing the tree leaning a little towards There are two great points to be observed the south or southwest, or with the most in removing trees from the soil; first, to projecting branches in that direction, will preserve the spongioles uninjured; and se- prevent the trunk being injured by the accondly, to prevent evaporation, by which tion of the rays of the sun in hot summer the tree becomes dry, and if carried to ex-afternoons, an evil which is sometimes so serious as to cause the death of the tree.

It is very proper, and indeed almost indispensable, that every farmer should keep an account of the time when his cows are dri-cess, beyond recovery. ven to the male. Mr. Lawrence says "The period of gestation with the cow having a 1. Preservation of the Spongioles.-These Autumn is ordinarily the best time for rebull calf is, according to my own account, finest fibrous or branching thread-like roots, than in the hurrying season of spring-beare the minute spongy extremities of the moving trees; more time is then afforded two hundred and eighty-seven days, or forty-through which, as mouths, the tree receives sides which the earth becomes more settled one weeks, with the variation of a few fluids and other nourishment from the soil, about the roots, and new spongioles are days, either way; a cow calf comes in about and not through the surface and sides of produced in place of those which may have a week's less time." Mr. Lisle says, that athe roots, as is sometimes supposed. As been destroyed, especially if the operation "cow should be dried within two months these spongioles are exceedingly delicate in is not performed till late in autumn. Betof her calving, as to milk longer most ne- their organization, a very slight degree of ter trees also may be obtained in autumn cessarily impoverishes both cow and calf to violence injures or destroys them. The than in spring after nurseries have been a greater amount than the value of the milk." more carefully, therefore, trees are removed culled. But if tender kinds be transplanted Monk's Agricultural Dictionary, an Eng-from the soil, and the more entire the fibrous in the fall, and particularly if they be relish work of reputation, gives the following roots, the greater will be the number of un- moved to a colder section of the country, recipe for drying cows, which it is intended injured spongioles remaining, and better they will, from their mutilated state, be to fatten, or which have approached so nigh will the tree be supplied with neurnishment more liable to injury from frost. To those,

therefore, who live remote, and are unable || Sd. to 2s. per yard; and in metal, from 28.

6d. to 3s. 6d. per yard, according to the pat-
tern.-[Mr. Laxton; Archit. Mag.]



The Troy Iron an Nail Factory keeps constantly for sale a very extensive a-sortment of Wrought Spikes and Nails, from 3 to 10 inches, manufactured by the sub EMANCIPATED SLAVES.-A few days since, scriber's Patent Machinery, which after five years suc, an aged gentleman from Pawhattan county,cessful operation, and now almost universal use in the United States, (as well as England, where the subscriber Va., arrived at Rochester, accompanied by obtained a patent,) are found superior to any ever offered ten negroes, from six to forty years of age, in market, formerly his slaves, whom he had volunta-ing countersink heads suitable to the holes in iron rails.

to obtain such trees for early planting in
the spring, or those who live in the colder
regions of the country, we would recom.
mend to procure their trees in autumn, and
bury the roots and a part of the stem and
branches in a trench dug for the purpose,
the roots being packed closely together, and
the branches resting in an inclined position
upon the earth; which operation is techni-rily discharged from servitude, and was
cally termed by nurserymen, laying in by conveying to a farm he had purchased for
the heel. In this way they may be effectu- them in the neighborhood of Buffalo, on
ally protected from injury from the frosts of which he intended to settle them.


Nothing is more common than to loose trees by transplanting; but there is no necessity for such a failure; if trees are transplanted with proper care, there will be an almost absolute certainty of their living. If, when they are taken from the earth, care is taken to remove the roots entire-to keep them fresh-and in replacing them in the soil, to pack finely pulverized earth well about the roots, preserving them in their natural position, there can be little danger of success.

But it is not only necessary the trees should live, but they should thrive also; and for this object, it is indispensably requisite that they should have a large deep bed of loose soil for the roots to penetrate. If the ground is of a hard or heavy nature, the holes must be made large and deep, and filed with the proper materials, for if the roots are confined in small holes dug in such ground, they will succeed little better than if planted in a small box of earth.



both cases.

Railroad Companies may he supplied with Spikes hav. to any amount and on sort notice. Almost all the Railwith Spikes made at the above named factory-for which purpose they are found invaluable, as their adhesion is more than double any common spikes made by the bam All orders directed to the Agent, Troy, N. Y., will be punctually attended to. HENRY BURDEN, Agent.

roads now in progress in the United States are fastened


Troy, N. Y., July, 1931,

Spikes are kept for sale, at factory prices, by I. & J. Townsend, Albany, and the principal Iron Merchants in Albany and Troy; J. I. Brower, 222 Water street, NewYork; A. M. Jones, Philadelphia; T, Janviers, Balti

more; Degrand & Smith, Boston.

P, S. Railroad Companies would do well to forward their orders as early as practicable, as the subscriber is desirous of extending the manufacturing so as to keep pace


RAILWAY IRON. 95 tons of 1 inch by & incl.,





rought Iron Rims of 30, 33, and 36 inches diame for Wheels of Railway Cars, and of 60 inches di: ameter for Locomotive Wheels. Axles of 24. 24, 25, 4, 31, 34 and 34 inches in diameter, for Railway Cars and Locomotives, of patent iron. The above will be sold free of duty, to State Govern ments and Incorporated Governments, and the drawback taken in part payment. A. & G. RALSTON, 9 South Front street, Philadelphia. Models and samples of all the different kinds of Rails, Chairs, Pins, Wedges, Spikes, and Splici g Plates, in use both in this country and Great Britain, will be exhibited to 4-07 1meowr those disposed to examine them,

REPORTS OF THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY; Condensed so as to include, together with other matter added thereto, all that is known at the present day of the lotation and the application of Motive Power and Machinery thereupon, accompanied with explanatory drawings. The whole being intended to serve as a Manual of the Railroad System, for the use of Civil Engineers, to which is prefixed a history of with the daily increasing demand for his Spikes. the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. The work, whose repo.ts it is thus intended to republish, was the first of any extent commenced in this country for the purposes of general transportation; FLAT BARS in lengths and its early history is but a series of experiments, do. 1 do. of 14 to 15 feet, counter do. I do. do. sunk holes, ends cut at costly to the Company which had it in charge, but do. 2 do. do. an angle of 45 degrees, furnishing results of the greatest value and importance to others. The character of the country through 800 do. 2 do. I do. with splicing plates and which the road passed, involved every species of ex- soon expected. nails to suit, cavation; and in the construction of the Railway, al- 250 do. of Edge Rails of 36 lbs. per yard, with the most every mode was successively tried for the pur-requisite chairs, keys and pins. pose of ascertaining the best. While portions of the road were straight, others were of the smallest ad-ter missable curvature, and the locomotive power employed had to be such, therefore, as was suitable to This led to a series of experiments in this department of the Railroad System, which has Extract from a young Baltimorean visit. resulted in the production of Engines preferable to ing England on business connected with any in use elsewhere-equal in speed to the best imported, and far superior in efficient power. From the New-Orleans and Nashville Railroad. all these circumstances, the reports of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from its commencement to the London, Dec. 7, 1835. DEAR SIR,-The Railroad fever is raging present day, have been sought for by Civil Engineers for the sake of the knowledge which they contain, to a greater extent here than with us; the and the frequent demand for them has suggested to the papers are all teeming with projects to con- subscriber their republication, with such additional matnect places where only a few hours can be ter as shall constitute a Manual of the Railroad Sysin the present state of knowledge on the subject. saved, which strongly tends to convince us The reports are now difficult to be procured, and of the importance of a speedy connexion, but few complete sets are known to be in existence. by means of steam power, between Boston While the proposed republication will therefore be and New-Orleans, which would create a of use to the profession of Civil Engineering, it will saving of almost weeks. It is almost in-be the means also of preserving the records of a work credible the extent to which steam is used whose importance and value are now universally aphere; in Manchester alone there are twelve preciated. The work will be divided into five parts. I. History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. hundred engines in active operation, and one is at a loss to determine how England ever could have sustained herself without that which she is now so completely dependent upon. The greater portion of our time has been spent among the Iron manufactures in South Wales, some of which are conducted on a most stupendous scale; there is one establishment that employs five thousand men, and consumes weekly five thousand tons of coal; and from what I have seen of the whole country, I think the march of improvement is equally as progressive as

Our own.

II. The Deation of Railroads, including the princi-
ples of reconnoissances, general instrumen-
tal surveys, and location for construction.
III. The construction of Railroads, including the ex-
cavation and masonry and the construction of
the Railway on the graduated surface, turn-
outs, weighing, &c.

IV. The motive power including engines, cars,
wagons, &c.

V. Forms of contracts for every species of work
which has to be performed in the construction
of a Railroad.

As it is not practicable to ascertain what sized
volume or volumes the contemplated work will make,
the price cannot be fixed, but Railroad Companies and
individuals who may subscribe for it, may rest assur
ed, that it will be made as reasonable as the nature of
Orders directed to

Jan., 1836.

F. LUCAS, Jr. Publisher,
No. 133 Market street, Baltimore.

THE NEWCASTLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY, incorporated by the State of Delaware, with a capital of 200,000 dollars, are prepared to execute in the first style and on liberal terms, at their extensive Finishing Shops and Foundries for Brass and Iron, situated in the town of Newcastle, Delaware, all orders for LOCOMOTIVE and other Steam En gines, and for CASTINGS of every description in Brass or Iron. RAILROAD WORK of all kinds finished in the best manner, and at the shortest no

A NEW PAPER-HANGING, of a splendid de-it will permit scription, has just been manufactured by Mr. De la Rue, the embossed-card manufacturer, who has been for many years at a considerable expense in bringing it to perfeetion. The pattern is embossed; in metals it is remarkably rich, particularly so with a flock ground. I was favored with a view of a room that has been recently hung with this new paper, at the manufactory in Bunhill-fields, and was very much struck with it. The pattern was embossed in gold, with a dark green flock ground, and the effect produced was magnificent. Another pattern is in imitation of a very richly embroidered A specimen of this paper has been submitted to his Majesty, who was very much pleased with its splendid appearance. The price varies from 1s.

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Builder of a superior style of Passenger Cars for Rail-


No. 264 Elizabeth street, near Bleecker street,
New York.

RAILROAD COMPANIES would do well to ex amine these Cars; a specimen of which may be REPLICA that part of the New York and Harlem Railroad on operation.








Editorial Notices; Illinois and Michigan Canal;
Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad........... 113
Report of the Committee on Railroads, on the bill
from the Asssembly, entitled "An Act to expe-
dite the construction of a Railroad from New-
York to Lake Erie," &c...
Statement of the Receipts and Disbursements of
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company.... 118
Railroad and Canal Intelligence; Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad........


Report on the Use of the Hot Air Blast in Iron
Furnaces and Foundries.....


forwarded No. 6 cf Vol. 4, in compliance || PORTSMOUTH AND ROANOKE RAILROAD.
with our request, will please accept our
thanks for their kind attention. We have
received as many as we require to com-
plete the few sets on hand..

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as much pleased to publish the following
notice "by authority," as we were, when
we first saw it, as a matter of information

121 to our readers.

Mineral Coal; Sleeper's Patent Corn Mill....... 122
Inclined Water Wheel; Inclined Wheel, for

Small Streams....

Agriculture, &c..

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The following letter contains a correct account of the advancement and progress of the Porthmouth and Roanoke Railroad.

Richmond, Va., Feb., 1836.

Dear Sir, I was informed by a friend recently from New-York, that you wished to have some account of the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad-and that you expressed some surprise at not having heard of it since the Report of the Engineer in 1833. It is true the Company have made but little NOTICE is hereby given to all persons who may noise. 123 They weighed the difficulties, exfeel disposed to take Contracts on the Illinois and ained the way, and, like the adorable Michigan Canal, that the Board of Commissioners have determined to commence that work as early in princess, Parizade, turning a deaf ear to disthe spring as circumstances will permit. The En-couraging voices, have marched silently and gineers will commence the'r surveys about the 10th courageously up to their object. of March, and will have several Sections ready for contract by the first of May It is therefore expected that definite proposals will be received from that date to the first f June. In the mean time the Board invite an early inspection of that part of the route to Chicago, and will afford any information that may be required of them.



All accounts due for the Journal previous to January last, and also for the current year, have been inclosed in a previous number, to each subscriber-and we should have said, as we intended to say, in the number containing them, that some errors will probably be found, in consequence of the late disaster, which we are particularly desirous to correct, and therefore request those gentlemen, who detect errors, to give early information, with such particulars as will enable us to correct them properly, and to know to whom, if to any oue, payments

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In little more than two years, they have overcome difficulties considered by many insurmountable: they have crossed the great Dismal Swamp; they have spanned the Black water, Nottoway, and Meherrin rivers, with their deep alluvial low grounds; Board of Commissioners of the Illinois and Michi-felled, and sixty-two miles of the road comAll communications will be addressed to "The hills have been cut away, forests have been gan Canal, at Chicago."

By order of the Board.
-JOEL MANNING, Secretary.

January 20, 1836.

For the information of our readers

and others, we will observe that we shall be
gratified to publish, at any, and all times,

similar notices to the above, 6 or 8 times,
for five dollars, which may be remitted
with the advertisement, and no questions

In order to avoid similar difficulties here after, and that both parties may know how the account stands on the book, we shall asked.

publish a list of those from whom payments have been, and may hereafter be, received, for the current year. By this course, sub scribers will be able to correct omissions on our part, and at our cost of postage, if we omit to give them credit.

pleted-which, for levelness, straightness, and faithful execution, is unsurpassed, I will venture to say, by any similar work in our country.

The remainder of the road, comprising fifteen miles, and a bridge across the Roanoke river at Weldon, will be finished in

the course of the summer. The bridge is 1760 feet in length, resting on 12 stout stone pillars, some of them upwards of 60 feet above the foundation; the floor is placed about 4 feet below the top of the framework, the railroad track in the centre, and so arranged that common road waggons may pass over it, or on either side of the

The distillation of palatable and fresh water at sea has been effected by P. Nicole, of Dieppe, by simply causing the steam arising from boiling sea water in a still to rails. pass through a stratum of coarsely pow- The Company have now two locomotive dered charcoal, in its way to the condenser engines running, one of Berry's make, and Hone of Stephenson's. The coaches are no

Those of our subscribers who haveler worm tub.

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Roanoke and Wilmington Rail.
Steamboat from Wilmington to

Cost of Railroad,

$200,000|| ny,

of $3,000,000; for which amount stock is to be ssued, bearing an interest of four and a half per cent. per annum, and redeemable any time aiter 20 650,000 yeus; for the payment of the interest of which, and the ultimate redemption of the stock, the said road and its appurtenances, and its tolls and income ue pledged.


From the examination the committee have been 100 000 enabled to give to the subject, they feel bound to Accompany the bill, which has been submitted to their consideration, with an acknowledgment of their e nviction, that the work which it is designed and is justly characterized by his Excel.ency, the Governor, as an extensive and useful entrpi ze:" They accord, also, with him, in the views he has expressed, that "the magnitude of the undertaking est felt by the inhabitants of the section of the State, the pubic benefits it will confer, and the deep interthrough which this extensive line of communication is to pass," have induced "the company again to ask the aid of the Legislature," to facilitate and basten Its accomplishment.

$1,950,000 and steamboat navigation from Baltimore to Charleston, via Norfolk, Portsmouth, Weldon, and Wilmington, N. C. Here is a result of five millions one hundred thousand dollars in favor of the route by the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad. Can capitulists hesitate one moment in which to invest? Is there any who doubt as to which route the traveller will give the preference?


A work of such magnitude, extending from the commercial metropois, a distance of 480 miles, through the interior of the State to the inland scas, and with those navigable waters wi


the three-bodied plan (of Green); the cars | For steamboats on the Bay, are all roofed, and provided with locks and Portsmouth and Roanoke Railkeys-they are different in appearance from road, any I have seen, and are said to be on an improved plan. Between the present point, of termination and Halifax (which you know is on the main mail route), the distance is 25 miles. This is accomplished in Kendall four-horse post-coaches, and, agrecably to the Companies' advertisement, you can leave Halifax at 3 A. M. to-day, and either breakfast to-morrow in Baltimore, or dine in Philadelphia. It is believed that this route cannot fail to command the whole southera travel. Turn to your map, Mr. Editor, if you please, and follow the line of the Camden and Amboy Railroad to Philadelphia-thence by the Delaware and Newcastle Railroad-or by the Wilmington and Port Deposite Rail- I could add other facts equally as strik-stretch hrough the boundless valleys of the fertile road-and the Chesapeake Bay to Norfolking, such as greater economy and despatch -or, if you prefer it, pursue the line of the in the travel by the Portsmouth line; and contemplated Railroad from Philadelphia to I have said nothing about the great WestCherrytown, on the Eastern Shore of Virgi-ern Railroad which the Company have in nia, and across the Bay to Norfolk-thence contemplation, up the Roanoke by Danville by the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad to Evansham, and thence to intersect the to Weldon-thence by Railroad to Wilmington, N. C.-and thence by steamboats 120 miles to Charleston, S. C. Think you we will be presuming too much, when we claim for the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad the importance of a link? No, sir, we will not be content with this hackneyed recommendation-I would you should consider this road, what in fact it is, a CORD of the great circular chain of improve-good part. ment described by the Baltimore and Washington Railroad-the Potomac River, as far as Potomac Creek-the Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad-the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad-and the Petersburg, Gaston, and Raleigh Railroad, and the Raleigh and Columbia, or Raleigh and Charleston Railroad. Now, sir, will you bear with me one moment, while I present a comparative view of the cost of these two lines of improvement? Take Baltimore as the starting point, and follow the line of the last mentioned route, and we have, firstFor the Baltimore and Washing. ton Railroad, Steamboat from Washington to Potomac Creek, Railroad from Potomac Creek to Richmond,

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Richmond and Petersburg Rail-
Petersburg, Gaston, and Raleigh

Raleigh and Charleston Rail-
road, (240 miles,) -


most important and beneficial results. It will inwest, cannot fail, when completed, to produce he fu e joy into the hearts of thousands of our fellow citizens, who, with honest and persevering toil, are cntend ng against local disadvantages, excluded from a participation in the benefits of that invigora ng system of internal improvements which has ened m nos, and the progressive source of the gen been proudly cher shed as the emanation of enl ghtCharleston and Cincinnati and the New-eral prosperity. It will develop new resources of Orleans and Nashville Railroads. The wealth and enterprize. It will impart a new stimulus to individual industry. It will check the tide importance of this work, not only in conof emigration, now flowing westward, beyond the nexion with the Portsmouth and Roanoke limits of our State, and render the southern and Railroad, but as a medium of communica-western portions of our State desirable resting tion between Philadelphia and New-York, with the West and Southwest, I may at some other time attempt to point outwhen I see if Mr. Editor receives this I am, Sir,

Yours, very respectfully,

A. P.

places to the hardy pioneers from the east. Their forests will be subdued; their population increased; their soil cultivated; and exter sive agricultural improvements induced, where the energies of the husbandman have been hitherto depressed, by an inability to compete with those favored sections which have poss seed, through the medium of the casals, more cheap and expeditious avenues to market.

The numerous petitions which are before the of ommittee, most which accompanied the bit from the Assembly, furnish evidence that In this light the project is regarded by the peoWe would invite the earnest attention of ple of those counties through which the road is our readers to this clear and able document.for connecting with it, by lateral railroads or canals, designed to pass, and of those favorably situated We are glad to see that, abandoning the now in progress or in contemplation. Public feelcontracted view of the subject taken byn, ind ed, appears to be deeply seated, and rapidsome, Mr. Mack places the matter on the tint enterprize. ly extending, in favor of this great and imperThe number, the language, broad ground of general utility,-asking for and the spirit of the petitioners, are commensurate the advancement of the measure as favora. with the vast object they have in view, and evince a zeal and perseverance which will not stop short ble to the best interests of the State-insist-of its accomplishment. They ask, what as citiupon it as the only means of self-defence zens, as freemen, they have a right to ask-the aid and countenance of the State, in a most laudable against the many rival improvements in endeavor. They expert, what they have a right Pennsylvania and Maryland. to expect, that the representatives of an enlightend and patriotic people, of which they, themselves, constitute so large a proportion--that the adminis trators of a governm nt, instituted for the general benefit--will yield a kind and respectful, if not a favorable, response to their petitions.

The interesting nature of this report will, 100,000 we are convinced, notwithstanding its length, obtain for it a careful perusal.



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Of the Committee on Railroads, on the bill from the
Assembly, entitled "An Act to expedite the con-
struction of a railroad from New York to Lake
Erie," &c.

But, it is not upon the ground of ex'ensive local advantages and improvements to be secured, nor of the just expectations and claims of those of its citi zens who have hitherto derived few benefits from the vast expenditures of the general funds for the Mr. Mack, from the standing committee on rail-construction of public works, that the call upon the roads, to whom were referred the bill from the As-Stite, to promote the immediate completion of the sembly, entitled "An Act to expedite the construc-undertaking, is alone predicated. It rests upon a 2,400,000 tion of a railroad from New York to Lake Erie," broader basis. It appeals, not only to a spirit of the memorial of the mayor, aldermen and common-reciprocity, as between the various sections of a alty of the city of New York; the resolutions of great community, but to those elevated views and the mayor and common council of the city of Brook-Feelings which cherish, with a just pride, the high lyn; and the petitions of sundry inhabitants of the character, the influence and prosperity of the counties of Westchester, Delaware, Genesee, Al-State, as a prominent member of the Union. legany and Cattaraugus, in favor of the passage o said act, with a remonstrance from the county of Orange, and so much of the Governor's message as relates to the same subjectReported:

$7,050,000 Cost of railroad and steamboat naviga. tion from Baltimore to Charleston, via Washington, Richmond, Petersburg, and Raleigh.

We will now proceed on the route by Norfolk and Portsmouth.

The bill authorizes a loan of the credit of the
State to the New York und Erie Railroad Compa-

This State possesses a soil unsurpassed in strength and fertility, and adapted to almost every species of agricultural production. Its manufac turing facilities are unrivailed, and the treasures of its mountains and its forests have scarce begun to be developed. But to its commercial enterprise and advantages is it most materially indebted for its

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